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Obstetrics and gynaecology (OB/GYN, OBG, O&G or Obs & Gynae) Research

09:08 EDT 21st October 2018 | BioPortfolio

Metabolic syndrome in polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression.

Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have increased risk of metabolic syndrome. The relative contribution of clinical, demographic or biochemical factors to metabolic syndrome in PCOS is not known. A literature search was conducted in MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE and clinical trial registries. Of 4530 studies reviewed, 59 were included in the systematic review and 27 in the meta-analysis and met...

Contributors: Caring for Lesbians, Bisexual Women, Transgender, and Gender Nonconforming People.

Unique Primary Care Needs of Transgender and Gender Non-Binary People.

It is important for the practicing primary care provider to become familiar with the unique health care needs for people who identify as transgender men, transgender women, and non-binary people, who are all within the scope of practice of a general obstetrician-gynecologist and other primary care providers. A review of the unique health needs and essential terminology is presented. This knowledge...

Contributors: Management of Abnormal Placentation.

Imaging of Placenta Accreta Spectrum.

Placenta accreta spectrum (PAS) refers to an abnormally invasive implantation of the placenta into the uterine myometrium. The resultant risk is that of severe maternal hemorrhage and significant maternal morbidity and even mortality. The 2 strongest risk factors for the development of PAS are a history of a prior cesarean section and a placenta previa in the current pregnancy. Clinically, most pa...

Development of a novel risk prediction and risk stratification score for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

The aim of this study was to develop a simple phenotypic algorithm that can capture the underlying clinical and hormonal abnormalities to help in the diagnosis and risk stratification of PCOS.

Expression dynamics of gonadotropin-releasing hormone-I and its mutual regulation with luteinizing hormone in chicken ovary and follicles.

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone-I (GnRH-I) has been identified in the ovaries of vertebrate species, and this decapeptide is a key regulator of reproductive functions. However, its biological action and regulatory mechanism in the chicken ovary remain to be characterized. In this study, the expression of GnRH-I gene in chicken hypothalamus and ovaries at different developmental stages and different...

Changes in processes downstream of the hypothalamus are associated with seasonal follicle development in a songbird, the dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis).

Mechanisms related to seasonal reproductive timing in vertebrates have received far more study in males than in females, despite the fact that female timing decisions dictate when rearing of offspring will occur. Production and release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) by the hypothalamus stimulates the pituitary to secrete gonadotropins, initiating the beginning stages of gonadal recrudesc...

Comparing the vaginal wall sling with autologous rectus fascia and polypropylene sling: Short term outcomes and patient satisfaction.

Many women are affected by stress urinary incontinence (SUI). Due to investigations of the safety of synthetic mesh slings, there has been renewed interest in autologous slings. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether different sling material affects outcomes and patient satisfaction.

Higher menopausal age but no differences in parity in women with polycystic ovary syndrome compared with controls.

To address the question of whether women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) reach the menopause later than age-matched controls, we conducted a follow-up cohort study of women with well-characterized PCOS that was diagnosed 24 years ago. The hypothesis was that women with PCOS would reach the menopause later than non-PCOS women. Parity during these 24 years was also studied.

The cerebral-placental-uterine ratio as a novel predictor of late fetal growth restriction: a prospective cohort study.

Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is a major risk factor for stillbirth and most commonly arises from uteroplacental insufficiency. Despite clinical examination and third trimester fetal biometry, cases of FGR often remain undetected antenatally. Placental insufficiency is known to be associated with altered blood flow resistance in maternal, placental, and fetal vessels. We evaluated the performance...

Fetal diagnosis of a rare finding: right-sided cervical aortic arch with aberrant left subclavian artery and absent ductus arteriosus in tetralogy of fallot.

A cervical aortic arch (CAA), often described as an arch that is supraclavicular in nature, is an extremely rare entity with isolated case reports diagnosed postnatally. We describe the first prenatal diagnosis of a unique constellation of findings including right CAA with aberrant left subclavian artery (LSCA) in a patient with TOF and 22q11 deletion using fetal echocardiography. This article is ...

Serum Kisspeptin levels in unexplained infertility, polycystic ovary syndrome, and male factor infertility.

Kisspeptin (KP), a hypothalamic peptide, is known as an important marker for neuroendocrine regulation during the human reproduction process. The unexplained infertility (UI) group comprised 30 patients, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) group comprised 29 patients and the male factor infertility (MFI) group comprised 27 patients. An observational cohort study was conducted. The basic characteristi...

Label-retaining, putative mesenchymal stem cells contribute to repair of the myometrium during uterine involution.

Uterine remodeling during pregnancy and postpartum uterine involution are two fundamental, dynamic processes that are required for successful propagation of eutherian species. The uterus can increase in size up to 40-fold during pregnancy, which is largely attributed to expansion of the myometrium by hyperplasia and hypertrophy. Following pregnancy, the uterus repairs the remodeled or "damaged" ti...

Oxidative stress effects in the uterus, placenta and fetus of pregnant rats submitted to acute and chronic stress.

To evaluate the effects of oxidative stress in pregnant rats submitted to acute and chronic stress, relating to alterations in the uterus, placenta and fetus.

Sympathovagal imbalance and neurophysiologic cognitive assessment using evoked potentials in polycystic ovary syndrome in young adolescents - a cross-sectional study.

Background Altered lifestyle and urbanization have potentially increased the prevalence of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) among the women in India. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the autonomic function and subclinical cognition impairment using evoked potentials in PCOS-affected young adolescents. Methods This was a cross-sectional study, approved by Indian Medical of Council Resea...

Is endometriosis associated with irritable bowel syndrome? A cross-sectional study.

Previous studies have found a high prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). However, data on this relation in women without bowel endometriosis is limited. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of IBS in women with endometriosis to the prevalence in women without endometriosis and to investigate if the prevalence of IBS was associated with bowel involved endometriosis.

LDL-apheresis to decrease sFlt-1 during early severe preeclampsia: Report of two cases from a discontinued phase II trial.

Severe preeclampsia may require the delivery of the placenta to avoid life-threatening complications for the mother. Before 26 weeks of gestation, this often results in perinatal death. A decrease in soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt1), an anti-angiogenic factor central to the pathophysiology of the maternal syndrome, has been reported after LDL- apheresis. The present study tested whether ...

Contraction of the levator ani muscle during Valsalva maneuver (co-activation) is associated with a longer active second stage of labor in nulliparous women undergoing induction of labor.

The Valsalva maneuver is normally accompanied by relaxation of the levator ani muscle, which stretches around the presenting part, but in some women the maneuver is accompanied by levator ani muscle contraction, which is referred to as levator ani muscle co-activation. The effect of such co-activation on labor outcome in women undergoing induction of labor has not been previously assessed.

Menopausal symptoms and surgical complications after opportunistic bilateral salpingectomy, a register-based cohort study.

In recent years, the fallopian tubes have been found to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer. Therefore, bilateral salpingectomy at the time of hysterectomy has been proposed as a preventive procedure, but with scarce scientific evidence to support the efficiency and safety.

Risk of Severe Maternal Morbidity by Maternal Fertility Status: A US Study in Eight States.

Over the past two decades the characteristics of women giving birth in the United States and the nature of the births themselves have changed dramatically, with increases in older maternal age, plural births, cesarean deliveries, and conception from infertility treatment.

Savings with Expanding Use of the Levonorgestrel IUD and Fewer Benign Hysterectomies.

Response of Hen Pre-recruitment Ovarian Follicles to Follicle Stimulating Hormone, In Vivo.

In laying hens, pre-recruitment ovarian follicles (1-8 mm diameter) are arranged as a continuum of size and predicted maturity. Cyclic recruitment of a pre-recruitment follicle to the preovulatory stage begins, in part, by the ability of the granulosa cell (GC) layer to initiate responsiveness to follicle stimulating hormone- (FSH-) induced cyclic adenosine monophosphate. The objective of this stu...

Progestin-primed ovarian stimulation is a feasible method for poor ovarian responders undergoing in IVF/ICSI compared to a GnRH antagonist protocol: A retrospective study.

Poor ovarian response (POR) to ovarian hyperstimulation is one of the biggest challenges in assisted reproduction technology. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of progestin-primed ovarian stimulation (PPOS) with a GnRH antagonist (GnRH-ant) in poor ovarian response (POR) patients.

The incidence, causes, and management of lower urinary tract injury during total laparoscopic hysterectomy.

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