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Substantial progress has been made in the ability to reduce morbidity and mortality in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) with the advent of medical therapies, including angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor antagonists, angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitors, β-blockers, and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists. In the pivotal randomized clinical trials, the dosing of medications has been guided by protocols to systematically uptitrate to achieve specific target doses or the highest tolerated dose. Accordingly, guidelines from the American College of Cardiology, American Heart Association, and Heart Failure Society of America recommend that these HFrEF guideline–directed medical therapies be uptitrated, as tolerated, to achieve target dosing.NEXT ARTICLE
Clinical trials are a set of procedures in medical research conducted to allow safety (or more specifically, information about adverse drug reactions and adverse effects of other treatments) and efficacy data to be collected for health interventions (e.g...