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Family with sequence similarity 20C (Fam20C), the physiological Golgi casein kinase, phosphorylates numerous secreted proteins that are involved in a wide variety of biological processes. However, the role of Fam20C in regulating proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumen is largely unknown. Here, we report that Fam20C interacts with various luminal proteins and that its depletion results in a more reduced ER lumen. We further show that ER oxidoreductin 1α (Ero1α), the pivotal sulfhydryl oxidase that catalyzes disulfide formation in the ER, is phosphorylated by Fam20C in the Golgi apparatus and retrograde-transported to the ER mediated by ERp44. The phosphorylation of Ser145 greatly enhances Ero1α oxidase activity and is critical for maintaining ER redox homeostasis and promoting oxidative protein folding. Notably, phosphorylation of Ero1α is induced under hypoxia, reductive stress, and secretion-demanding conditions such as mammalian lactation. Collectively, our findings open a door to uncover how oxidative protein folding is regulated by phosphorylation in the secretory pathway.NEXT ARTICLE
Biological therapy involves the use of living organisms, substances derived from living organisms, or laboratory-produced versions of such substances to treat disease. Some biological therapies for cancer use vaccines or bacteria to stimulate the body&rs...
Adhd Anorexia Depression Dyslexia Mental Health Psychiatry Schizophrenia Stress Mental health, although not being as obvious as physical health, is very important, causing great unhappiness to those affected, causing add...