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Osteoporosis Research

02:23 EDT 21st October 2018 | BioPortfolio

Natural history of mineral metabolism, bone turnover and bone mineral density in de novo renal transplant recipients treated with a steroid minimization immunosuppressive protocol.

The skeletal effects of renal transplantation are not completely understood, especially in patients managed with a steroid minimization immunosuppressive protocol and long term. We enrolled 69 adult transplant recipients (39 males; ages 51.1 ± 12.2 years), free of antiresorptive therapy and managed with a steroid minimization immunosuppressive protocol, into a 5-year prospective observational...

Reconstruction of a Calvarial Wound Complicated by Infection: Comparing the Effects of Biopatterned Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor.

Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) bioprinted on biological matrix induces osseous regeneration in large calvarial defects in rabbits, both uncomplicated and scarred. Healing in unfavorable defects scarred from previous infection is decreased due in part to the lack of vascularity. This impedes the access of mesenchymal stem cells, key to osseous regeneration and the efficacy of BMP2, to the woun...

Genial Tubercle Fracture.

Genial tubercle fracture is a rare mandibular fracture. It is classified into 2 different types based on the mechanism of injury, including type I, associated with an atrophied edentulous mandible or denture, and type II, associated with mandibular fracture. Although type I usually can be treated by only observation, type II may cause obstruction of the pharyngeal airway due to hematoma and edema ...

Biocompatibility Studies of Nanoengineered Polycaprolactone and Nanohydroxyapatite Scaffold for Craniomaxillofacial Bone Regeneration.

Currently there is an increased demand for synthetic bone substitute materials (SBSMs) due to avoidance of donor-site surgery and morbidity. Attempts are done to create SBSM mimicking the bone microarchitecture for enhanced healing. In this study, the authors nanoengineered polycaprolactone (PCL) and nanohydroxyapatite (nHAp) composite scaffold by electrospinning. The nHAp is synthesized via hydro...

Reduced Terminal Complement Complex Formation in Mice Manifests in Low Bone Mass and Impaired Fracture Healing.

The terminal complement complex (TCC) is formed upon activation of the complement system, a crucial arm of innate immunity. TCC formation on cell membranes results in a transmembrane pore leading to cell lysis. In addition, sublytic TCC concentrations can modulate various cellular functions. TCC-induced effects may play a role in the pathomechanisms of inflammatory disorders of the bone, including...

Conditioned fear stress increases bone resorption in apical periodontitislesions in Wistar male rats.

Because the impact of conditioned fear stress on apical bone resorption is unknown, the aim of the current studywas to use a rat model to evaluate the impact of conditioned fear stress on the bone resorption of inflammatory apical periodontitis lesions.

Trauma in the upper limb of an Upper Paleolithic female from Caviglione cave (Liguria, Italy): Etiology and after-effects in bone biomechanical properties.

The impact of injury on the health and activities of human foragers is of great interest for understanding the adaptability of past populations to their environments. For the Gravettian female of Caviglione 1, a violent blow has been suggested as the origin of the left radial fracture, and abnormal body asymmetry has been observed. Access to high resolution CT-scans of the upper limb allows us to ...

Biomechanical properties following open wedge high tibial osteotomy: Plate fixator combined with dynamic locking screws versus standard locking screws.

Open wedge high tibial osteotomy is widespread in treating osteoarthritis of the knee. Bone healing of the gap and the necessity of bone substitutes are under discussion. Increasing movement of the osteotomy gap can improve bone healing, while excessive movement should be avoided. It was hypothesised that the use of dynamic locking screws, compared to standard locking screws, will increase interfr...

Fabrication of hydroxyapatite/hydrophilic graphene composites and their modulation to cell behavior toward bone reconstruction engineering.

Cell adhesion was the first step of bone reconstruction. While hydroxyapatite (HA)/graphene composites had been utilized for improving the cell adhesion and bone osteogenesis, the impact of cell adhesion and HA/graphene composites, especially HA/hydrophilic graphene (HG) composites, on internal interaction force and external surface properties remained poorly understood. Here, higher stability HA/...

The Relationship Between Bone Mineral Density and Type 2 Diabetes in Obese Children and Adolescents at the Time of Initial Diagnosis.

Long-term effects of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) on bone health remain unclear. The objective of this study was to assess the possible association of bone mineral density (BMD) at multiple sites with T2D after correcting for several potential confounders such as age, sex, Tanner stage, and BMI known to affect BMD in adolescents with newly developed T2D. In this cross-sectional study, 17 childre...

Clinical and pathological analysis of renal cell carcinoma bone metastasis.

To analyze the clinical and pathological characteristics of renal cell carcinoma bone metastasis (RCC-BM) patients.

Short fiber reinforced 3d printed ceramic composite with shear induced alignment.

This paper accounts for utilization of shear induced alignment method during ceramic stereolithography. Lateral oscillation mechanism, combined with 3d printed wall pattern, was employed to generate necessary shear to align fiber in desired direction. First, semicircular channel pattern was printed to assess the effect of difference between wall direction and oscillation direction on the fiber ali...

HER-2 Immunohistochemical Expression in Bone Sarcomas: A New Hope for Osteosarcoma Patients.

Osteosarcoma and chondrosarcoma, remain the most common primary bone tumours. Questions have been raised about the prognostic influence of HER-2 in bone sarcomas, but so far the results have been debatable. The her-2 expression is possibly a predictor of chemotherapy response.

A high-strength mineralized collagen bone scaffold for large-sized cranial bone defect repair in sheep.

Large-sized cranial bone defect repair presents a great challenge in the clinic. The ideal cranioplasty materials to realize the functional and cosmetic recovery of the defect must have sufficient mechanical support, excellent biocompatibility, good osseointegration and biodegradability as well. In this study, a high-strength mineralized collagen (MC) bone scaffold was developed with biomimetic co...

A novel hypothesis for the formation of conoidal projectile wounds in sandwich bones.

When perforated by a projectile, sandwich bones typically exhibit wounds with a distinct conoidal morphology that is widely utilised both in wound diagnosis and trajectory determinations. However, the dynamic fracture mechanisms underlying this intriguing wound type have yet to be experimentally verified. The most frequently quoted hypothesis for their formation, plug and spall, is difficult to re...

Gender-Dependent Growth and Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 Responses to Growth Hormone Therapy in Prepubertal Growth Hormone-Deficient Children.

Gender seems to be an important factor influencing the response to recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) therapy in GH-deficient adolescents and adults. The results of studies evaluating gender-specific response to rhGH therapy in prepubertal GH-deficient children are divergent. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of gender on the growth and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) res...

Micropatterned Scaffolds with Immobilized Growth Factor Genes Regenerate Bone and Periodontal Ligament-Like Tissues.

Periodontal disease destroys supporting structures of teeth. However, tissue engineering strategies offer potential to enhance regeneration. Here, the strategies of patterned topography, spatiotemporally controlled growth factor gene delivery, and cell-based therapy to repair bone-periodontal ligament (PDL) interfaces are combined. Micropatterned scaffolds are fabricated for the ligament regions u...

Antiresorptive Agents are More Effective in Preventing Titanium Particle-Induced Calvarial Osteolysis in Ovariectomized Mice Than Anabolic Agents in Short-Term Administration.

Aseptic loosening due to wear particle-induced osteolysis is the main cause of arthroplasty failure and the influence of postmenopausal osteoporosis and anti-osteoporosis treatment on Titanium (Ti) particle-induced osteolysis remains unclear. 66 C57BL/6J female mice were used in this study. Ovariectomy (OVX) was performed to induce osteopenia mice and confirmed by micro-CT. The Ti particle-induced...

Impact of hospitalist vs. non-hospitalist services on length of stay and 30-day readmission rate in hip fracture patients.

Hip fracture is a common and morbid condition, affecting a patient population with significant medical co-morbidities. A number of medical co-management models have been studied, with conflicting reports of effect on patient outcomes. Our objective was to compare outcomes for patients with hip fracture managed by hospitalist vs. non-hospitalist services at an academic medical center.

Low-molecular-weight heparin for hip fracture patients treated with osteosynthesis: should thromboprophylaxis start before or after surgery? An observational study of 45,913 hip fractures reported to the Norwegian Hip Fracture Register.

Background and purpose - Controversies exist regarding thromboprophylaxis in orthopedic surgery. We studied whether the thromboprophylaxis in hip fracture patients treated with osteosynthesis should start preoperatively or postoperatively. Data were extracted from the nationwide Norwegian Hip Fracture Register (NHFR). The risks of postoperative deaths, reoperations, and intraoperative bleeding wer...

Potencial of different hydroxyapatites as biomaterials in the bone remodeling.

To analyze the therapeutic potentials of different hydroxyapatites used for the correction of bone defects in rats.

Preclinical in vivo models of fracture-related infection: a systematic review and critical appraisal.

A fracture-related infection (FRI) is an important complication that can lead to an increase in morbidity, mortality and economic costs. Preclinical in vivo models are critical in the evaluation of novel prevention and treatment strategies, yet it is important that these studies recapitulate the features of an FRI that make it such a clinical challenge. The aim of this systematic review was to sur...

A 23-year follow-up of a male with Hajdu-Cheney syndrome due to NOTCH2 mutation.

We present a natural history of a 32-year-old man with Hajdu-Cheney syndrome (HJCYS), because of the de novo truncating mutation in the exon 34 of NOTCH2 (c.6424-6427delTCTG, p.Ser2142ArgfsX4), who has been followed up for a period of 23 years (between 9 and 32 years). During follow-up, we observed abnormalities of vision, hearing, voice, and progression of craniofacial features in the form of...

Effects of activated vitamin D, alfacalcidol, and low-intensity aerobic exercise on osteopenia and muscle atrophy in type 2 diabetes mellitus model rats.

Diabetes mellitus causes secondary osteoporosis and muscle atrophy. The ability of alfacalcidol (ALF) and exercise (Exe) to inhibit osteoporosis and muscle atrophy in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) model rats was examined. Twenty-week-old Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats were randomized to ALF (orally 0.1 μg/kg/day), Exe (treadmill exercise at 10 m/min, 60 min/day, 5 days/week), Comb (ALF ...

Adamantinoma of bone: Long-term follow-up of 46 consecutive patients.

Adamantinomas are rare bone tumors, commonly affecting the tibia. Due to the rare nature of disease, previous studies are small or from multiple centers. The purpose of this study is to investigate outcomes of patients with adamantinoma treated in a single institution.

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