Public Health Research

11:52 EDT 23rd October 2018 | BioPortfolio

Smoking induces coordinated DNA methylation and gene expression changes in adipose tissue with consequences for metabolic health.

Tobacco smoking is a risk factor for multiple diseases, including cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Many smoking-associated signals have been detected in the blood methylome, but the extent to which these changes are widespread to metabolically relevant tissues, and impact gene expression or metabolic health, remains unclear.

Facial Nerve Paralysis.

Patients afflicted with facial paralysis suffer significant physical and psychosocial effects that can lead to depression and social isolation. Timely diagnosis and initiation of appropriate therapy are keys to achieving good outcomes in the management of facial paralysis. Eye protection is of paramount importance to prevent vision loss in patients with impaired eye closure. Patients should be ass...

Comparison of consumers' perspectives on different health information exchange (HIE) mechanisms: an experimental study.

Consumers' willingness to allow the distribution of their health data is a prerequisite for the success of any health information exchange (HIE) initiative. Several mechanisms are being used by healthcare organizations to exchange health information electronically. Our goal is to investigate how patients' preferences regarding information exchange (i.e., privacy concern, opt-in intention, and perc...

Connecting healthcare and clinical research: Workflow optimizations through seamless integration of EHR, pseudonymization services and EDC systems.

In the last years, several projects promote the secondary use of routine healthcare data based on electronic health record (EHR) data. In multicenter studies, dedicated pseudonymization services are applied for unified pseudonym handling. Healthcare, clinical research and pseudonymization systems are generally disconnected. Hence, the aim of this research work is to integrate these applications an...

Detection of mental fatigue state with wearable ECG devices.

Overwork-related disorders, such as cerebrovascular/cardiovascular diseases (CCVD) and mental disorders due to overwork, are a major occupational and public health issue worldwide, particularly in East Asian countries. Since wearable smart devices are inexpensive, convenient, popular and widely available today, we were interested in investigating the possibility of using wearable smart electrocard...

Anglicization of hospital information systems: Managing diversity alongside particularity.

Despite widespread efforts to improve the quality and safety of healthcare through use of hospital information systems (HIS), many healthcare organizations face challenges in implementation and effective use of these applications, in particular when systems have been developed internationally (mainly in the US). Suppliers of these technologies also find it challenging to produce systems that work ...

Bring-your-own-device in medical schools and healthcare facilities: A review of the literature.

Enabling personal mobile device use through a bring-your-own device (BYOD) policy can potentially save significant costs for medical schools and healthcare facilities, as they would not always have to acquire facility-owned devices. The BYOD policy is also perceived as a driver for balancing user needs for convenience with institutional needs for security. However, there seems to be a paucity in t...

Genomic and Phenomic Research in the 21st Century.

The field of human genomics has changed dramatically over time. Initial genomic studies were predominantly restricted to rare disorders in small families. Over the past decade, researchers changed course from family-based studies and instead focused on common diseases and traits in populations of unrelated individuals. With further advancements in biobanking, computer science, electronic health re...

Capillary leak syndrome secondary to decompression sickness: A case report.

Capillary leak syndrome is a rare type of decompression sickness (DCS) that may be responsible for hypovolemic shock with edema.

Occult rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis: better assays are needed.

Outbreak of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in South Africa undetected by WHO-endorsed commercial tests: an observational study.

Global roll-out of rapid molecular assays is revolutionising the diagnosis of rifampicin resistance, predictive of multidrug-resistance, in tuberculosis. However, 30% of the multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains in an eSwatini study harboured the Ile491Phe mutation in the rpoB gene, which is associated with poor rifampicin-based treatment outcomes but is missed by commercial molecular assays or scored...

Monetary incentives for smoking cessation in workplaces.

Effect of a workplace-based group training programme combined with financial incentives on smoking cessation: a cluster-randomised controlled trial.

Financial incentives are potentially useful tools to aid smoking cessation, but robust evidence to support their efficacy, particularly in combination with other interventions (eg, group counselling), has not been reported. We aimed to investigate whether financial incentives combined with a smoking cessation group training programme (compared with a training programme with no incentives) organise...

What Interventions Improve Outcomes for the Patient Who Is Depressed and in Pain?

The purpose of this clinical consultation is to offer nurses evidence-based strategies to provide holistic care to their patients with comorbid depression and pain. The combination of depression and pain is common and, if not managed effectively, has negative outcomes. Treatment-resistance is one negative outcome. The worst-case scenario for unrelieved depression and/or pain is suicide.

How do we assess a racial disparity in health? Distribution, interaction, and interpretation in epidemiological studies.

Identifying the exposures or interventions that exacerbate or ameliorate racial health disparities is one of the fundamental goals of social epidemiology. Introducing an interaction term between race and an exposure into a statistical model is commonly used in the epidemiologic literature to assess racial health disparities and the potential viability of a targeted health intervention. However, re...

Sampling for disease absence-deriving informed monitoring from epidemic traits.

Monitoring for disease requires subsets of the host population to be sampled and tested for the pathogen. If all the samples return healthy, what are the chances the disease was present but missed? In this paper, we developed a statistical approach to solve this problem considering the fundamental property of infectious diseases: their growing incidence in the host population. The model gives an e...

Correction to Lancet Glob Health 2018; 6: e1139.

Estimating the cost of vaccine development against epidemic infectious diseases: a cost minimisation study.

The Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations was established in 2016, to develop vaccines that can contribute to preparedness for outbreaks of epidemic infectious diseases. Evidence on vaccine development costs for such diseases is scarce. Our goal was to estimate the minimum cost for achieving vaccine research and development preparedness targets in a portfolio of 11 epidemic infectious di...

The cost and challenge of vaccine development for emerging and emergent infectious diseases.

IncFII plasmid carrying antimicrobial resistance genes in Shigella flexneri: Vehicle for dissemination.

Plasmids harboring antimicrobial resistance determinants in clinical strains are the significant public health concern worldwide. The present study investigated for such plasmids in clinical Shigella flexneri isolates.

Healthcare resource use in XALIA: A subgroup analysis of a non-interventional study of rivaroxaban versus standard anticoagulation for deep vein thrombosis.

The non-interventional XALIA study compared the safety and effectiveness of rivaroxaban with standard anticoagulation for the treatment of venous thromboembolism in routine clinical practice. This substudy assessed the effect of treatment with rivaroxaban on healthcare resource use, hospital length of stay (LOS) and frequency of hospitalisation.

Amygdala Activation and Connectivity to Emotional Processing Distinguishes Asymptomatic Patients With Bipolar Disorders and Unipolar Depression.

Mechanistically based neural markers, such as amygdala reactivity, offer one approach to addressing the challenges of differentiating bipolar and unipolar depressive disorders independently from mood state and acute symptoms. Although emotion-elicited amygdala reactivity has been found to distinguish patients with bipolar depression from patients with unipolar depression, it remains unknown whethe...

Mild to moderate chronic kidney disease and functional disability in community-dwelling older adults. The Cardiovascular risk profile in Renal patients of the Italian Health Examination Survey (CARHES) study.

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) negatively impacts aging success. This study evaluates the association between CKD and functional disability, defined as limitations in performing mobility tasks, basic (ADLs) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs), in a population-based sample of older adults. In particular, we examined whether such a relationship extended to mild-moderate CKD stages (G1-...

The effect of United Kingdom immigration policies on migrant access to sexual and reproductive healthcare.

Toxic layering through three disciplinary lenses: childhood poisoning and street pesticide use in Cape Town, South Africa.

This article focuses on the devastating hidden perils of agricultural pesticides repurposed by informal sellers in urban South African townships to kill rats and other unwanted pests. Drawing on collaborative research techniques, we investigate the causal relationship between child poisoning episodes and the household use of illegal street pesticides. Such pesticides are used to safeguard homes fr...

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