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Most U.S. preschoolers have consumed media created with funding from the U.S. Department of Education's Ready To Learn (RTL) initiative, which was established to promote school readiness among children ages 2-8. Synthesizing data from 45 evaluations (N = 24,624 unique child participants), this meta-analysis examined the effects of RTL media exposure on young children's literacy skills. Results i...
Bangladesh has a high prevalence of adolescent pregnancy, but little is known about the nutritional status and dietary practices of Bangladeshi adolescents in early pregnancy or associated factors. We used the baseline data of 1552 pregnant adolescents from a longitudinal, cluster-randomized effectiveness trial conducted in northwest Bangladesh. Forty-four percent of the adolescents were short for...
Early in my career as a neonatologist, I was called into the hospital for a newborn who would not stop crying. Screaming, really. When I entered the unit, I was greeted by a loud, shrill, distinctive cry. After hearing the history and examining the baby, I just stood there for a while, watching and listening. It took some time, but eventually, I noticed a subtle regularity, a rhythmicity. I took o...
Children and young people are seen as fundamental to the design and delivery of clinical research as active and reflective participants. In Europe, involvement of children and young people in clinical research is promoted extensively in order to engage young people in research as partners and to give them a voice to raise their own issues or opinions and for their involvement in planning and decis...
The Kidney Allocation System (KAS) altered pediatric candidate prioritization. We determined KAS' impact on pediatric kidney recipients by examining delayed graft function (DGF) rates from 2010-2016. A propensity score matched pediatric recipients pre- and post-KAS. A semi-parametric decomposition analysis estimated the contributions of KAS-related changes in donor characteristics and dialysis tim...
To improve outpatient advanced care planning (ACP) for adults with congenital/pediatric heart disease followed in a pediatric heart failure (HF) and transplant clinic through quality improvement (QI) methodology.
First, to compare QOL and illness perceptions between patients with a Fontan circulation and patients with anatomically simple defects (ie, atrial septal defects [ASD] or ventricular septal defects [VSD]). Second, to explore illness perceptions as a mediator of the association between congenital heart disease (CHD) diagnosis and QOL.
Subhepatic appendicitis in children is an unusual condition that can be challenging for the pediatric surgeons to treat. The aim of our study was to compare the outcomes of laparoscopic appendectomies based on the position of the appendix.
To investigate clinical manifestations of juvenile systemic sclerosis (jSSc), including disease characteristics and patient quality of life, through the multinational Childhood Arthritis and Rheumatology Research Alliance (CARRA) Legacy Registry.
To investigate effects of elastic stable intramedullary nails(ESIN) for the treatment of radial neck fracture in children.
This is the third in a series of papers on Civil Forensic Psychiatry and provides practical advice for forensic psychiatrists, general psychiatrists and trainees who are expanding or contemplating a medico-legal aspect to their practice.
Consultation-liaison psychiatry (CLP) services sit between mental health and the general hospital, and risk being poorly understood by both systems. The aim of this study was to develop an operational manual for a CLP service, which defined functions and governance.
Shared decision-making (SDM) is promoted as beneficial in mental healthcare, despite a dearth of supportive evidence. We aimed to obtain patients' perspective on SDM in a 'real world' hospital sample.
This paper describes the main areas of civil forensic psychiatry (FP) and the skills required by psychiatric experts. Some specific areas of civil FP are discussed, including tort law reform, reliability of psychiatric evidence, contentious psychiatric disorders, and the many domains of civil FP.
The role of nutrients and dietary factors in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) remains unclear.
This study reports the prevalence and demographic correlates of overweight, as well as meeting physical activity and screen time guidelines, in Chinese children. A representative sample of school-aged children ( n = 49 549) in Shanghai were participants. Children's anthropometrics were objectively measured; their physical activity and screen time, and demographic variables including age, sex, skil...
This study was performed to investigate the effect of cochlear implantation on the Quality of Life (QoL) of children with profound and multiple learning disability (PMLD). This cohort of children has been viewed historically as poor candidates for cochlear implantation as they generally have poor speech and hearing outcomes. The Irish National Cochlear Implant Program's prospectively maintained da...
Several studies have found that, after repeated exposure to new words, children form orthographic representations that allow them to read those words faster and more fluently. However, these studies did not take into account variables related to the words. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of sublexical variables on the formation of orthographic representations of words by Spa...
Responsive parental communication during an infant's first year has been positively associated with later language outcomes. This study explores responsivity in mother-infant communication by modeling how change in guiding language between 7 and 11 months influences toddler vocabulary development. In a group of 32 mother-child dyads, change in early maternal guiding language positively predicted c...
Previous studies have found that Hebrew-speaking children accurately comprehend object relatives (OR) with an embedded non-referential arbitrary subject pronoun (ASP). The facilitation of ORs with embedded pronouns is expected both from a discourse-pragmatics perspective and within a syntax-based locality approach. However, the specific effect of ASP might also be driven by a mismatch in grammatic...
Food and beverage intakes according to physical activity levels in European children: the IDEFICS (Identification and prevention of Dietary and lifestyle induced health EFfects In Children and infantS) study.
Physical activity (PA) levels and dietary habits are considered some of the most important factors associated with obesity. The present study aimed to examine the association between PA level and food and beverage consumption in European children (2-10 years old). Design/Setting/Subjects A sample of 7229 children (49·0 % girls) from eight European countries participating in the IDEFICS (Identific...
Asymmetric frontal brain activity is thought to reflect individual differences in approach- and avoidance-oriented motivation and emotional experience. Using a prospective longitudinal design, the authors investigated whether trajectories of frontal electroencephalogram (EEG) asymmetry in children (M = 6.39 years at enrollment) predicted subjective, behavioral, and autonomic indices of socioem...
A better understanding of factors contributing to the observed variability in estimates of test-retest reliability in published studies on standardized diagnostic interviews (SDI) is needed. The objectives of this systematic review and meta-analysis were to estimate the pooled test-retest reliability for parent and youth assessments of seven common disorders, and to examine sources of between-stud...