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Psychiatry Research

22:13 EDT 23rd May 2018 | BioPortfolio

Junior temperament character inventory together with quantitative EEG discriminate children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder combined subtype from children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder combined subtype plus oppositional defiant disorder.

Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is frequently associated with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) but no clear neurophysiological evidence exists that distinguishes the two groups. Our aim was to identify biomarkers that distinguish children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder combined subtype (ADHD_C) from children with ADHD_C + ODD, by combining the results of quant...

Cutaneous Features and Diagnosis of Primary Sjogren's Syndrome: An Update and Review.

Sjogren's syndrome (SS) is an autoimmune connective tissue disorder (CTD) which principally affects the lacrimal and salivary glands. Although SS is one of the three most common autoimmune CTDs alongside systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and progressive systemic sclerosis, it is the least researched CTD overall. SS poses a particular diagnostic challenge because it shares multiple clinical and im...

The Association of Disease Activity, Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines, and Neurotrophic Factors with Depression in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis.

Inflammation and trophic factors (brain-derived neurotrophic factor [BDNF], vascular endothelial growth factor, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, and insulin-like growth factor-1) are associated with depression in the general population. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic representative inflammatory autoimmune disease; however, the association of disease activity, pro-inflammatory c...

Gamma Knife Radiosurgery of the Superior Laryngeal Neuralgia: A report of three cases.

Superior laryngeal neuralgia (SLN) is a relatively rare disorder that is characterized by neck pain. There are only a few reported cases and treatment options for SLN to date.

The association of panic and hyperventilation with psychogenic non-epileptic seizures: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Psychogenic Non-Epileptic Seizures (PNES) are events that appear epileptic but are instead thought to have a psychological origin. Increased rates of several psychiatric disorders have been reported in PNES, including anxiety and panic disorders. Some theories suggest panic and/or hyperventilation have aetiological roles in PNES, though these remain unproven.

Association between the ratio of serum arachidonic acid to eicosapentaenoic acid and the presence of depressive symptoms in a general Japanese population: the Hisayama Study.

Epidemiological evidence suggests that fish consumption and intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)-namely, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-confer protection against depression. However, few studies have addressed the influence of the balance between n-3 PUFA and n-6 PUFA in the human body on depression.

Public perceptions toward mental illness in Japan.

The purpose was to characterize public perceptions in Japan of mental illness and how they related to stigma-related attitudes for the same.

Lower P300 amplitudes for internally-generated events in patients with schizophrenia.

Patients with schizophrenia demonstrate difficulty differentiating internally-generated from externally-generated events. An excessive deployment of attention to external events as well as poor processing of self-generated events has been proposed to explain this misattribution. This study was done to understand the neurophysiological basis of source monitoring bias in schizophrenia.

Altered tryptophan catabolite concentrations in major depressive disorder and associated changes in hippocampal subfield volumes.

Tryptophan depletion is a well-replicated biological finding in Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). The kynurenine pathway (KP) and its rate-limiting tryptophan degrading enzyme, indolamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO), have been implicated in the pathogenesis of depression. IDO expression is driven by inflammatory cytokines, providing a putative link between inflammation and neuropathology. This study exam...

Functional outcome and social cognition in bipolar disorder: Is there a connection?

Interest in social cognition in bipolar disorder (BD) has increased considerably over the past decade, with studies highlighting major impairments, especially in mental state reasoning, even during euthymia. A causal relationship between social cognition deficits and social functioning has already been established in individuals with schizophrenia, but there is still little information about links...

Neuroimaging findings of extensive sphenoethmoidal dysplasia in NF1.

Whereas isolated sphenoid wing dysplasia (SWD) is a well-known clinical feature in neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1), extensive cranial defects involving multiple bones have been rarely reported in this disorder. In this report, we describe the clinical course of a 20-year-old male with NF1 and an extensive cranial bone dysplasia. The large sphenoethmoidal defect was associated with transethmoidal and orb...

Genomic Deletion Involving the IMMP2L Gene in Two Cases of Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Mutations/deletions of the IMMP2L gene have been associated with different cognitive/behavioral disturbances, including autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The penetrance of these defects is not complete since they often are inherited from a healthy parent. Using array-CGH in a cohort of 37 ASD patients, we found 2 subjects harboring a deletion inside the IMMP2L gene. In both cases, the IMMP2L gene d...

Acute Assessment of Traumatic Brain Injury and Post-Traumatic Stress After Exposure to a Deployment-Related Explosive Blast.

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are two of the signature injuries in military service members who have been exposed to explosive blasts during deployments to Iraq and Afghanistan. Acute stress disorder (ASD), which occurs within 2-30 d after trauma exposure, is a more immediate psychological reaction predictive of the later development of PTSD. Most previous ...

Sleep Patterns and Problems Among Army National Guard Soldiers.

Adequate sleep plays an integral role in the physical and mental health of individuals, while simultaneously influencing their cognitive and work performance. Having recognized this, the U.S. Army has focused efforts on improving soldiers' healthy sleep behaviors. This study examines the extent to which mental health, alcohol use, and certain sleep hygiene behaviors predict sleep problems within a...

Macrovascular Decompression of Facial Nerve With Anteromedial Transposition of a Dolichoectatic Vertebral Artery: 3-Dimensional Operative Video.

Most cranial nerve compression syndromes (ie, trigeminal neuralgia and hemifacial spasm) are caused by small arteries impinging on a nerve and are relieved by microvascular decompression. Rarely, cranial nerve compression syndromes can be caused by large artery impingement and can be relieved by macrovascular decompression. When present, this compression often occurs in association with degenerati...

Progression of Mineral Ion Abnormalities in Patients with Jansen's Metaphyseal Chondrodysplasia.

Five different activating PTH/PTHrP receptor (PTHR1) mutations have been reported as causes of Jansen metaphyseal chondrodysplasia (JMC), a rare disorder characterized by severe growth plate abnormalities and PTH-independent hypercalcemia.

Benzodiazepines for Psychosis-Induced Aggression or Agitation.

Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome and Metabolic Diseases.

With the rapid changes of lifestyle in modern society, including high nutritional intake and reduced physical activity, the incidence of metabolic diseases is increasing year by year. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a sleep disorder, usually characterized by sudden pauses of breathing during sleep with interrupted sleep rhythm. Although the pathological mechanism remains poorly understo...

Development and Psychometric Properties of the Inflammatory Bowel Disease Distress Scale (IBD-DS): A New Tool to Measure Disease-Specific Distress.

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) imposes a heavy psychosocial burden, with many patients reporting anxiety, depression, and distress. In diseases such as diabetes, disease-specific distress is associated with concordance with treatments and disease control. IBD distress, distinct from anxiety and depression, is evident in people with IBD. We aimed to develop a questionnaire for assessing IBD-speci...

The Role of Apathy and Depression on Verbal Learning and Memory Performance After Stroke.

Psychiatric symptoms, including depression and apathy, may significantly impede functional and cognitive capabilities following a cerebrovascular event. This study examined the role of apathy and depression on learning and memory performance in stroke patients.

Influences and Impact of Anxiety and Depression in the Setting of Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

Individuals with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are at increased risk of developing anxiety or depression (A&D). Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) with comorbid A&D are both more challenging to manage. IBD providers need to better understand the causes and impact of A&D in order to improve care for IBD patients. We sought to identify clinical factors that influence development of ...

Contribution of mental and physical disorders to disability in military personnel.

Combat operations in Southwest Asia have exposed millions of military personnel to risk of mental disorders and physical injuries, including traumatic brain injury (TBI). The contribution of specific disorders to disability is, however, uncertain.

Structure and Dynamics of Water Confined in Imogolite Nanotubes.

We have studied the properties of water adsorbed inside nanotubes of hydrophilic imogolite, an aluminium silicate clay mineral, by means of molecular simulations. We used a classical force field to describe the water and the flexible imogolite nanotube, and validated it against data obtained from first-principles molecular dynamics. With it, we observe a strong structuration of the water confined ...

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms, Depression Risk, and Quality of Life in Black Pregnant Women.

Experiencing mental health difficulties during pregnancy predicts a variety of quality-of-life (QoL) outcomes for Black women. However, one area of prenatal mental health remains underresearched: attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Given the impairments reported by adults with significant symptoms of ADHD and the linkages between depression and ADHD in nonpregnant samples, the current...

Assessing the Confidence of Australian Mental Health Practitioners in Delivering Therapy to People With Intellectual Disability.

Research supports the use of psychological therapies among people with mild to moderate intellectual disability (ID). One barrier to people with ID accessing psychological treatments is the confidence of mental health practitioners. This article explores the confidence of Australian clinicians in providing therapy to people with ID. One hundred and fifty-two psychologists and counselors in Austral...

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