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Ophthalmology Research

12:37 EDT 17th October 2018 | BioPortfolio

Correlation of the Multi-Biomarker Disease Activity Score with Rheumatoid Arthritis Disease Activity Measures: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

There are conflicting reports on the validity of the multi-biomarker disease activity (MBDA) score to assess RA disease activity. We performed a systematic review of the MBDA and meta-analysis of the correlation between the MBDA and other RA disease activity measures.

Historical Perspectives of the Development of Materials Science and Engineering Program at Seoul National University and Vision.

Obesity and risk of end-stage renal disease in patients with chronic kidney disease: a cohort study.

Obesity is a risk factor for de novo chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the general population. Obesity has been increasingly prevalent in patients with CKD and may lead to further progression of pre-existing CKD. However, whether obesity is associated with the development of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in patients with CKD is not well understood.

Elevated CSF GAP-43 is Alzheimer's disease specific and associated with tau and amyloid pathology.

The level of the presynaptic protein growth-associated protein 43 (GAP-43) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has previously been shown to be increased in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and thus may serve as an outcome measure in clinical trials and facilitate earlier disease detection.

APOE genotypes as a risk factor for age-dependent accumulation of cerebrovascular disease in older adults.

Apolipoprotein E (APOE) is a susceptibility gene for late-onset Alzheimer's disease neuropathology; less is known about the relationship between APOE and cerebrovascular disease (CVD) neuropathology.

Understanding disease progression and improving Alzheimer's disease clinical trials: Recent highlights from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative.

The overall goal of the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) is to validate biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease (AD) clinical trials. ADNI is a multisite, longitudinal, observational study that has collected many biomarkers since 2004. Recent publications highlight the multifactorial nature of late-onset AD. We discuss selected topics that provide insights into AD progression and outl...

Hemangioblastoma of the Optic Nerve.

Optic nerve hemangioblastoma (ONH) is a rare tumor that is usually unilateral and most commonl occurs in the context of von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease. Differential diagnosis is based on clinical history and imaging. Magnetic resonance imaging with gadolinium enhancement is the most useful imaging modality as it can reveal flow voids and an absence of dural attachment, differentiating ONH from ot...

Autoinflammatory/autoimmunity syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA; Shoenfeld's syndrome): A new flame.

In the present review, recent findings regarding autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome by adjuvants (ASIA) are described. Patients with ASIA present with complaints such as fatigue, cognitive impairment, arthralgias, myalgias, pyrexia, dry eyes and dry mouth. During the last few years, it has been postulated that these symptoms in patients with foreign body implants are due to a chronic inflammatory pr...

Celiac disease and endocrine autoimmunity - the genetic link.

Celiac disease is a small intestinal inflammatory disease with autoimmune features that is triggered and maintained by the ingestion of the storage proteins (gluten) of wheat, barley and rye. The prevalence of celiac disease is increased in patients with monoglandular and/or polyglandular autoimmunity and their relatives. Between 10 and 30% of patients with celiac disease are thyroid and/or type 1...

Pathogenesis of herpes simplex keratitis: The host cell response and ocular surface sequelae to infection and inflammation.

Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV) keratitis is a leading cause of infectious blindness. Clinical disease occurs variably throughout the cornea from epithelium to endothelium and recurrent HSV stromal keratitis is associated with corneal scarring and neovascularization. HSV keratitis can be associated with ocular pain and subsequent neutrophic keratopathy. Host cell interactions with HSV trigger an...

Optically robust, highly permeable and elastic protein films that support dual cornea cell types.

Damaged corneas can lead to blindness. Due to the worldwide shortage of donor corneas there is a tremendous unmet demand for a robust corneal replacement that supports growth of the major corneal cell types. Commercial artificial corneas comprise plastic polymers that do not adequately support diverse cell growth. We present a new class of protein elastomer-dominated synthetic corneas with attract...

Unusual cause of fever, vision loss and super refractory status epilepticus in association with simian virus 40 (SV40).

We present a case of a 23-year-old man with history of fever followed by painless complete vision loss, with subsequent new-onset refractory status epilepticus (NORSE). He initially developed bilateral retinitis. A few days later, he started having focal seizures, and subsequently developed super-refractory status epilepticus, requiring anaesthetic agents. MRI brain revealed multifocal cortical an...

Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia presenting as branch retinal artery occlusion and optic disc infiltration.

Severe haemolysis and renal failure precipitated by hepatitis E virus in G6PD Deficient patient: A case report.

Hepatitis E virus is the etiological agent for Hepatitis E infection, which is congruent to Hepatitis A infection. The clinical spectrum of the disease range from asymptomatic self-limiting disease which requires no treatment to life threatening fulminant liver disease in pregnancy, G6PD deficient and post-liver transplant patients, which necessitate urgent treatment. Similarly we are reporting a ...

Visual acuity assessment in diabetes.

Optometric or visual acuity assessment is an essential part of ophthalmologic examination. Visual acuity measurement serves as a tool for screening of ophthalmic disorders, as well as diagnosis and monitoring of refractive errors and other causes of reduced acuity. Persons with diabetes may experience situations which impair visual acuity, or which impact the utility of refractive visual acuity as...

Role of palliative CSF diversion in patients with intracranial metastatic disease and symptomatic hydrocephalus.

Hydrocephalus, unless treated, is one of the terminal manifestations of intracranial metastatic disease. Single lesions causing obstructive hydrocephalus are amenable to surgical resection, but in the setting of multiple lesions and communicating hydrocephalus from leptomeningeal disease, the approach to treatment is much less defined. The use of endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) and ventricu...

Effect of refractive errors/axial length on peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer thickness (RNFL) measured by Topcon SD-OCT.

To evaluate the effect of refractive error and axial length on peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer thickness in myopic, hypermetropic and emmetropic eyes by Topcon spectral domain optical coherence tomography.

Parkinson's disease: pathogenesis, aetiology, symptoms, diagnostics, and its course.

Parkinson's disease is a slowly progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterised by motor symptoms, which are accompanied or often even preceded by non-motor symptoms. Pathologically, the disease is characterised by neural degeneration in specific brain regions, including the dopaminergic neurons of the pars compacta of the substantia nigra. At the molecular level, mitochondrial dysfunction, o...

Swept-source OCT in patients with multiple evanescent white dot syndrome.

Swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) has a higher scanning rate and longer wavelength in comparison with spectral-domain OCT (SD-OCT), allowing an improved imaging of retinal vascular plexuses and choriocapillaris. The present two patients diagnosed with multiple evanescent white dot syndrome (MEWDS) underwent fundus autofluorescence (FAF), en-face SS-OCT, and SS-OCT angiography (OCT...

Information provision for people with multiple sclerosis.

People with multiple sclerosis (MS) are confronted with a number of important uncertainties concerning many aspects of the disease. These include diagnosis, prognosis, disease course, disease-modifying therapies, symptomatic therapies, and non-pharmacological interventions, among others. While people with MS demand adequate information to be able to actively participate in medical decision making ...

Isolation, cultivation, and characterization of primary bovine cochlear pericytes: A new in vitro model of stria vascularis.

The study of strial pericytes has gained great interest as they are pivotal for the physiology of stria vascularis. To provide an easily accessible in vitro model, here we described a growth medium-based approach to obtain and cultivate primary bovine cochlear pericytes (BCP) from the stria vascularis of explanted bovine cochleae. We obtained high-quality pericytes in 8-10 days with a > 90% pu...

Patient-reported prevalence of metamorphopsia and predictors of vision-related quality of life in vitreomacular traction: a prospective, multi-centre study.

To report the prevalence and severity of metamorphopsia, estimate its impact on vision-related quality of life (VRQoL) and evaluate predictors of VRQoL in patients with vitreomacular traction (VMT).

Disrupted alternative splicing for genes implicated in splicing and ciliogenesis causes PRPF31 retinitis pigmentosa.

Mutations in pre-mRNA processing factors (PRPFs) cause autosomal-dominant retinitis pigmentosa (RP), but it is unclear why mutations in ubiquitously expressed genes cause non-syndromic retinal disease. Here, we generate transcriptome profiles from RP11 (PRPF31-mutated) patient-derived retinal organoids and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), as well as Prpf31 mouse tissues, which revealed that disru...

Artificial Intelligence-Assisted Gastroenterology-Promises and Pitfalls.

Technological advances in artificial intelligence (AI) represent an enticing opportunity to benefit gastroenterological practice. Moreover, AI, through machine or deep learning, permits the ability to develop predictive models from large datasets. Possibilities of predictive model development in machine learning are numerous dependent on the clinical question. For example, binary classifiers aim t...

Effects of Parkinson's disease and dopamine on digit span measures of working memory.

Parkinson's disease (PD) impairs working memory (WM)-the ability to maintain items in memory for short periods of time and manipulate them. There is conflicting evidence on the nature of the deficits caused by the disease, and the potential beneficial and detrimental effects of dopaminergic medication on different WM processes.

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