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Prostate Cancer research and development Research

21:24 EST 12th December 2018 | BioPortfolio

Comparison of testis cancer-specific survival: an analysis of national cancer registry data from the USA, UK and Germany.

The 3D Cancer Nucleus.

Research into the three-dimensional (3D) organization of the cancer cell genome started over 100 years ago. We follow an exciting avenue of research in this field, from Hansemann's early observations of aberrant mitoses and nuclei in cancer cells in the late 19 century to Boveri's theory of the cancer cell in the early 20 century, to current views of nuclear organization and its changes in cancer....

Vaccines for colorectal cancer: an update.

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is known as the third most common and fourth leading cancer associated death worldwide. The occurrence of metastasis has remained as a critical challenge in CRC, so that distant metastasis (mostly to the liver) has been manifested in about 20%-25% of patients. Several screening approaches have introduced for detecting CRC in different stages particularly in early stages. Th...

Independent and joint associations of blood lipids and lipoproteins with lung cancer risk in Chinese males: A prospective cohort study.

To investigate the independent and joint associations of blood lipids and lipoproteins with lung cancer risk in Chinese males, a prospective cohort study was conducted. A total of 109,798 males with baseline information on total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and non-HDL were prospectively observed fro...

AMD3100 inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition, cell invasion, and metastasis in the liver and the lung through blocking the SDF-1α/CXCR4 signaling pathway in prostate cancer.

Stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) and CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) have been found to be tightly correlated with the progression of prostate cancer (PC). In this study, we investigated the effects of an SDF-1α/CXCR4 inhibitor, AMD3100, on cell progression and metastasis potential of human PC cells. Human PC cell lines (LNCaP, PC3, and DU145) were cultured to detect SDF-1α/CXCR4, which sh...

FAM83H-AS1 is associated with clinical progression and modulates cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in bladder cancer.

FAM83H-AS1, also known as oncogenic long noncoding RNA (lncRNA)-3, is a novel lncRNA that has been suggested to be dysregulated in a variety of human cancers. However, the expression status and function of FAM83H-AS1 in bladder cancer are still unknown. The object of our study is to explore the clinical value of FAM83H-AS1 in patients with bladder cancer and the biological function of FAM83H-AS1 i...

Transforming growth factor-β signaling: Tumorigenesis and targeting for cancer therapy.

Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β is a multitasking cytokine such that its aberrant expression is related to cancer progression and metastasis. TGF-β is produced by a variety of cells within the tumor microenvironment (TME), and it is responsible for regulation of the activity of cells within this milieu. TGF-β is a main inducer of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), immune evasion, and ...

The risk of cancer attributable to diagnostic medical radiation: Estimation for France in 2015.

Although medical ionizing radiation (IR) has clear clinical benefits, it is an established carcinogen. This study estimates the number of new cancer cases in France in 2015 attributable to IR exposure from medical procedures. Exposures from external (X-rays, CT scans, interventional radiology) and internal (nuclear medicine) sources were considered. We used 2007 national frequencies of diagnostic ...

Health service provider responses to indigenous peoples with cancer: An integrative review.

Indigenous populations around the world have a higher burden of cancer incidence, severity and mortality. This integrative review aims to identify and appraise the evidence of health providers' responses to the issue of indigenous peoples with cancer. A surprisingly small number of studies were found (n = 9) that reported on programmes and interventions for indigenous people with cancer, the maj...

Expression of PD-L1 in tumor-associated nerves correlates with reduced CD8 tumor-associated lymphocytes and poor prognosis in prostate cancer.

To investigate immune profile consisting of stromal PD-L1 expression, inhibitory or non-T-cell inflamed tumor microenvironment that may predict response to anti-PD-L1/PD-1 immunotherapy in prostate cancer, we validated the specificity of a PD-L1 monoclonal antibody (E1L3N) and identified PD-L1 specific expression in prostatic stromal nerve cells. PD-L1 expression was analyzed in 73 primary prostat...

A single institutional review of pediatric Bacillus spp. bloodstream infections demonstrates increased incidence among children with cancer.

Bacillus species are known to cause severe infection in immunocompromised hosts. The incidence of Bacillus bloodstream infections and characteristics of infection among children with cancer or indication for hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) is unknown.

Are we meeting the training needs of healthcare and education professionals supporting children with cancer in their return to school?

Long noncoding RNA CASC9 promotes LIN7A expression via miR-758-3p to facilitate the malignancy of ovarian cancer.

The long noncoding RNA cancer susceptibility 9 (CASC9) has been reported to be a pivot modulator in growth and metastasis of breast cancer, liver cancer, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, lung adenocarcinoma, gastric cancer, and nasopharyngeal cancer. However, its potential roles in ovarian cancer remain unclear. In this study, we aimed at its functions and molecular mechanism in ovarian cancer ...

High expression of LASS2 is associated with unfavorable prognosis in patients with ovarian cancer.

Homo sapiens longevity assurance homolog 2 of yeast LAG1 (LASS2), is a gene isolated from a human liver complementary DNA library. In this study, we found that LASS2 protein level was positively related to International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage and LASS2-negative tumors showed significant association with longer disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) i...

Long noncoding RNA Breast cancer antiestrogen resistance 4 is associated with cancer progression and its significant prognostic value.

Breast cancer antiestrogen resistance 4 (BCAR4) is a novel long noncoding RNA. It was originally identified in a screen for genes responsible for the development of resistance to antiestrogens in breast cancer cells and plays a major role in various tumors. However, the clinical diagnostic role of BCAR4 in tumors is not completely understood. This current meta-analysis aimed to comprehensively exp...

Circulating miRNAs in localized/locally advanced prostate cancer patients after radical prostatectomy and radiotherapy.

Overtreatment is a well-known clinical challenge in local prostate cancer (PCa). Although risk assessment models have contributed to a better stratification of patients with local PCa, a tailored management is still in its infancy. Over the last few decades, microRNAs (miRNAs) have shown promising results as biomarkers in PCa. The aim of this study was to investigate circulating miRNAs after manag...

Activity and pharmacology of homemade silver nanoparticles in refractory metastatic head and neck squamous cell cancer.

Silver nanoparticles (AgNP) show efficacy in cancer cell lines. We present the first in-human outcome of AgNP in a cancer patient.

Knockdown of SRPX2 inhibits the proliferation, migration, and invasion of prostate cancer cells through the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway.

Sushi repeat-containing protein X-linked 2 (SRPX2), a novel chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, is reported to play a critical role in tumorigenesis. However, the expression and functional role of SRPX2 in prostate cancer have not been defined. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the expression and functional role of SRPX2 in human prostate cancer. Our results showed that the expression o...

Disparities in Breast Cancer Survival by Socioeconomic Status Despite Medicare and Medicaid Insurance.

Policy Points Patients with low socioeconomic status (SES) experience poorer survival rates after diagnosis of breast cancer, even when enrolled in Medicare and Medicaid. Most of the difference in survival is due to more advanced cancer on presentation and the general poor health of lower SES patients, while only a very small fraction of the SES disparity is due to differences in cancer treatment....

Prognostic performance of the American Joint Committee on Cancer 8th edition of the TNM staging system in patients with early oral tongue cancer.

The 8th edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer's (AJCC) staging system for oral cavity cancer incorporates pathological features. We aimed to assess whether these changes results in better risk stratification of patients with early oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC).

The microRNA miR-181c enhances chemosensitivity and reduces chemoresistance in breast cancer cells via down-regulating osteopontin.

Acquired resistance to chemotherapy is a frequent challenge in cancer care and one of the leading causes for failing breast cancer therapies. There is accumulative clinical and experimental evidence indicating that microRNAs (miRNAs) play a crucial role in developing therapeutic resistance in cancer cells. We aimed to explore key miRNAs and associated mechanisms by which breast cancer develops che...

Initiation and Evolution of Early Onset Prostate Cancer.

In this issue of Cancer Cell, Gerhauser et al. analyze early-onset prostate cancers, showing roles for androgen receptor-driven rearrangements, an early APOBEC-driven mutational mechanism, and ESRP1 gene duplication. Through integration of whole-genome, transcriptome, and methylome data, they identify high-risk subgroups and develop an algorithm that may predict molecular evolution.

Immunodivergence in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer.

Van den Eynde et al. publish in this issue of Cancer Cell that metastatic colorectal cancer shows marked heterogeneity in T cell infiltration among different lesions and patients. Measurements of T cell infiltration in metastases by immunoscore offer some prognostic information and support immune editing by coevolving adaptive immune responses.

BH3-Mimetic Drugs: Blazing the Trail for New Cancer Medicines.

Defects in apoptotic cell death can promote cancer and impair responses of malignant cells to anti-cancer therapy. Pro-survival BCL-2 proteins prevent apoptosis by keeping the cell death effectors, BAX and BAK, in check. The BH3-only proteins initiate apoptosis by neutralizing the pro-survival BCL-2 proteins. Structural analysis and medicinal chemistry led to the development of small-molecule drug...

Molecular Evolution of Early-Onset Prostate Cancer Identifies Molecular Risk Markers and Clinical Trajectories.

Identifying the earliest somatic changes in prostate cancer can give important insights into tumor evolution and aids in stratifying high- from low-risk disease. We integrated whole genome, transcriptome and methylome analysis of early-onset prostate cancers (diagnosis ≤55 years). Characterization across 292 prostate cancer genomes revealed age-related genomic alterations and a clock-like enzyma...

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