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Prostate Cancer research and development Research

09:50 EDT 19th August 2018 | BioPortfolio

Chemopreventive effects of some popular phytochemicals on human colon cancer: a review.

Colon cancer is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Dietary phytochemicals have been drawing increasing attention for colon cancer prevention and treatment due to their chemical diversity, biological activity, easy availability, lack of toxic effects, and ability to modulate various signal transduction pathways and cell processes. The chemoprotective effects elicited by p...

Multinational validation of the AJCC 8 edition pancreatic cancer staging system in a pancreas head cancer cohort.

The aim was to compare the 7 and 8 editions of the AJCC staging system for pancreas head cancer and to validate the 8 edition using three multinational tertiary center data.

Lysosome-Targeted Chemotherapeutics: Half-Sandwich Ruthenium(II) Complexes That Are Selectively Toxic to Cancer Cells.

Poor selectivity between cancer cells and normal cells is one of the major limitations of cancer chemotherapy. Lysosome-targeted ruthenium-based complexes target tumor cells selectively, only displaying rather weak cytotoxicity or inactivity toward normal cells. Confocal microscopy was employed for the first time to determine the cellular localization of the half-sandwich Ru complex.

Investigational therapies targeting the androgen signaling axis and the androgen receptor and in prostate cancer - recent developments and future directions.

Despite the heterogeneity of prostate cancer (PCa), androgen stimulation is fundamental to its development, growth and lethality. Therefore, the blockade of androgen receptor (AR) signaling is critical to controlling the disease, even after progression with castrate levels of androgens. Areas covered: We review the current understanding of new ways to block the AR, using novel antiandrogen inhibit...

Nurse-Delivered Symptom Assessment for Individuals With Advanced Lung Cancer.

To assess an intervention derived from self-regulation theory (SRT) to promote well-being for individuals with advanced lung cancer.

Feelings of Disenfranchisement and Support Needs Among Patients With Thyroid Cancer.

To offer a better understanding of the experiences, preferences, and needs of patients with thyroid cancer.

E-cadherin bridges cell polarity and spindle orientation to ensure prostate epithelial integrity and prevent carcinogenesis in vivo.

Cell polarity and correct mitotic spindle positioning are essential for the maintenance of a proper prostate epithelial architecture, and disruption of the two biological features occurs at early stages in prostate tumorigenesis. However, whether and how these two epithelial attributes are connected in vivo is largely unknown. We herein report that conditional genetic deletion of E-cadherin, a key...

Liquid biopsies for management of pancreatic cancer.

Pancreatic cancer is one of the main causes of cancer related deaths worldwide. It is asymptomatic at an early stage, and most diagnosis occurs when the disease is already at a late stage, by which time the tumor is nonresectable. In order to increase the overall survival of patients with pancreatic cancer, as well as to decrease the cancer burden, it is necessary to perform early diagnosis, progn...

BRMS1L suppresses ovarian cancer metastasis via inhibition of the β-catenin-wnt pathway.

A low level of breast cancer metastasis suppressor 1-like (BRMS1L) has been implicated in tumour metastasis involving breast cancer and other cancers. It remains unclear whether BRMS1L is involved in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) metastasis and what the molecular mechanism of BRMS1L is in suppressing EOC metastasis. In this study, we examined the mRNA expression and protein level of BRMS1L by sc...

Recommendations for safe and efficient morcellation after endoscopic enucleation of the prostate (EEP).

After EEP (HoLEP, ThuLEP, GreenLEP or bipolar) the enucleated tissue is removed through a process of mechanical morcellation. Morcellation is the last, and very important, step in EEP procedures. It introduces additional time, and the possibility for complications exists. Although this is not a difficult procedure, it requires a learning curve that can pose a challenge for inexperienced surgeons. ...

USP9X inhibition improves gemcitabine sensitivity in pancreatic cancer by inhibiting autophagy.

Gemcitabine is the cornerstone of pancreatic cancer treatment. Although effective in most patients, development of tumor resistance to gemcitabine can critically limit its efficacy. The mechanisms responsible for this phenomenon remain elusive, but evidence suggests that ubiquitin-specific peptidases (USPs) may be key regulators in cancer chemo-resistance. The present study aimed to investigate th...

Designer hydrogels: Shedding light on the physical chemistry of the pancreatic cancer microenvironment.

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is currently the third leading cause of cancer mortality in the United States, with a 5-year survival of ∼8%. PDAC is characterized by a dense and hypo-vascularized stroma consisting of proliferating cancer cells, cancer-associated fibroblasts, macrophages and immune cells, as well as excess matrices including collagens, fibronectin, and hyaluronic acid. I...

Bridging the gap by discerning SNPs in linkage disequilibrium and their role in breast cancer.

Breast Cancer is the most common cancer among women with several genes involved in disease susceptibility. As majority of genome-wide significant variants fall outside the coding region, it is likely that some of them alter specific gene functions. GWAS database was used to interpret the regulatory functions of these genetic variants. A total of 320 SNPs for breast cancer were selected via GWAS, w...

Hypericin-assisted photodynamic therapy against anaplastic thyroid cancer.

Hypericin (HYP) extracted from St. John's wort ( Hypericum perforatum L.) is a natural photosensitizer in clinical photodynamic therapy (PDT). The PDT is one of the powerful methods for cancer treatments because of its excellent tumoritropic characteristics and photosensitizing properties. However, limited reports on the efficacy of PDT on the anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) have been published. E...

An eco-friendly catalytic system for multicomponent, one-pot synthesis of novel spiro-chromeno indoline-triones and their anti-prostate cancer potentials evaluated via alkaline phosphatase inhibition mechanism.

A green and efficient straightforward tactic for the one-pot regioselective synthesis of novel 10,10-dimethyl-9,10,11,11a-tetrahydro-6H-spiro[chromeno[4,3-b]chromene-7,3'-indoline]-2',6,8 (7aH) -triones (4a-n) in one-pot modus has been established using eco-friendly p-toluenesulphonic acid as catalyst. Among the solvents that were used for synthesis, 4a-n were suitably synthesized with maximum yie...

Inhibitor of DNA Binding 2 Inhibits Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition via Up-Regulation of Notch3 in Breast Cancer.

Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in women worldwide. Incurable metastatic breast disease presents a major clinical challenge and is the main cause of breast cancer-related death. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a critical early promoter of metastasis. In the present study, we identified a novel role for the inhibitor of DNA binding 2 (Id2), a member of the b...

Antiangiogenic Therapy in Colorectal Cancer.

Colorectal carcinoma is the third most common cancer worldwide. Approximately 20% of patients with colorectal cancer will have metastatic disease at the time of initial diagnosis, and approximately 30% to 50% of patients with primary colon cancer will relapse and die of metastatic cancer. The 5-year survival rate of metastatic colorectal cancer remains disappointing at approximately 10%.Angiogenes...

Bevacizumab in Cervical Cancer: 5 Years After.

Over the past 5 years, addition of bevacizumab to combination chemotherapy for advanced, recurrent, and persistent cervical cancer has offered prolonged overall and progression-free survival. Since the original press release announcing the survival benefits of this antiangiogenesis therapy, there has been further study of bevacizumab related to quality of life, combination with other agents, use o...

Optimization of the 2014 Gleason grade grouping in a Canadian cohort of patients with localized prostate cancer.

To evaluate the 5-tier grouping for Gleason scoring (GG) of prostate cancers adopted by the International Society of Urology Pathology (ISUP) in 2014, and to propose modifications to optimize its performance.

Prostatic capsular incision during radical prostatectomy has important oncological implications. A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Capsular Incision (CapI) is an iatrogenic breach of the prostatic capsule during radical prostatectomy that can cause positive surgical margins (PSM) in organ-confined (pT2) prostate cancer (PCa), or the retention of benign prostatic tissue. We systematically interrogated the literature in order to clarify the definition of CapI, and the implications of this event for rates of PSM and biochemical ...

Documenting Goals of Care Among Patients With Advanced Cancer: Results of a Quality Improvement Initiative.

Guidelines recommend that oncologists discuss goals of care (GOC) with patients who have advanced cancer and that these patients be referred for early palliative care (PC). An audit of practice between 2010 and 2015 at the Cancer Centre of Southeastern Ontario suggested that these rates were suboptimal. We sought to improve the rate of documentation of GOC and referral to PC through the implementa...

Prostate Volume Segmentation in TRUS using Hybrid Edge-Bhattacharyya Active Surfaces.

We present a new hybrid edge and region-based parametric deformable model, or active surface, for prostate volume segmentation in transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) images.

Intron retention is a source of neoepitopes in cancer.

We present an in silico approach to identifying neoepitopes derived from intron retention events in tumor transcriptomes. Using mass spectrometry immunopeptidome analysis, we show that retained intron neoepitopes are processed and presented on MHC I on the surface of cancer cell lines. RNA-derived neoepitopes should be considered for prospective personalized cancer vaccine development.

Lung cancer in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

There are many epidemiological pieces of evidence that show IPF patients have the highest risk of lung cancer. We conducted a systematic review of all published data to define the characteristics of lung cancer that develops in IPF by performing a meta-analysis.

miRNA expression profiles of premalignant and malignant arsenic-induced skin lesions.

Arsenic, a naturally occurring element, contaminates the drinking water of over 200 million people globally. Chronic arsenic exposure causes multiple cancers including those originating from skin, lung and bladder, and is associated with liver, kidney, and prostate cancers. Skin is the primary target organ for arsenic toxicity; chronic toxicity initially manifests as non-malignant hyperkeratoses (...

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