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Junior temperament character inventory together with quantitative EEG discriminate children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder combined subtype from children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder combined subtype plus oppositional defiant disorder.
Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is frequently associated with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) but no clear neurophysiological evidence exists that distinguishes the two groups. Our aim was to identify biomarkers that distinguish children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder combined subtype (ADHD_C) from children with ADHD_C + ODD, by combining the results of quant...
Congenital sideroblastic anemia (CSA) is a series of rare, heterogeneous disorders, characterized by iron overload in the mitochondria of erythroblasts and ringed sideroblasts in bone marrow. In recent years, rapid development of next-generation sequencing technology brings great advance in understanding of genetic and pathophysiologic features of CSA. Based on the pathophysiology of mitochondrial...
Bisphosphonates have been used for treatment of bone fragility disorders for over 25 years to increase bone mineral density (BMD). Anecdotally, bisphosphonate-treated Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI) has a different trajectory to the natural history of untreated OI in terms of fracture incidence, quality of life and physical function, with minimal published evidence to support this clinical observat...
Diseases, disorders, and insults of aging are frequently studied in otherwise healthy animal models despite rampant co-morbidities and exposures among the human population. Stressor exposures can increase neuroinflammation and augment the inflammatory response following a challenge. The impact of dietary exposure on baseline neural function and behavior has gained attention; in particular, a diet ...
Neurodevelopmental outcomes are impaired in survivors of critical congenital heart disease (CHD) in several developmental domains including motor, cognitive and sensory outcomes. These deficits can extend into the adolescent and early adulthood years. The cause of these neurodevelopmental impairments is multi-factorial and includes patient specific risk factors, cardiac anatomy and physiology as w...
Prenatal and childhood exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants has been inversely associated with cognitive performance, however, few studies have measured PBDE concentrations in samples collected during both prenatal and postnatal periods.
Childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) is an epileptic syndrome presenting between 2nd-10th years. The spells are elicited with hyperventilation (HV) while sleep seems to exacerbate the electrical activity. Our aim is to describe sleep architecture and its relationship with epileptic discharges (EDs) in patients with CAE, before treatment and one year later.
The aim of this study is to evaluate how retail food environments for children in the City of London and Middlesex County, Ontario, Canada, vary according to level of urbanicity and level of socioeconomic distress. Urbanicity in this study is defined as a neighbourhood's designation as urban, suburban, or rural. We assessed community food environments (e.g., the type, location, and accessibility o...
Improving children's sleep could lead to significant benefits in several functional domains. Recent research in adults suggests that intensive, adaptive cognitive training may be beneficial in improving sleep, although there is limited understanding whether this approach yields similar results in children.
Overall incidence of hemostatic complications in pediatric recipients of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant (HSCT) is scarcely studied. This retrospective review explored the incidence and underlying risk factors of bleeding and thrombotic complications in children.
Exstrophy of the bladder is a rare congenital anomaly usually treated in neonatal or childhood period. When combined with renal agenesis and presents for the first time in the adulthood with malignant transformation, is an extreme rarity.
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) reduce serum thyroid hormone concentrations in animal studies, but few studies have examined the impact of early-life PBDE exposures on thyroid hormone disruption in childhood.
Beta-lactam allergy is overdiagnosed. Diagnosis of penicillin allergy has been associated with a greater use of hospital resources and an increased risk of antibiotic-resistant infections, although this issue remains poorly studied in children. We aimed to compare patient characteristics and use of hospital resources in hospitalized children with and without a record of penicillin allergy.
To describe the prevalence of thinness, overweight, and obesity in Hungarian children (age 7.0-7.9 years) according to different classifications, to assess the progress between 2010 and 2016, and to investigate whether tendencies differ according to gender.
Cesarean sections (CS) are among the most commonly performed surgical procedures in the world. Epidemiologic data has associated delivery by CS with an increased risk of certain adverse health outcomes in children, such as asthma and obesity.
Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) of the central nervous system is characterized by SMARCB1/INI deletion or mutation in the long arm of chromosome 22 11(22q11.2), also resulting in loss of nuclear expression of INI1 protein immunohistochemically. AT/RT tumors usually occur in children below 3 years. The tumor is usually seen in the cerebellum or the cerebrum, with an extremely rare incidenc...
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of pneumonia and bronchiolitis in children. Mortality rates in previously healthy children hospitalized with RSV are < 0.5%, but up to 37% in patients with underlying medical conditions. The objective of this study was to characterize factors associated with deaths among children hospitalized with RSV infection in Canadian pediatric centres.
The burden and epidemiology of Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mp) among U.S. children (
Main pulmonary artery (MPA) stiffness and abnormal flow haemodynamics in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) are strongly associated with elevated right ventricular (RV) afterload and associated with disease severity and poor clinical outcomes in adults with PAH. However, the long-term effects of MPA stiffness on RV function in children with PAH remain poorly understood. This study is the first ...
Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis affects children aged 11-18 years. Severe disease may necessitate spinal fusion. Vertebral body tethering gradually corrects scoliosis as the patients grow. The application of video-assisted thoracic surgery to the thoracic spine is a new area for further development.
Parental factors are central in the development and maintenance of chronic pain in youths. Only a handful of studies have investigated the impact of psychological treatments for pediatric chronic pain on parental factors, and the relationships between changes in parental and adolescent factors. In the current study, we evaluated the effects of an intensive interdisciplinary pain treatment (IIPT) p...
Adults with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) and Graves Disease (GD) demonstrate a greater reported disease burden and aggressive DTC behavior. To date, no studies have examined the impact and long-term outcome of concurrent GD and DTC (GD-DTC) in pediatric and young adults.
Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic relapsing inflammatory disease. To optimize therapeutic decision making, it is essential to identify parameters that allow early prediction of a severe disease course. The aim of this study was to assess the link between arthritis and medium-term therapeutic failure in pediatric CD.
Rotavirus commonly causes diarrhea but can also cause seizures. Analysis of insurance claims for 1,773,295 US children with 2950 recorded seizures found that, compared to rotavirus-unvaccinated children, seizure hospitalization risk was reduced by 24% (95% confidence interval [CI], 13% - 33%) and 14% (95%CI, 0% - 26%) among fully and partially rotavirus-vaccinated children, respectively.
Metronidazole is traditionally dosed every 6-8 hours even though in adults it has a long half-life, concentration-dependent killing, and 3-hour postantibiotic effect. Based on this logic, some pediatric hospitals adopted once-daily dosing for appendicitis, despite limited pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) in children. We studied pediatric patients with appendicitis given metronidazole once...