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Obesity Research

18:28 EDT 17th October 2018 | BioPortfolio

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Children.

The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents has increased worldwide over the past three decades. This increase has coincided with the obesity epidemic, and minority groups are disproportionately affected. The American Diabetes Association recommends screening for type 2 diabetes beginning at 10 years of age or the onset of puberty in children who are overweight or obese ...

Fatty Acid Composition and Eicosanoid Levels (LTE and PGE) of Human Milk from Normal Weight and Overweight Mothers.

Maternal obesity is known to affect human milk composition. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) are vital nutrients to the nervous system development and precursors of eicosanoids related to obesity (prostaglandin E-PGE-and leukotriene E-LTE). The aim of the present research was to study the lipid profiles, with particular emphasis to LCPUFAs, and the concentrations of eicosanoids PGE ...

Complex Ventral Hernia Repair in the Class III Morbidly Obese Patient.

Patients undergoing complex ventral hernia repair (VHR) often present with significant medical comorbidities, the most prevalent of which is obesity. Although recent advancements in abdominal wall reconstruction techniques have provided the general hernia patient population with markedly improved recurrence and postoperative complication rates, many patients have been precluded from these procedur...

Reducing Lateral Femoral Cutaneous Nerve Palsy in Obese Patients in the Beach Chair Position: Effect of a Standardized Positioning and Padding Protocol.

To report on the effectiveness of a standardized patient positioning and padding protocol in reducing lateral femoral cutaneous nerve (LFCN) palsy in obese patients who have undergone shoulder surgery in the beach chair position.

The influence of physical training modalities on basal metabolic rate and leptin on obese adolescent boys.

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of physical training modalities on basal metabolic rate, cardiovascular fitness and serum leptin level in obese adolescent boys. Sixteen obese adolescent boys (age: 16.81 +- 0.91 years) were randomly assigned to either resistance (RTG) (n=8) or endurance (ETG) (n=8) training and followed the respective training programmes for six months (3 days/...

Association between maternal overweight or obesity and cerebral palsy in children: A meta-analysis.

There is no consensus regarding the association between maternal obesity or overweight and cerebral palsy (CP) in children.

Association of Obesity With Risk of Early-Onset Colorectal Cancer Among Women.

Colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality among individuals younger than 50 years (early-onset CRC) are increasing. The reasons for such increases are largely unknown, although the increasing prevalence of obesity may be partially responsible.

Complete Resolution of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease After Bariatric Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Bariatric surgery has been reported to lead to complete resolution of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) following the sustained weight loss induced in obese patients. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the effects of bariatric surgery on NAFLD in obese patients.

Diabetes, but Not Hypertension and Obesity, Is Associated with Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction.

Older people undergoing surgery are at risk of developing postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD), but little is known of risk factors predisposing patients to POCD. Our objective was to estimate the risk of POCD associated with exposure to preoperative diabetes, hypertension, and obesity.

A 12-Month Lifestyle Intervention Program Improves Body Composition and Reduces the Prevalence of Prediabetes in Obese Patients.

The present study investigated the effects of a 12-month interdisciplinary standardized lifestyle program addressing physical activity and changes in dietary and lifestyle behavior in 2,227 obese prediabetic participants.

Behavioral and Pharmacotherapy Weight Loss Interventions to Prevent Obesity-Related Morbidity and Mortality in Adults: Updated Evidence Report and Systematic Review for the US Preventive Services Task Force.

Overweight and obesity have been associated with adverse health effects.

Behavioral Weight Loss Interventions to Prevent Obesity-Related Morbidity and Mortality in Adults: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement.

More than 35% of men and 40% of women in the United States are obese. Obesity is associated with health problems such as increased risk for coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, various types of cancer, gallstones, and disability. Obesity is also associated with an increased risk for death, particularly among adults younger than 65 years.

The effect of an extra piece of fruit or vegetables at school on weight status in two generations - 14 years follow-up of the Fruit and Vegetables Makes the Marks study.

The obesity epidemic presents a major public health challenge, and a poor diet quality has been identified as one of the most important contributing factors. Whereas a sufficient fruit and vegetable consumption has been associated with several positive health outcomes, the long-term effect on overweight and obesity is unclear. Thus, the aims of this study were to investigate if one year with free ...

Circulating sex hormone binding globulin: An integrating biomarker for an adverse cardio-metabolic profile in obese pregnant women.

Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) negatively associates with pre-gestational body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain. The link with other cardio-metabolic risk factors in pregnant women is poorly understood. Our aim was to study the association of SHBG levels with common cardio-metabolic risk parameters in pregnant woman. Serum SHBG was quantified in 291 Caucasian pregnant women (142 w...

Childhood BMI is inversely associated with pubertal timing in normal-weight but not overweight boys.

An inverse association between childhood body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2) and pubertal timing is well established for girls. Among boys, studies are scarce and the results inconclusive.

Obesity and risk of end-stage renal disease in patients with chronic kidney disease: a cohort study.

Obesity is a risk factor for de novo chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the general population. Obesity has been increasingly prevalent in patients with CKD and may lead to further progression of pre-existing CKD. However, whether obesity is associated with the development of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in patients with CKD is not well understood.

The Persistent Signal from Television Viewing in Childhood on Overweight and Obesity Throughout the Life Course.

Few studies address the association between television (TV) viewing in childhood and overweight/obesity across the life course. Among 30,921 mother-daughter dyads from the Nurses' Mothers' Cohort (2001) and the Nurses' Health Study II (1989 and 1991), the following information was collected: daughter's TV viewing and physical activity (PA) at ages 3─5 and 5─10, somatotype at ages 5 and 10, and...

Impact of a (poly)phenol-rich extract from the brown algae Ascophyllum nodosum on DNA damage and antioxidant activity in an overweight or obese population: a randomized controlled trial.

Epidemiologic evidence suggests that a diet rich in (poly)phenols has beneficial effects on many chronic diseases. Brown seaweed is a rich source of (poly)phenols.

Maternal High Triglyceride Levels During Early Pregnancy and Risk of Preterm Delivery: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

Maternal obesity increases the risk of preterm delivery. Obesity is known to be associated with altered lipid metabolism.

Association of cardiorespiratory fitness levels with dietary habits and lifestyle factors in schoolchildren.

The study examined the association between cardiorespiratory fitness levels and lifestyle factors, in a representative sample of Greek schoolchildren. A health survey carried out in 2015 on 177 091 participants aged 8 to 17 years old. Dietary habits, sleeping hours, physical activity (PA), and sedentary activities were assessed through self-completed questionnaires. Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF)...

Diabesity and brain disturbances: A metabolic perspective.

The last decades have been marked by an increased prevalence in non-communicable diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) as well as by population aging and age-related (brain) diseases. The current notion that the brain and the body are interrelated units is gaining the attention of the scientific and medical community. Growing evidence demonstrates that there is a significant overlap i...

Vitamin D supplementation improves waist-to-hip ratio and fasting blood glucose in vitamin D deficient, overweight or obese Asians: A pilot secondary analysis of a randomised controlled trial.

Recent trials do not support a role for vitamin D supplementation in prevention or treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, although effects may differ in Asian populations. In this pilot secondary analysis of a placebo-controlled randomised trial of overweight or obese individuals with low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D

Complications after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy: can we approach a 0% rate using the largest staple height with reinforcement all along the staple line? Short-term results and technical considerations.

Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (SG) is gaining acceptance among bariatric surgeons as a viable option for treating morbidly obese patients. We describe the results of a single center's experience with SG, revealing a low complication rate.

Pivotal Role of Excess Intra-Abdominal Adipose in the Pathogenesis of Metabolic/Obese HFpEF.

Obesity-Activated Adipose-Derived Stromal Cells Promote Breast Cancer Growth and Invasion.

Obese women diagnosed with breast cancer have an increased risk for metastasis, and the underlying mechanisms are not well established. Within the mammary gland, adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs) are heterogeneous cells with the capacity to differentiate into multiple mesenchymal lineages. To study the effects of obesity on ASCs, mice were fed a control diet (CD) or high-fat diet (HFD) to induc...

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