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Pancreatitis Research

16:59 EST 14th November 2018 | BioPortfolio

The rise of genetically engineered mouse models of pancreatitis: A review of literature.

Pancreatitis is increasingly recognized as not merely a local inflammation of the pancreas but also a disease with high frequency of systemic sequelae. Current understanding of the cellular mechanisms that trigger it and affect the development of sequelae are limited. Genetically engineered mouse models can be a useful tool to study the pathophysiology of pancreatitis. This article gives an overvi...

New insights into IgG4-related disease: emerging new CD4+ T-cell subsets.

New insights into IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) have recently been obtained. A better understanding of the mechanisms underlying this disease is important for identification of therapeutic targets, which will lead to the development of specific strategies for treatment.

Oxygenated UW solution decreases ATP decay and improves survival after transplantation of DCD liver grafts.

DCD liver grafts are known to be predisposed to primary nonfunction and ischemic cholangiopathy. Many DCD grafts are discarded because of older donor age or long warm ischemia times. Thus, it is critical to improve the quality of DCD liver grafts. Here, we have tested whether an enriched oxygen carrier added to the preservation solution can prolong graft survival and reduce biliary damage.

KRAS mutations in ctDNA: a promising new biomarker in advanced pancreatic cancer.

Loss of function of NF1 is a mechanism of acquired resistance to endocrine therapy in lobular breast cancer.

Invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) as a disease entity distinct from invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) has merited focused studies of the genomic landscape, but those to date are largely limited to the assessment of early-stage cancers. Given that genomic alterations may develop as acquired resistance to endocrine therapy, studies on refractory ILC are needed.

Semantic Disease Gene Embeddings (SmuDGE): phenotype-based disease gene prioritization without phenotypes.

In the past years, several methods have been developed to incorporate information about phenotypes into computational disease gene prioritization methods. These methods commonly compute the similarity between a disease's (or patient's) phenotypes and a database of gene-to-phenotype associations to find the phenotypically most similar match. A key limitation of these methods is their reliance on kn...

Height as a clinical biomarker of disease burden in adult mitochondrial disease.

Abnormal growth and short stature are observed in patients with mitochondrial disease but it is unclear whether there is a relationship between final adult height, and disease severity.

Neonatal Cholestasis: A Primer of Selected Etiologies.

Cholestasis refers to impairment in formation or excretion of bile. This can be due to defects in intrahepatic production of bile, defects in the transmembrane transport of bile, or mechanical obstruction to bile flow. Clinical features of cholestasis reflect the retention of components of bile (bilirubin, bile acids, cholesterol) in the body. In the neonatal period, hyperbilirubinemia can be cate...

Hepatobiliary Manifestations in Systemic Disease.

Liver disease in children occurs via a multitude of primary illnesses such as autoimmune hepatopathy, biliary atresia, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. However, jaundice, hepatitis, and alterations in liver tests can often be a manifestation of systemic diseases. The liver is involved in many critical functions such as circulation, immunity, toxin clearance, and metabolism; when the heart, lu...

RIP1 Kinase Drives Macrophage-Mediated Adaptive Immune Tolerance in Pancreatic Cancer.

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is characterized by immune tolerance and immunotherapeutic resistance. We discovered upregulation of receptor-interacting serine/threonine protein kinase 1 (RIP1) in tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) in PDA. To study its role in oncogenic progression, we developed a selective small-molecule RIP1 inhibitor with high in vivo exposure. Targeting RIP1 reprogra...

β2 Adrenergic-Neurotrophin Feedforward Loop Promotes Pancreatic Cancer.

Resident memory and recirculating memory T cells cooperate to maintain disease in a mouse model of vitiligo.

Tissue resident memory T cells (Trm) form in the skin in vitiligo and persist to maintain disease, as white spots often recur rapidly after discontinuing therapy. We and others have recently described melanocyte-specific autoreactive Trm in vitiligo lesions. Here, we characterize the functional relationship between Trm and recirculating memory T cells (Tcm) in our vitiligo mouse model. We found th...

SRC-3 Inhibition Blocks Tumor Growth of Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma.

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a highly malignant and lethal disease with few treatment options. Steroid receptor coactivator-3 (SRC-3, also known as NCOA3, AIB1, pCIP, ACTR, RAC3, TRAM1) sits at the nexus of many growth signaling pathways and has been pursued as a therapeutic target for breast, prostate and lung cancers. In this study, we find that SRC-3 is overexpressed in PDAC and i...

Biochemical Markers, Genotype, and Inflammation in Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Danish Population-Based Study.

Our aim was to characterize the biochemical markers at diagnosis in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), to assess the utility of these to predict disease course and investigate if genotype influences biochemical markers of inflammation.

Human Coronavirus in Hospitalized Children with Respiratory Tract Infections: A Nine-year-long, Population-based Study from Norway.

The burden of Human Coronavirus- (HCoV) associated respiratory tract infections (RTIs) in hospitalized children is poorly defined. We studied the occurrence and hospitalization rates of HCoV over nine years.

Effect of disease activity at three and six months on long-term outcomes in ANCA associated vasculitis.

The treatment of ANCA associated vasculitis (AAV) aims to suppress disease activity and prevent subsequent disease flare. We explored the association of early disease control with long-term outcomes to validate early disease control as end-points for future clinical trials.

Epithelial-Stromal Interactions in Pancreatic Cancer.

Pancreatic cancer is characterized by an extensive fibroinflammatory reaction that includes immune cells, fibroblasts, extracellular matrix, vascular and lymphatic vessels, and nerves. Overwhelming evidence indicates that the pancreatic cancer microenvironment regulates cancer initiation, progression, and maintenance. Pancreatic cancer treatment has progressed little over the past several decades,...

Pancreatic Cancer Subtypes: Beyond Lumping and Splitting.

Macrophages Steal STING From the Infectious Disease Playbook to Promote Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

Effects of green light on the growth of spotted halibut, Verasper variegatus, and Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, and on the endocrine system of spotted halibut at different water temperatures.

We have previously shown that the somatic growth of barfin flounder, Verasper moseri, was promoted by green light. The present study was undertaken to elucidate whether growth-promoting effect of green light can be observed in other flatfishes and to understand the roles of endocrine systems in green light-induced growth. Herein, we demonstrated facilitation of growth by green light in the spotted...

Functions and clinical implications of exosomes in pancreatic cancer.

Pancreatic cancer is one of the most aggressive human malignancies and is associated with a dismal prognosis, which can be contributed to its atypical symptoms, metastatic propensity, and significant chemoresistance. Emerging evidence shows that pancreatic cancer cell-derived exosomes (PEXs) play critical roles in tumorigenesis and tumor development, as they are involved in drug resistance, immune...

Pharmacologic IL-6Rα inhibition in cholangiocarcinoma promotes cancer cell growth and survival.

Biliary tract cancer (BTC) represents a malignant tumor of the biliary tract including cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) and the carcinoma of the gallbladder (GBC) with a 5-year survival rate between 5 and 18% due to late diagnosis and rapid disease progression. Chronic inflammation is one of the main risk factors for CCA and GBC in particular. IL-6, as a mediator of inflammation, can act through a membran...

Acute pancreatic beta cell apoptosis by IL-1β is responsible for postburn hyperglycemia: Evidence from humans and mice.

Acute hyperglycemia is regarded as a risk factor for critically ill patients; however, insufficient understanding of its nature and underlying mechanisms hinders widespread adoption of glycemic control in critical care units.

Long-term exposure to waterborne nonylphenol alters reproductive physiological parameters in economically important marine fish.

Low concentrations of nonylphenol (NP) in aquatic environment can induce drastic effects on the endocrine system in animals. In this study, we examined the modulatory effects of NP on reproductive and physiological parameters in juveniles of the red seabream and black rockfish following waterborne NP exposure (0, 1, 10, and 50 μg L) for 60 days. In red seabream exposed to 50 μg L NP, p...

Effects of Bacillus aryabhattai TBRC8450 on vibriosis resistance and immune enhancement in Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.

The use of probiotics in aquaculture is a practical alternative to promote animal health and disease prevention. Meanwhile, this practice can also reduce the use of prophylactic antibiotics. The purpose of this study was to identify candidate probiotics that could control pathogen populations in host's gastrointestinal tract (GI) and stimulate host immunity in shrimp aquaculture. Bacillus aryabhat...

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