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Public Health Research

08:31 EDT 24th May 2018 | BioPortfolio

Oleoylethanolamide increases the expression of PPAR-Α and reduces appetite and body weight in obese people: A clinical trial.

Obesity is a crucial public health problem worldwide and is considered as the main cause of many chronic diseases. The present study evaluated the effects of Oleoylethanolamide (OEA) supplementation on proximal proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPAR-α) gene expression, appetite sensations, and anthropometric measurements in obese people. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinica...

The Association of Disease Activity, Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines, and Neurotrophic Factors with Depression in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis.

Inflammation and trophic factors (brain-derived neurotrophic factor [BDNF], vascular endothelial growth factor, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, and insulin-like growth factor-1) are associated with depression in the general population. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic representative inflammatory autoimmune disease; however, the association of disease activity, pro-inflammatory c...

Monomicrobial Klebsiella pneumoniae necrotizing fasciitis - an emerging life threatening entity.

Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) although rare, is a potentially fatal infection. Majority of cases being polymicrobial; a recent surge in monomicrobial NF caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae (KP-NF) has been reported. KP-NF recently accounted for an average of 16% amongst all pathogens with highest mortality rate of 60%. This review discusses the important aspects of KP-NF with additional note on implicati...

Human pegivirus persistence in the human blood virome after allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

As commensal viruses are defined by the immunological tolerance afforded to them, any immunomodulation, such as is received during haematopoietic stem cell transplantation, may shift the demarcation between innocuous viral resident and disease-causing pathogen.

Understanding the microbiome of diabetic foot osteomyelitis: insights from molecular and microscopic approaches.

Rigorous visual evidence on whether or not biofilms are involved in diabetic foot osteomyelitis (DFO) is lacking. We employed a suite of molecular and microscopic approaches to investigate the microbiome, and phenotypic state of microorganisms involved in DFO.

Diagnosis of bloodstream infections from positive blood cultures and directly from blood samples: recent developments in molecular approaches.

Bloodstream infections are a major cause of death with increasing incidence and severity. Blood cultures are still the gold standard for microbiological diagnosis, but are rather slow. Molecular methods can be used as add-on complementary assays. They can be useful to speed up microbial identification and to predict antimicrobial susceptibility, applied to direct blood samples or positive blood cu...

Invasive Mold Disease in Hematologic Patients: Comparison between Fusariosis and Aspergillosis.

To compare the epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment and outcome of hematologic patients with invasive aspergillosis (IA) or invasive fusariosis (IF).

Refugees' admission to mental health institutions in Norway: Is there an ethnic density effect?

Some recent European research claims that immigrants settle in urban areas with low scores on level-of-living conditions and a high prevalence of health-risk factors, and that these settlement patterns adversely affect their health. Other studies question the association between immigrant segregation and area deprivation on one hand, and negative health outcomes on the other hand, and identify pos...

Association between the ratio of serum arachidonic acid to eicosapentaenoic acid and the presence of depressive symptoms in a general Japanese population: the Hisayama Study.

Epidemiological evidence suggests that fish consumption and intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)-namely, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-confer protection against depression. However, few studies have addressed the influence of the balance between n-3 PUFA and n-6 PUFA in the human body on depression.

Public perceptions toward mental illness in Japan.

The purpose was to characterize public perceptions in Japan of mental illness and how they related to stigma-related attitudes for the same.

Gender, self-rated health and functional decline among community-dwelling older adults.

This paper examines the association between self-rated health (SRH) and functional decline (FD) in older Ghanaian cohorts and investigates whether the effect differs by gender and also modified by marital status.

Injection drug use, HIV/HCV, and related services in nonurban areas of the United States: A systematic review.

Injection drug use (IDU) in nonurban areas of the United States is a growing public health concern, but there has been no comprehensive assessment of existing research on injection-related HIV and hepatitis C (HCV) in nonurban communities. We conducted a systematic review to assess the current literature and identify knowledge gaps.

Rethink potential risks of toxic emissions from natural gas and oil mining.

Studies have showed the increasing environmental and public health risks of toxic emissions from natural gas and oil mining, which have become even worse as fracking is becoming a dominant approach in current natural gas extraction. However, governments and communities often overlook the serious air pollutants from oil and gas mining, which are often quantified lower than the significant levels of...

Pediatric Investigators Collaborative Network on Infections in Canada (PICNIC) Study of Respiratory Syncytial Virus-Associated Deaths in Pediatric Patients in Canada: 2003 to 2013.

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of pneumonia and bronchiolitis in children. Mortality rates in previously healthy children hospitalized with RSV are < 0.5%, but up to 37% in patients with underlying medical conditions. The objective of this study was to characterize factors associated with deaths among children hospitalized with RSV infection in Canadian pediatric centres.

Mycoplasma Pneumoniae among Children Hospitalized with Community-acquired Pneumonia.

The burden and epidemiology of Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mp) among U.S. children (

Frailty, Neurocognitive Impairment, or Both in Predicting Poor Health Outcomes Among Adults Living with HIV.

Neurocognitive impairment (NCI) is strongly associated with frailty in people living with HIV (PLWH); the overlap of frailty and NCI, and the impact on health outcomes in PLWH is unknown.

Reply to Garcia-Granja, et al.

Molecular epidemiology of Candida auris in Colombia reveals a highly-related, country-wide colonization with regional patterns in Amphotericin B resistance.

Candida auris is a multidrug-resistant yeast associated with hospital outbreaks worldwide. During 2015-2016, multiple outbreaks were reported in Colombia. We aimed to understand the extent of contamination in healthcare settings and to characterize the molecular epidemiology of C. auris in Colombia.

Rabies Pre-exposure Prophylaxis: Application of Updated WHO Position to Travelers.

Clinical implications of asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum infections in Malawi.

Asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum infections are common in Malawi, however, the implications of these infections for the burden of malaria illness are unknown. Whether asymptomatic infections eventually progress to malaria illness, persist without causing symptoms, or clear spontaneously remains undetermined. We identified asymptomatic infections and evaluated the associations between persistent ...

Control of Multidrug-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Recipients by a Novel Bundle Including Remodeling of Sanitary and Water Supply Systems.

Educating Australian musicians: are we playing it safe?

The effectiveness of health promotion through arts engagement, and the health benefits and social importance of music in particular, are becoming increasingly recognized. However, like sport, music-making is an athletic endeavour, one that often involves high physiological and psychological loadings on the bodies and minds of musicians. Research over the past 30 years has revealed alarming rates o...

Efficacy of anthelminthic drugs and drug combinations against soil-transmitted helminths: a systematic review and network meta-analysis.

Periodic mass distribution of benzimidazole anthelminthic drugs is the key strategy to control soil-transmitted helminths (STH) globally. However, benzimidazoles have low efficacy against Trichuris trichiura, and there are concerns about benzimidazole resistance potentially emerging in humans. Therefore, identifying alternative drug regimens is a pressing priority. We present a systematic review a...

Effects of Immunonutrition in Advanced HIV Disease: a Randomized Placebo Controlled Clinical Trial (Promaltia Study).

While nutritional interventions with prebiotics and probiotics seem to exert immunological effects, their clinical implications in HIV-infected subjects initiating ART at advanced HIV disease remain unclear.

Histological and Molecular Adipose Tissue Changes are related to Metabolic Syndrome rather than Lipodystrophy in HIV-infected Patients-A Cross-Sectional Study.

In HIV-infected patients on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), lipodystrophy shares many similarities with metabolic syndrome, but only metabolic syndrome has objective classification criteria. We examined adipose tissue changes related to lipodystrophy and metabolic syndrome to clarify whether it may be acceptable to focus diagnosis on metabolic syndrome rather than lipodystrophy.

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