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Nutrition Research

00:22 EST 20th January 2018 | BioPortfolio

Effects of high-impact exercise on the physical properties of bones of ovariectomized rats fed to a high-protein diet.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of high-impact physical exercise as a prophylactic and therapeutic means in osteopenic bones of rats submitted to ovariectomy and protein diet intake. A total of 64 Wistar rats were divided into eight groups (n=8 each), being: OVX, ovx, standard diet and sedentary; OVXE, ovx, standard diet and jump; OVXP, ovx, high-protein diet and sedentary; and O...

Physicochemical properties of whey protein-stabilized astaxanthin nanodispersion and its transport via Caco-2 monolayer.

Astaxanthin nanodispersion was prepared using whey protein isolate (WPI) and polymerized whey protein (PWP) through an emulsification-evaporation technique. The physicochemical properties of the astaxanthin nanodispersion were evaluated and the transport of astaxanthin was assessed using a Caco-2 cell monolayer model. The astaxanthin nanodispersions stabilized by WPI and PWP (2.5%, w/w) had a smal...

Role of selected polymorphisms in determining muscle fiber composition in Japanese men and women.

Genetic polymorphisms and sex differences are suggested to affect muscle fiber composition; however, no study has investigated the effects of genetic polymorphisms on muscle fiber composition with respect to sex differences. Therefore, the present study examined the effects of genetic polymorphisms on muscle fiber composition with respect to sex differences in Japanese population. The present stud...

Diagnosis, treatment, and outcome of and risk factors for ophthalmic disease in leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius) at a veterinary teaching hospital: 52 cases (1985-2013).

OBJECTIVE To describe diagnosis, treatment, and outcome of and risk factors for ophthalmic disease in leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius) evaluated at a veterinary teaching hospital. DESIGN Retrospective case series. ANIMALS 112 of 144 (78%) leopard geckos that were evaluated at a veterinary teaching hospital in January 1985 through October 2013 and for which sufficient medical record informat...

FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH DEVELOPMENT OF DISSOCIATED OPTIC NERVE FIBER LAYER APPEARANCE IN THE PIONEER INTRAOPERATIVE OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY STUDY.

To assess the relationship of dissociated optic nerve fiber layer (DONFL) and intraoperative membrane-peeling dynamics as visualized using intraoperative optical coherence tomography (OCT), and to evaluate the functional implications of DONFL.

Fabry-Perot Interferometric High-Temperature Sensing Up to 1200 °C Based on a Silica Glass Photonic Crystal Fiber.

A Fabry-Perot interferometric sensor for temperature measurement was fabricated based on a silica glass solid-core photonic crystal fiber with a central air-bore. By splicing a stub of photonic crystal fiber to a standard single-mode fiber, an intrinsic Fabry-Perot cavity was formed inside the photonic crystal fiber. Sensing experiment results show that the sensor can work stably for a consecutive...

Highly Sensitive Strain Sensor Based on a Novel Mach-Zehnder Interferometer with TCF-PCF Structure.

A highly sensitive strain sensor based on a novel fiber in line Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) was demonstrated experimentally. The MZI was realized by splicing a section of photonic crystal fiber (PCF) with the same length of thin core fiber (TCF) between two single mode fibers (SMFs). The fringe visibility of MZI can reach as high as 20 dB in air. In particular, the strain sensitivity of -1.9...

A Comparison of the Chemical Composition, In Vitro Bioaccessibility and Antioxidant Activity of Phenolic Compounds from Rice Bran and Its Dietary Fibres.

The composition, in vitro bioaccessibility and antioxidant activities of the phenolic compounds in defatted rice bran (DRB) and its soluble and insoluble dietary fibres were systematically evaluated in this study. The total phenolic content of insoluble dietary fibre from DRB (IDFDRB) was much higher than that of the soluble dietary fibre from DRB (SDFDRB) but was 10% lower than that of DRB. Bound...

Dietary Total Prenylflavonoids from the Fruits of Psoralea corylifolia L. Prevents Age-Related Cognitive Deficits and Down-Regulates Alzheimer's Markers in SAMP8 Mice.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a serious threat for the aging society. In this study, we examined the preventive effect of the total prenylflavonoids (TPFB) prepared from the dried fruits of Psoralea corylifolia L., using an age-related AD mouse model SAMP8. We found that long-term dietary TPFB at 50 mg/kg·day significantly improved cognitive performance of the SAMP8 mice in Morris water maze tests,...

Bio-fortification potential of global wild annual lentil core collection.

Lentil, generally known as poor man's' meat due to its high protein value is also a good source of dietary fiber, antioxidants and vitamins along with fast cooking characteristics. It could be used globally as a staple food crop to eradicate hidden hunger, if this nutritionally rich crop is further enriched with essential minerals. This requires identification of essential mineral rich germplasm. ...

Retraction: Virulent Diuraphis noxia Aphids Over-Express Calcium Signaling Proteins to Overcome Defenses of Aphid-Resistant Wheat Plants.

Interspecies diversity of chloride channel regulators, calcium-activated 3 genes.

Members of the chloride channel regulators, calcium-activated (CLCA) family, have been implicated in diverse biomedical conditions, including chronic inflammatory airway diseases such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cystic fibrosis, the activation of macrophages, and the growth and metastatic spread of tumor cells. Several observations, however, could not be repeated across s...

Vitamin K5 is an efficient photosensitizer for ultraviolet A light inactivation of bacteria.

Photodynamic treatment combining light and a photosensitizer molecule can be an effective method to inactivate pathogenic bacteria. This study identified vitamin K5 as an efficient photosensitizer for ultraviolet light A (UVA)-induced bacterial inactivation. Six bacterial species, Bacillus cereus (vegetative form), Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epi...

Vitamin D Toxicity: A 16-Year Retrospective Study at an Academic Medical Center.

Interest in vitamin D has increased during the past 2 decades, with a corresponding increase in laboratory testing of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]. The vast majority of specimens tested display normal or deficient levels of 25(OH)D; concentrations rarely fall in the potentially toxic range.

Anterior cruciate ligament tear induces a sustained loss of muscle fiber force production.

Patients with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears have persistent quadriceps strength deficits that are thought to be due to altered neurophysiological function. Our goal was to determine the changes in muscle fiber contractility independent of the ability of motor neurons to activate fibers.

Activation of AMPK-Regulated CRH Neurons in the PVH is Sufficient and Necessary to Induce Dietary Preference for Carbohydrate over Fat.

Food selection is essential for metabolic homeostasis and is influenced by nutritional state, food palatability, and social factors such as stress. However, the mechanism responsible for selection between a high-carbohydrate diet (HCD) and a high-fat diet (HFD) remains unknown. Here, we show that activation of a subset of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)-positive neurons in the rostral regio...

Switching On Depression and Potentiation in the Cerebellum.

Long-term depression (LTD) and long-term potentiation (LTP) in the cerebellum are important for motor learning. However, the signaling mechanisms controlling whether LTD or LTP is induced in response to synaptic stimulation remain obscure. Using a unified model of LTD and LTP at the cerebellar parallel fiber-Purkinje cell (PF-PC) synapse, we delineate the coordinated pre- and postsynaptic signalin...

Vitamin D: Classic and Novel Actions.

Classically, vitamin D has been implicated in bone health by promoting calcium absorption in the gut and maintenance of serum calcium and phosphate concentrations, as well as by its action on bone growth and reorganization through the action of osteoblasts and osteoclasts cells. However, in the last 2 decades, novel actions of vitamin D have been discovered. The present report summarizes both clas...

Development of a bi-modal, in situ crosslinking method to achieve multi-factor release from electrospun gelatin.

To better mimic native tissue microenvironments, current efforts have moved beyond single growth factor delivery to more complex multiple growth factor delivery with distinct release profiles. Electrospun gelatin, a widely investigated drug delivery vehicle, requires post-processing crosslinking techniques that generate a mesh with uniform crosslinking density, limiting the ability to deliver mult...

Radiotherapy fiber dosimeter probes based on silver-only coated hollow glass waveguides.

Manifestation of Čerenkov radiation as a contaminating signal is a significant issue in radiation therapy dose measurement by fiber-coupled scintillator dosimeters. To enhance the scintillation signal transmission while minimizing Čerenkov radiation contamination, we designed a fiber probe using a silver-only coated hollow waveguide (HWG). The HWG with scintillator inserted in its tip, embedded ...

The Development of Benzimidazole-Based Clickable Probes for the Efficient Labeling of Cellular Protein Arginine Deiminases (PADs).

Citrullination is the post-translational hydrolysis of peptidyl-arginines to form peptidyl-citrulline, a reaction that is catalyzed by the protein arginine deiminases (PADs), a family of calcium-regulated enzymes. Aberrantly increased protein citrullination is associated with a slew of autoimmune diseases (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis (RA), multiple sclerosis, lupus, and ulcerative colitis) and cert...

A predictive model of rats' calorie intake as a function of diet energy density.

Easy access to high-energy food has been linked to high rates of obesity in the world. Understanding the way that access to palatable (high fat or high calorie) food can lead to overconsumption is essential for both preventing and treating obesity. Although the body of studies focused on the effects of high energy diets is growing, our understanding of how different factors contribute to food choi...

Mu opioid receptors inhibit the exercise pressor reflex by closing N-type calcium channels but not by opening GIRK channels in rats.

Mu opioid G-protein coupled receptors (MOR) interact with ion channels to decrease neuronal excitability. In humans, intrathecal administration of the MOR agonist, fentanyl, inhibits the exercise pressor reflex, an effect that can be attributed to either the opening of inward rectifying potassium channels (GIRK) or the closing of N-type calcium channels. The purpose of this study was to determine ...

Genetic and microbiome influence on lipid metabolism and dyslipidemia.

Disruption in the metabolism of lipids is broadly classified under dyslipidemias and relate to the concentration of lipids in the blood. Dyslipidemia is a predictor of cardio-metabolic disease including obesity. Traditionally, the large inter-individual variation has been related to genetic factors and diet. Genome-wide association studies have identified over 150 loci related to abnormal lipid le...

Periodontal diseases and adverse pregnancy outcomes: Is there a role for vitamin D?

Studies have shown a relationship between maternal periodontal diseases (PDs) and premature delivery. PDs are commonly encountered oral diseases which cause progressive damage to the periodontal ligament and alveolar bones, leading to loss of teeth and oral disabilities. PDs also adversely affect general health by worsening cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Moreover, maternal PDs are thought ...

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