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Ophthalmology Research

01:57 EST 10th December 2018 | BioPortfolio

Nanocone-based plasmonic metamaterials.

Metamaterials and metasurfaces provide unprecedented opportunities for designing light-matter interactions. Optical properties of hyperbolic metamaterials with meta-atoms based on plasmonic nanorods, important in nonlinear optics, sensing and spontaneous emission control, can be tuned by varying geometrical sizes and arrangement of the meta-atoms. At the same time the role of the shape of the meta...

The eyes know it: Toddlers' visual scanning of sad faces is predicted by their theory of mind skills.

The current research explored toddlers' gaze fixation during a scene showing a person expressing sadness after a ball is stolen from her. The relation between the duration of gaze fixation on different parts of the person's sad face (e.g., eyes, mouth) and theory of mind skills was examined. Eye tracking data indicated that before the actor experienced the negative event, toddlers divided their fi...

Regional Gene Expression Profile Comparison Reveals the Unique Transcriptome of the Optic Fissure.

The optic fissure (OF) is a transient opening in the ventral optic cup (OC) that acts as a passage for blood vessels and retinal ganglion cell axons during early eye development. Failure to close the OF is the developmental basis for uveal coloboma, a congenital blinding eye disease that significantly contributes to childhood blindness. Genes specifically expressed in the OF region may play import...

Opposing Effects of PPARα Agonism and Antagonism on Refractive Development and Form Deprivation Myopia in Guinea Pigs.

To determine if drug-induced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) signal pathway modulation affects refractive development and myopia in guinea pigs.

Non-GVHD ocular complications after hematopoietic cell transplantation: expert review from the Late Effects and Quality of Life Working Committee of the CIBMTR and Transplant Complications Working Party of the EBMT.

Non-graft-versus-host disease (non-GVHD) ocular complications are generally uncommon after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), but can cause prolonged morbidity affecting activities of daily living and quality of life. Here we provide an expert review of non-GVHD ocular complications in a collaboration between transplant physicians and ophthalmologists through the Late Effects and Quality of...

Is Optical Coherence Tomography a Potential Tool to Evaluate Marginal Adaptation of Class III/IV Composite Restorations In Vivo?

Margin analysis of Class III and IV composite restorations in vitro and in vivo occurred by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). The results were compared and related to clinical evaluation.

Trypanosoma cruzi-specific IFN-γ-producing cells in chronic Chagas disease associate with a functional IL-7/IL-7R axis.

The severity of cardiac disease in chronic Chagas disease patients is associated with different features of T-cell exhaustion. Here, we assessed whether the ability of T cells to secrete IFN-γ in response to T. cruzi was linked to disruption in immune homeostasis and inflammation in patients with chronic Chagas disease.

Association of Periodontal Disease and Edentulism With Hypertension Risk in Postmenopausal Women.

Multiple cross-sectional epidemiologic studies have suggested an association between periodontal disease and tooth loss and hypertension, but the temporality of these associations remains unclear. The objective of our study was to evaluate the association of baseline self-reported periodontal disease and edentulism with incident hypertension.

Validation of new potential targets for remission and low disease activity in psoriatic arthritis in patients treated with golimumab.

Treat to target recommendations for PsA state that the target of treatment should be remission or, at the very least, low disease activity. Different clinical indexes have been proposed to define these disease states including the minimal disease activity criteria and the Disease Activity Index for PsA (DAPSA) scores, which have 7 and 4-5 domains, respectively. Using a Canadian cohort, the objecti...

Multispectral Management of the Photon Orbital Angular Momentum.

We report on a programmable liquid crystal spatial light modulator enabling independent orbital angular momentum state control on multiple spectral channels. This is done by using electrically controllable "topological pixels" that independently behave as geometric phase micro-optical elements relying on self-engineered liquid crystal defects. These results open interesting opportunities in optica...

3D Magneto-Optical Trap of Yttrium Monoxide.

We report three-dimensional trapping of an oxide molecule (YO), using a radio-frequency magneto-optical trap (MOT). The total number of molecules trapped is ∼1.5×10^{4}, with a temperature of 4.1(5) mK. This diversifies the frontier of molecules that are laser coolable and paves the way for the second-stage narrow-line cooling in this molecule to the microkelvin regime. Futhermore, the new cha...

Prevalence of Retinal Vein Occlusion in Europe: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence and incidence of retinal vein occlusions (RVO) in Europe.

Saccade-based termination responses in macaque V1 and visual perception.

Neurons in visual areas of the brain are generally characterized by the increase in firing rate that occurs when a stimulus is flashed on in the receptive field (RF). However, neurons also increase their firing rate when a stimulus is turned off. These "termination responses" or "after-discharges" that occur with flashed stimuli have been observed in area V1 and they may be important for vision as...

Label-Free Optical Detection of DNA Translocations Through Plasmonic Nanopores.

Solid-state nanopores are single-molecule sensors that hold great potential for rapid protein and nucleic-acid analysis. Despite their many opportunities, the conventional ionic current detection scheme that is at the heart of the sensor suffers inherent limitations. This scheme intrinsically couples signal strength to the driving voltage, requires the use of high-concentration electrolytes, suffe...

Can rotational thromboelastometry be a new predictive tool for retinal vein occlusion development?

To evaluate clotting dynamics by a new tool called rotational tromboelastometry (ROTEM) in retinal vein occlusion.

The empirical characteristics of human pattern vision defy theoretically-driven expectations.

Contrast is the most fundamental property of images. Consequently, any comprehensive model of biological vision must incorporate this attribute and provide a veritable description of its impact on visual perception. Current theoretical and computational models predict that vision should modify its characteristics at low contrast: for example, it should become broader (more lowpass) to protect from...

Human Retinal Pigment Epithelium: In Vivo Cell Morphometry, Multispectral Autofluorescence, and Relationship to Cone Mosaic.

To characterize in vivo morphometry and multispectral autofluorescence of the retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell mosaic and its relationship to cone cell topography across the macula.

Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Familial Exudative Vitreoretinopathy: Clinical Features and Phenotype-Genotype Correlation.

To evaluate the microstructure of the fovea in patients with familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) compared to healthy controls using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA).

Longitudinal Assessment of Retinal Structure in Achromatopsia Patients With Long-Term Follow-up.

To longitudinally characterize structural retinal changes in achromatopsia (ACHM) over extended follow-up.

Self-assembly on optical fibers: a powerful nanofabrication tool for next generation "lab-on-fiber" optrodes.

Self-assembly offers a unique resource for the preparation of discrete structures at the nano- and microscale, which are either not accessible by other fabrication techniques or require highly expensive and technologically demanding processes. The possibility of obtaining spontaneous organization of separated components, whether they are molecules, polymers, nano- or micro-objects, into a larger f...

Life-threatening respiratory insufficiency; rare primary manifestation of the antisynthetase syndrome.

The antisynthetase syndrome (AS) is a rare auto-immune disease characterised by inflammatory myopathies, interstitial lung disease, inflammatory arthritis, Mechanic's Hands and Raynaud phenomenon. AS infrequently presents with life-threatening lung disease as its primary or sole manifestation. By means of two clinical case reports, an overview is given of recent advances in diagnosis and treatment...

Corneal endothelium features in Fuchs' Endothelial Corneal Dystrophy: A preliminary 3D anterior segment optical coherence tomography study.

To evaluate the feasibility of 3D anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) for the detection of corneal endothelial features in patients with Fuchs' Endothelial Corneal Dystrophy (FECD).

Optical coherence tomography is a useful tool in the differentiation between true edema and pseudoedema of the optic disc.

To assess the usefulness of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness measurement in discriminating early phase optic disc edema (ODE) from pseudoedema (PODE).

Polyvinyl alcohol-iodine induced corneal epithelial injury in vivo and its protection by topical rebamipide treatment.

Periocular povidone-iodine (PI) and polyvinyl alcohol-iodine (PAI) have had a major role in the prevention of endophthalmitis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the corneal epithelial toxicity of PAI in a rabbit eye model using corneal resistance (CR) measurement, which is a good indicator of cell barrier function. Rabbit eyes were administered PAI solution at 4-, 6-, 8-, or 16-fold dil...

Distinct Alterations in the Composition of Mucosal Innate Lymphoid Cells in Newly Diagnosed and Established Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis.

Innate lymphoid cells [ILC] have been suggested to play a role in inflammatory bowel disease [IBD]. Here, we investigated the ILC compartment in intestinal biopsies and blood from distinct patient groups with Crohn's disease [CD] and ulcerative colitis [UC], either newly diagnosed or with disease established for at least 1 year. This approach allowed us to simultaneously investigate temporal, dise...

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