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Psychiatry Research

09:47 EDT 19th August 2018 | BioPortfolio

Lower Prefrontal and Hippocampal Volume and Diffusion Tensor Imaging Differences Reflect Structural and Functional Abnormalities in Abstinent Individuals with Alcohol Use Disorder.

Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is known to have adverse effects on brain structure and function. Multimodal assessments investigating volumetric, diffusion, and cognitive characteristics may facilitate understanding of the consequences of long-term alcohol use on brain circuitry, their structural impairment patterns, and their impact on cognitive function in AUD.

Emotion-focused therapy for binge-eating disorder: A review of six cases.

This study aimed to provide preliminary evidence of the usefulness of emotion-focused therapy (EFT) for binge-eating disorder (BED).

Dissemination of exposure in the treatment of anxiety disorders and post-traumatic stress disorder among German cognitive behavioural therapists.

The efficacy of exposure is beyond doubt, which is reflected in guidelines recommending its application in the treatment of anxiety disorders and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Research suggests exposure to be underutilized in clinical practice in the United States and Europe. A systematic investigation of the dissemination of exposure in Germany is lacking. The present study examined the ...

Universal Nonphononic Density of States in 2D, 3D, and 4D Glasses.

It is now well established that structural glasses possess disorder- and frustration-induced soft quasilocalized excitations, which play key roles in various glassy phenomena. Recent work has established that in model glass formers in three dimensions, these nonphononic soft excitations may assume the form of quasilocalized, harmonic vibrational modes whose frequency follows a universal density of...

Low-Energy Excitations in Quantum Spin Liquids Identified by Optical Spectroscopy.

The electrodynamic response of organic spin liquids with highly frustrated triangular lattices has been measured in a wide energy range. While the overall optical spectra of these Mott insulators are governed by transitions between the Hubbard bands, distinct in-gap excitations can be identified at low temperatures and frequencies, which we attribute to the quantum-spin-liquid state. For the stron...

Up-regulated miR-192-5p expression rescues cognitive impairment and restores neural function in mice with depression via the Fbln2-mediated TGF-β1 signaling pathway.

Depression represents a condition characterized by cognitive deficits and neural dysfunction and has recently been correlated with microRNAs (miRs) and their respective target genes. The present study was conducted with the goal of investigating the expression of miR-192-5p and its target gene fibulin (Fbln)-2 in an attempt to evaluate their roles in the occurrence and progression of cognitive imp...

Acquired partial lipodystrophy treated with poly-L-lactic acid and hyaluronic acid fillers: a case report.

Acquired partial lipodystrophy (APL), also known as Barraquer-Simons syndrome, is a rare disorder characterized by progressive fat loss in the upper body. Use of poly-L-lactic acid and hyaluronic acid (HA) fillers for the treatment of APL is neither approved by the Food and Drug Administration nor described in the literature. Herein, we describe a case of APL that achieved significant improvement ...

First break psychosis in a young military veteran with cannabis use disorder: an educational case report.

Behavioural sensitization to alcohol: Bridging the gap between preclinical research and human models.

Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is an increasingly prevalent disorder that contributes significantly to the global burden of disease. According to the incentive sensitization theory (IST) of addiction, repeated alcohol exposure produces persistent neuroadaptations that promote the craving, relapse, and drug-taking characteristic of addiction. Critical to the IST model is the prediction that stimulant o...

Aberrant amygdala-dependent fear memory in corticosterone-treated mice.

Anxiety disorder is a major psychiatric disorder characterized by fear, worry, and excessive rumination. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying neural plasticity and anxiety remain unclear. Here, we utilized a mouse model of anxiety-like behaviors induced by the chronic administration of corticosterone (CORT) to determine the exact mechanism of each region of the fear circuits in the anxiety...

Association study of Disrupted-In-Schizophrenia-1 Gene variants and Tardive Dyskinesia.

Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is an involuntary movement disorder that occurs in ~20% of patients after extended antipsychotic use. Its pathophysiology is unclear; however, familial patterns and gene association studies indicate an inherited component to risk. The disrupted in schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) gene was selected for analysis because it interacts with and regulates two important proteins involved i...

The opioid system in stress-induced memory disorders: From basic mechanisms to clinical implications in posttraumatic stress disorder and Alzheimer's disease.

Cognitive and emotional impairment are a serious consequence of stress exposure and are core features of neurological and psychiatric conditions that involve memory disorders. Indeed, acute and chronic stress are high-risk factors for the onset of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD), two devastating brain disorders associated with memory dysfunction. Besides the sympa...

Cortical thickness in major depressive disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Neuroimaging studies assessing neurobiological differences between patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and healthy controls (HC) are often hindered by small sample sizes and heterogeneity of the patient sample. We performed a comprehensive literature search for studies assessing cortical thickness between patient and control groups, including studies investigating treatment effects on co...

Does a novel training in mental imagery reduce pathological worry?

Worry is a verbal and abstract thought activity with only little mental imagery involved. It has been shown that this processing bias leads to hampered emotional processing of worry topics so that worry is maintained in the long run. However, there is some evidence that mental imagery during worrying has the opposite effect: It leads to stronger emotional reactions than verbal thoughts and thereby...

Photodynamic therapy for rosacea in Chinese patients.

Rosacea is a common chronic cutaneous disorder which is characterized by flushing, erythema, papulopustules and telangiectasia. The pathogenesis of the disease is still unknown. A multifaceted approach is necessary to control the disease because of its tendency to relapse. New more effective treatment options are desirable to achieve a complete remission. Aminolevulinic acid-photodynamic therapy (...

Pharmacological treatment for REM sleep behavior disorder in Parkinson disease and related conditions: A scoping review.

Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia characterized by the presence of a complex of signals resulting from the loss of REM sleep atony and manifested by vigorous and sometimes violent motor jerks and nocturnal vocalizations associated with dream enactment. RBD might be a clinical predictor of severity for Parkinson's disease (PD) and one of its most important non-m...

An examination of emotional and loss-of-control eating after sleeve gastrectomy surgery.

Emotional eating has been identified as a predictor of poorer weight loss outcomes in non-bariatric clinical samples. It is unknown, however, whether emotional eating contributes to poorer weight loss outcomes after bariatric surgery or how it might be associated with loss-of-control (LOC) eating, a known predictor of post-surgical outcomes. This study examined the nature and significance of emoti...

Cognitive reappraisal moderates the relationship between PTSD symptoms and alcohol use over time in post-9/11 U.S. military veterans.

Rates of comorbid alcohol use disorder (AUD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are increasing among post-9/11 veterans, and emotion regulation problems have been identified as a feature of both disorders. However, no studies to date have explored how individual differences in emotion regulation may moderate the relationship between PTSD symptoms and alcohol use. We evaluated how two core em...

Effects of induced appearance-related interpretation bias: A test of the cognitive-behavioral model of body dysmorphic disorder.

Interpretation biases are hypothesized to maintain body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). Although their existence and malleability have been investigated in clinical studies, their causal status in the maintenance of BDD remains unclear. This study examined the effects of a single-session appearance-related interpretation bias training (CBM-I) on bias indices and stress reactivity (i.e., distress, appea...

Society, individual, family, and school factors contributing to child mental health in war: The ecological-theory perspective.

Mental health problems are common in war-affected areas, but children have different levels of vulnerability. Based on ecological theory (Bronfenbrenner, 2005), this study analyses how factors related to the child (cognitive capacity), their family (parental depression and parenting styles), and their school (teachers' practices and peer relations) mediate the association between traumatic stress ...

A review of opioid addiction genetics.

Opioid use disorder (OUD) affects millions of people worldwide and the risk of developing the disorder has a significant genetic component according to twin and family studies. Identification of the genetic variants underlying this inherited risk has focused on two different methods: candidate gene studies and genome-wide association studies (GWAS). The most studied candidate genes have included t...

Association between dysfunction of autonomic nervous system activity and mortality in schizophrenia.

Patients with schizophrenia have a higher mortality risk than the general population. Additionally, the autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity of patients with schizophrenia is lower and more dysfunctional than that of the general population. Nonetheless, the association between ANS dysfunction and mortality in schizophrenia is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the association bet...

Moderators and mediators of a maternal depression treatment study: Impact of maternal trauma and parenting on child outcomes.

Treatment of maternal depression with psychotherapy has been shown to confer indirect benefits to school-age offspring with psychiatric disorders. The current study sought to understand mechanisms by which improvement in depressed mothers, with and without histories of trauma and treated with psychotherapy, produce changes in children who struggle with psychiatric illnesses themselves. We hypothes...

Prevalence and correlates of HIV testing and HIV-positive status in the US: Results from the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions III (NESARC-III).

We used the 2012-2013 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions III (NESARC-III), a nationally representative sample of US adults (n = 34,653), to estimate the prevalence and correlates of HIV testing and HIV status. The diagnostic interview used was the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-DSM-5 Version. We found that in 2012-2013, the preval...

Preventing Posttraumatic Stress in ICU Survivors: A Single-Center Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial of ICU Diaries and Psychoeducation.

Critical illness can have a significant psychological impact on patients and their families. To inform the design of a larger trial, we assessed feasibility of ICU diaries and psychoeducation to prevent posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety following ICU stays.

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