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Psychiatry Research

23:17 EST 19th February 2018 | BioPortfolio

Protocol investigating the clinical utility of an objective measure of attention, impulsivity and activity (QbTest) for optimising medication management in children and young people with ADHD 'QbTest Utility for Optimising Treatment in ADHD' (QUOTA): a feasibility randomised controlled trial.

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterised by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. To improve outcomes, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence ADHD guidelines recommend regular monitoring of symptoms when children commence medication. However, research suggests that routine monitoring rarely happens, and clinicians often rely on subjective in...

Depression and obesity: evidence of shared biological mechanisms.

Depression and obesity are common conditions with major public health implications that tend to co-occur within individuals. The relationship between these conditions is bidirectional: the presence of one increases the risk for developing the other. It has thus become crucial to gain a better understanding of the mechanisms responsible for the intertwined downward physiological spirals associated ...

Circulating cell-free mitochondrial DNA, but not leukocyte mitochondrial DNA copy number, is elevated in major depressive disorder.

Major depressive disorder (MDD) has been linked to mitochondrial defects, which could manifest in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) polymorphisms or mutations. Additionally, copy number of mtDNA (mtDNA-cn) can be quantified in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC)s, indirectly reflecting cellular energetics, or in the circulating cell-free mtDNA (ccf-mtDNA) levels, which may reflect a fraction of the ...

Alterations in interhemispheric gamma-band connectivity are related to the emergence of auditory verbal hallucinations in healthy subjects during NMDA-receptor blockade.

Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) are a common positive symptom of schizophrenia. Excitatory-to-inhibitory (E/I) imbalance related to disturbed N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) functioning has been suggested as a possible mechanism underlying altered connectivity and AVH in schizophrenia. The current study examined the effects of ketamine, a NMDAR antagonist, on glutamate-related mechanism...

Altered prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response in BDNF-deficient mice in a model of early postnatal hypoxia: implications for schizophrenia.

The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a major proliferative agent in the nervous system. Both BDNF-deficiency and perinatal hypoxia represent genetic/environmental risk factors for schizophrenia. Moreover, a decreased BDNF response to birth hypoxia was associated with the disease. BDNF expression is influenced by neuronal activity and environmental conditions such as hypoxia. Thus, it ma...

Illness Beliefs, Treatment Beliefs and Information Needs as Starting Points for Patient Information: The Evaluation of an Intervention for Patients with Depression.

Patients with depression are often dissatisfied with disease- and therapy-related information. The objective of this study was to evaluate an intervention that applied the Common Sense Model to the provision of information during inpatient rehabilitation for patients with depression. The intervention was evaluated in a sequential control group design. Analyses of covariance were used to assess dif...

Problem and Pathological Gambling in Schizophrenia: Exploring Links with Substance Use and Impulsivity.

High rates of both problem and pathological gambling (PPG) and substance-use disorders (SUDs) have been reported in schizophrenia, and yet PPG frequently goes undetected in clinical practice and unexamined in research. Here, we aimed to examine the relationship between PPG and SUDs in a large sample of patients across several factors related to both gambling and substance use, including poly-subst...

Evaluating the impact of spirituality on the quality of life, anxiety, and depression among patients with cancer: an observational transversal study.

Spiritual well-being was found to have some protective effect against end-of life despair in cancer patients. We aimed at assessing the impact of spirituality on the quality of life, depression, and anxiety of Lebanese cancer patients.

Factor Structure and Psychometric Properties of the Thoughts About Psychotherapy Survey in a Parent Sample.

Researchers have noted that treatment fearfulness (e.g., embarrassment or negative attitudes) causes individuals to avoid seeking therapy. The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Thoughts About Psychotherapy Survey (TAPS; Kushner and Sher in Prof Psychol Res Prac 20(4):251-257, 1989) in a sample of parents. This study also examined differences in therapy fears a...

Family Experiences with the Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder: System Barriers and Facilitators of Efficient Diagnosis.

This paper examines family experiences with the efficiency of ASD diagnosis. Children were age 8 or younger with ASD (n = 450). Outcomes were delay from first parent concern to diagnosis, shifting diagnoses, and being told child did not have ASD. Predictors were screening, travel distance, and problems finding providers. Logit models were used to examine associations. Screening was associated ...

Brief Report: When Large Becomes Slow: Zooming-Out Visual Attention Is Associated to Orienting Deficits in Autism.

Previous studies independently demonstrated impairments in rapid orienting/disengagement and zooming-out of spatial attention in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). These attentional mechanisms, however, are not completely independent. Aiming at a more complete picture of spatial attention deficits in ASD, we examined the relationship between orienting and zooming in participants with ASD and typicall...

Exploring the Effectiveness of a Peer-Mediated Model of the PEERS Curriculum: A Pilot Randomized Control Trial.

This study compared immediate and 4-month outcomes among adolescents with autism spectrum disorder randomly assigned to the PEERS curriculum (n = 10), a peer mediated PEERS curriculum (n = 12), or a delayed treatment control group (n = 12). Findings suggest a modest advantage in social skills knowledge and social functioning for participants in the peer-mediated PEERS curriculum relati...

Prediction of Autism at 3 Years from Behavioural and Developmental Measures in High-Risk Infants: A Longitudinal Cross-Domain Classifier Analysis.

We integrated multiple behavioural and developmental measures from multiple time-points using machine learning to improve early prediction of individual Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) outcome. We examined Mullen Scales of Early Learning, Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, and early ASD symptoms between 8 and 36 months in high-risk siblings (HR; n = 161) and low-risk controls (LR; n = 71). ...

Prevalence of DSM-5 Autism Spectrum Disorder Among School-Based Children Aged 3-12 Years in Shanghai, China.

We estimated the prevalence of ASD in a population-based sample comprising children aged 3-12 years (N = 74,252) in Shanghai. This included a high-risk group sampled from special education schools and a low-risk group randomly sampled from general schools. First, we asked parents and then teachers to complete the Social Communication Questionnaire for participating children. Children who scre...

Arrestins: structural disorder creates rich functionality.

Arrestins are soluble relatively small 44-46 kDa proteins that specifically bind hundreds of active phosphorylated GPCRs and dozens of non-receptor partners. There are binding partners that demonstrate preference for each of the known arrestin conformations: free, receptor-bound, and microtubule-bound. Recent evidence suggests that conformational flexibility in every functional state is the defini...

Lifelong robbery victimisation and mental disorders at age 18 years: Brazilian population-based study.

Urban violence is a major problem in Brazil and may contribute to mental disorders among victims. The aim of this study was to assess the association between robbery victimisation and mental health disorders in late adolescence.

Living-donor liver transplantation for mild Zellweger spectrum disorder: Up to 17 years follow-up.

Mild Zellweger spectrum disorder, also described as Infantile Refsum disease, is attributable to mutations in PEX genes. Its clinical course is characterized by progressive hearing and vision loss, and neurodevelopmental regression. Supportive management is currently considered the standard of care, as no treatment has shown clinical benefits. LT was shown to correct levels of circulating toxic me...

Sleep disorder prevalence in at-risk adolescents and potential effects of nightmare triad syndrome.

Objective At-risk high school students, those considered to have a higher probability for academic failure or dropping out, were assessed for various sleep disorders. Effects were compared between students with and without the nightmare triad syndrome (NTS+), the sleep disorders' cluster of frequent nightmares, insomnia disorder and suspected sleep-disordered breathing (SDB). Methods Data were gat...

Indices of repetitive behaviour are correlated with patterns of intrinsic functional connectivity in youth with autism spectrum disorder.

The purpose of the current study was to examine how repetitive behaviour in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is related to intrinsic functional connectivity patterns in a number of large-scale, neural networks. Resting-state fMRI scans from thirty subjects with ASD and thirty-two age-matched, typically developing control subjects were analysed. Seed-to-voxel and ROI-to-ROI functional connectivity an...

Sex-related differences in the association between grip strength and depression: Results from the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing.

Muscular strength is a modifiable protective factor for mental health across aging populations. Evidence of sex-related differences in its associations with mental health is limited. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine sex-related differences in cross-sectional and prospective associations between grip strength and depressive symptoms and status. Participants were community dwellin...

Add-on high frequency deep transcranial magnetic stimulation (dTMS) to bilateral prefrontal cortex in depressive episodes of patients with Major Depressive Disorder, Bipolar Disorder I, and Major Depressive with Alcohol Use Disorders.

Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is critically involved in mood and alcohol use disorders.

Association of polymorphic variants of IL-1β and IL-1RN genes in the development of Graves' disease in Kashmiri population (North India).

Graves' disease (GD) is a multigenic, organ specific autoimmune disorder with a strong genetic predisposition and IL-1β has been shown to be involved in its pathogenesis. The present study was aimed to determine the genetic associations between polymorphisms of IL-1β gene promoter region (-511T>C) (rs16944), exon 5 (+3954C>T) (rs1143634) and IL-1RN gene VNTR (rs2234663) polymorphism in patients ...

Nutraceuticals as therapeutic agents for atherosclerosis.

Atherosclerosis, a chronic inflammatory disorder of medium and large arteries and an underlying cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD), is responsible for a third of all global deaths. Current treatments for CVD, such as optimized statin therapy, are associated with considerable residual risk and several side effects in some patients. The outcome of research on the identification of alternative pha...

Anxiety, depression, and asthma control: Changes after standardized treatment.

It has been documented that anxiety and depression are prevalent in patients with asthma and are associated with greater frequency of exacerbations, increased use of health-care resources, and poor asthma control.

Self-reported inhibition predicts history of suicide attempts in bipolar disorder and major depression.

Studies have reliably identified an association between suicide attempts and executive functions such as decision making (DM) and inhibitory control (IC) in patients with mood disorders. As such, the present study aimed to investigate the association between inhibition, DM, impulsivity and the history of suicide attempts in individuals with bipolar (BD) or major depressive disorder (MDD), identify...

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