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Psychiatry Research

03:06 EST 21st November 2017 | BioPortfolio

Thoracic Surgery Considerations in Obese Patients.

The obesity epidemic in the United States has increased greatly over the past several decades, and thoracic surgeons are likely to see obese patients routinely in their practices. Obesity has direct deleterious health effects such as metabolic disorder and cardiovascular disease, and is associated with many cancers. Obese patients who need thoracic surgery pose practical challenges to many of the ...

Visual working memory performance in aphantasia.

Aphantasia, i.e., the congenital inability to experience voluntary mental imagery, offers a new model for studying the functional role of mental imagery in (visual) cognition. However, until now, there have been no studies investigating whether aphantasia can be linked to specific impairments in cognitive functioning. Here, we assess visual working memory performance in an aphantasic individual. W...

Atypical depression and non-atypical depression: Is HPA axis function a biomarker? A systematic review.

The link between the abnormalities of the Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and depression has been one of the most consistently reported findings in psychiatry. At the same time, multiple studies have demonstrated a stronger association between the increased activation of HPA-axis and melancholic, or endogenous depression subtype. This association has not been confirmed for the atypical s...

Neuroimaging biomarkers as predictors of treatment outcome in Major Depressive Disorder.

Current practice for selecting pharmacological and non-pharmacological antidepressant treatments has yielded low response and remission rates in Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Neuroimaging biomarkers of brain structure and function may be useful in guiding treatment selection by predicting response vs. non-response outcomes.

Exercise and mental health.

There is a growing body of literature that recognizes the positive effects of exercise on mood states such as anxiety, stress and depression, through physiological and biochemical mechanisms, including endorphins, mitochondria, mammalian target of rapamycin, neurotransmitters and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and via the thermogenic hypothesis. In addition, psychological mechanisms infl...

Exploring the path between depression, anxiety and 10-year cardiovascular disease incidence, among apparently healthy Greek middle-aged adults: The ATTICA study.

Although there is substantial evidence that psychological factors play an important role in the onset and course of cardiovascular disease (CVD), less is known about their combined effect and the pathways by which they affect cardiovascular health. The present work aimed to prospectively explore the effects of depression and anxiety on the 10-year CVD incidence, in relation to other lifestyle dete...

Medications for opioid use disorder: bridging the gap in care.

Management of first depression or generalized anxiety disorder episode in adults in primary care: A systematic metareview.

General Practitioners (GPs) are the leading antidepressants prescribers in Europe and in France. Difficulties in implementing existing recommendations in daily practice have been described.

A review of prevalence studies of Autism Spectrum Disorder by latitude and solar irradiance impact.

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a lifelong disability with no known cause or cure. Among the suggested etiologies, is Cannell's hypothesis of a deficiency in Vitamin D the main natural source of which is Solar Ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation. The aim in this paper is to build on this hypothesis and explore the relationship of solar irradiance of which UVB is a component, by latitude with the preva...

Neonatal and regressive forms of autism: Diseases with similar symptoms but a different etiology.

Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) can be a debilitating, life-long neurocognitive disease. ASD is caused by genetic and epigenetic factors and largely unknown and poorly understood environmental triggers. Signs and symptoms of ASD often appear in the first year of life while the disease strikes other infants who had previously been developing normally at around 2years of age. Ozonoff and her collea...

Functional connectivity of the vigilant-attention network in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

The ability to maintain attention to simple tasks (i.e., vigilant attention, VA) is often impaired in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms at the brain network level are not clear yet. We therefore investigated ADHD-related differences in resting-state functional connectivity within a meta-analytically defined brain network of 14 distinc...

Low-threshold extended-release naltrexone for high utilizers of public services with severe alcohol use disorder: A pilot study.

Extended-release naltrexone (XRNTX) is an effective treatment for alcohol use disorder (AUD). We sought to evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of XRNTX delivered as a stand-alone service to persons with severe AUD who are high utilizers of multiple urgent and emergency medical services (HUMS). Of 15 HUMS persons with severe AUD selected bas...

Anti-amyloidogenic and anti-apoptotic effect of α-bisabolol against Aβ induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a life-threatening neurodegenerative disorder leading to dementia, with a progressive decline in memory and other thinking skills of elderly populace. Of the multiple etiological factors of AD, the accumulation of senile plaques (SPs) particularly as Aβ oligomers correlates with the relentlessness cognitive impairment in AD patients and play a vital role in AD patholog...

Galantamine and memantine combination for cognition: Enough or more than enough to translate from murines and macaques to men with schizophrenia?

An epithelial biomarker signature for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: an analysis from the multicentre PROFILE cohort study.

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive, fatal disorder with a variable disease trajectory. The aim of this study was to assess potential biomarkers to predict outcomes for people with IPF.

Month of birth and risk of autism spectrum disorder: a retrospective cohort of male children born in Israel.

Increased incidence and prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) over the last two decades have prompted considerable efforts to investigate its aetiological factors. We examined an association between month of birth and ASD incidence.

Impact of variation in functions and delivery on the effectiveness of behavioural and mood management interventions for smoking cessation in people with depression: protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Tobacco is the world's leading preventable cause of disease and death. People with depression are twice as likely to smoke and are less responsive to standard tobacco treatments as compared with the general population. A Cochrane systematic review of randomised controlled trials of smoking cessation treatment for smokers with current or historical depression found that adding mood management to us...

Reduced orbitofrontal-thalamic functional connectivity related to suicidal ideation in patients with major depressive disorder.

Despite recent developments in neuroimaging, alterations of brain functional connectivity in major depressive disorder (MDD) patients with suicidal ideation are poorly understood. This study investigated specific changes of suicidal ideation in functional connectivity of MDD patients. Whole brain functional connectivity in 46 patients with MDD (23 with suicidal ideation and 23 without) and 36 age-...

Ketamine's antidepressant effect is mediated by energy metabolism and antioxidant defense system.

Fewer than 50% of all patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) treated with currently available antidepressants (ADs) show full remission. Moreover, about one third of the patients suffering from MDD does not respond to conventional ADs and develop treatment-resistant depression (TRD). Ketamine, a non-competitive, voltage-dependent N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist, has been sh...

The Kohlschütter-Tönz syndrome associated gene Rogdi encodes a novel presynaptic protein.

Mutations in the human homolog of the Drosophila gene Rogdi cause Kohlschütter-Tönz syndrome. This disorder is characterised by amelogenesis imperfecta, as well as severe neurological symptoms including epilepsy and psychomotor delay. However, little is known about the protein encoded by Rogdi, and hence the pathogenic mechanisms underlying Kohlschütter-Tönz syndrome have remained elusive. Usi...

Efficacy of Silexan in subthreshold anxiety: meta-analysis of randomised, placebo-controlled trials.

Subthreshold psychiatric disorders do not fully meet the diagnostic criteria of syndromal disorders but may be associated with comparable disability. To investigate the anxiolytic effect of Silexan, an active substance from lavender oil for oral administration, in patients with subthreshold anxiety, a meta-analysis that included all published trials with Silexan in this indication was performed. T...

Cross-Lagged Analysis of Interplay Between Differential Traits in Sibling Pairs: Validation and Application to Parenting Behavior and ADHD Symptomatology.

Understanding the factors that contribute to behavioral traits is a complex task, and partitioning variance into latent genetic and environmental components is a useful beginning, but it should not also be the end. Many constructs are influenced by their contextual milieu, and accounting for background effects (such as gene-environment correlation) is necessary to avoid bias. This study introduces...

The Autism Family Experience Questionnaire (AFEQ): An Ecologically-Valid, Parent-Nominated Measure of Family Experience, Quality of Life and Prioritised Outcomes for Early Intervention.

There is a lack of measures that reflect the intervention priorities of parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and that assess the impact of interventions on family experience and quality of life. The Autism Family Experience Questionnaire (AFEQ) was developed through focus groups and online consultation with parents, and reflected parental priorities. It was then administered to ...

Psychological Aspects of Obesity in Children and Adolescents.

Childhood obesity is multi factorial health condition, so the simple evaluation of body fat will not be sufficed to manage the global epidemic of childhood obesity. Literature consistently provides evidence for physical health risks associated with childhood obesity; however in recent times, mental health of the obese children has also gained attention of the researchers as well as clinicians. Obe...

Coordinated reset vibrotactile stimulation shows prolonged improvement in Parkinson's disease.

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