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Public Health Research

21:26 EDT 21st August 2018 | BioPortfolio

Exposure to Ultraviolet Radiation in the Modulation of Human Diseases.

This review focuses primarily on the beneficial effects for human health of exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR). UVR stimulates anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive pathways in skin that modulate psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, and vitiligo; suppresses cutaneous lesions of graft-versus-host disease; and regulates some infection and vaccination outcomes. While polymorphic light eruption and th...

Zika Virus Seropositivity in 1-4-Year-Old Children, Indonesia, 2014.

We assessed Zika virus seroprevalence among healthy 1-4-year-old children using a serum sample collection assembled in 2014 representing 30 urban sites across Indonesia. Of 662 samples, 9.1% were Zika virus seropositive, suggesting widespread recent Zika virus transmission and immunity. Larger studies are needed to better determine endemicity in Indonesia.

High mortality for cervical cancer in young women from the Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires.

The cervical cancer, which is a reliable indicator of social inequality, remains a major public health issue in Argentina. It is generally accepted that its frequency among young women is low, being the most exposed those over 35 years old. Nevertheless, as gynecologic oncologists, we have been accompanying young patients to their death, mostly women with neither access to screening strategies nor...

Diabetic foot among hospitalized patients in Latin America.

The diabetic foot is a complex condition. Along its course, it may require primary health care at the beginning, tertiary health care when more severe complications arise, and hospitalization when specialized management involving complex diagnostic and therapeutic procedures becomes peremptory. Determining frequencies of diabetic foot in hospitalized patients provides baseline data on the status o...

Description of the first sleeping sickness case diagnosed in Burkina Faso since two decades.

Burkina Faso belongs to a group of countries in which human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense, is no longer considered to be a public health problem. Although no native cases have been detected since 1993, there is still the risk of HAT re-emergence due to significant population movements between Burkina Faso and active HAT foci in Côte d'Ivoire. Since 2014, Bu...

Longitudinal Trends and Variation in Antipsychotic Use in Older Adults After Cardiac Surgery.

To evaluate temporal trends and between-hospital variation in off-label antipsychotic medication (APM) use in older adults undergoing cardiac surgery.

A Year of Proud Achievements for The Journal of Rural Health: The Article of the Year, Top Reviewers, and Citation Impact Factor.

Alcohol outlet density and alcohol related hospital admissions in England: a national small-area level ecological study.

Excessive alcohol consumption has a substantial impact on public health services. A key element determining alcohol availability is alcohol outlet density. This study investigated the relationship between on-trade and off-trade outlets and hospital admission rates in local neighbourhoods.

Intestinal Parasitism and Nutritional Status among Indigenous Children from the Argentinian Atlantic Forest: Determinants of enteroparasites infections in Minority Populations.

Intestinal parasitoses, especially in the less favored populations of tropical and subtropical areas, are a scourge of high impact in public health. We conducted a cross-sectional survey to investigate the prevalence of helminths and protozoa pathogens, malnutrition, and their determinants in children from indigenous Mbyá Guaraní villages of Iguazú, in the subtropical Atlantic Forest of Argenti...

Inadequate use of antibiotics and increase in neonatal sepsis caused by resistant bacteria related to health care assistance: a systematic review.

Technologies and life support management have enhanced the survival of preterm infants. The immune system of newborns is immature, which contributes to the occurrence of healthcare-associated infections (HAI). The overlap of several conditions with neonatal sepsis and the difficulty of diagnosis and laboratory confirmation during this period result in a tendency to over-treat neonatal sepsis. The ...

Epidemiology of ACHD: What Has Changed and What Is Changing?

The worldwide population of adults with congenital heart disease (ACHD) has grown steadily over the last few decades, estimated at approximately 1.4 million people in 2010.(Gilboa et al., 2016 Innovations in surgical and medical treatment of children with congenital heart disease (CCHD) have dramatically improved survival, resulting in a growing population of ACHD patients with unique health needs...

Adherence to Pre-exposure Prophylaxis among Men Who have Sex with Men: A Prospective Cohort Study.

To evaluate the adherence to pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in a clinical trial of a population of men who have sex with men (MSM), to explore the influence of social psychology and objective factors (e.g., forgetting, too busy,) on adherence and to provide evidence for subsequent PrEP research.

Incremental yield and cost of urine Determine TB-LAM and sputum induction in seriously ill adults with HIV.

Tuberculosis is a major cause of mortality among HIV-infected inpatients and WHO (2016) recommends an algorithm to improve diagnosis. Urine lateral flow lipoarabinomannan (LAM) and sputum Xpert MTB/RIF are promising tools but the optimal diagnostic algorithm is unclear.

Tigecycline salvage therapy for critically ill children with multidrug-resistant/extensively drug-resistant infections after surgery.

The aim was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of salvage therapy of tigecycline in critically ill children after surgery with infections caused by MDR/XDR bacteria.

Delayed diagnosis of colorectal sexually transmitted diseases due to their resemblance to inflammatory bowel diseases.

Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), mainly LGV (lymphogranuloma venereum) induces colorectal symptoms that may be misdiagnosed as inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). To understand missed diagnosis of colorectal STDs and their association with LGV in Israel we describe patients that presented with STDs masquerading as IBD.

Towards a theory-led meta-framework for considering socioeconomic health inequalities within systematic reviews.

To develop a theory-led framework to inform reviewers' understanding of what, how and why healthcare interventions may lead to differential effects across socio-economic groups.

Early childhood aggressive behaviour: Negative interactions with paternal antisocial behaviour and maternal postpartum depressive symptoms across two international cohorts.

Early childhood aggressive behaviour is a predictor of future violence. Therefore, identifying risk factors for children's aggressive behaviour is important in understanding underlying mechanisms. Maternal postpartum depression is a known risk factor. However, little research has focused on the influence of paternal behaviour on early childhood aggression and its interaction with maternal postpart...

A randomized controlled trial of three smartphone apps for enhancing public mental health.

Many smartphone applications (apps) for mental health (MHapps) are available to the public. However, few have been the subject of a randomized controlled trial (RCT), and the change processes that are hypothesized to mediate claimed effects have not been previously studied. This RCT compared the efficacy of three publicly available MHapps to a waitlist control condition in a community sample, in w...

Evidence of risks of renal function reduction due to occupational exposure to agrochemicals: A systematic review.

Agriculture accountsfor an important economic activity worldwide and the search for the increased productivity incorporated the use of pesticides in this practice. Such compounds have significant environmental and human health effects, especially for workers exposed to them. Among the main health problems caused by pesticides are the renal alterations, which in more advanced stages comprise an imp...

Low sense of coherence is associated with anxiety among adults: Results based on data from all 47 prefectures of Japan.

Anxiety disorder is a major societal, economic, and healthcare burden, so it is essential to identify underlying risk factors. Sense of coherence (SOC), defined as an individual's perceived ability to control events and cope with challenges, is strongly associated with healthcare outcomes.

Informing public attitudes to non-potable water reuse - The impact of message framing.

Water reuse is of increasing relevance for water-stressed regions but is often considered a contentious option. Research has shown that providing the public with information about reuse options can impact positively on its acceptability, although such impacts can be confined to specific groups. In this context, there is growing interest in understanding the impact of different forms and mechanisms...

Frailty differences in older adults' use of informal and formal care.

This study examines different combinations of informal and formal care use of older adults and investigates whether these combinations differ in terms of need for care (physical and psychological frailty) and enabling factors for informal and formal care use (social and environmental frailty).

Health status and associated factors among the community-dwelling elderly women in China.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the health status and associated factors of the elderly women in China. A cross-sectional survey from cluster random sampling method was performed between March 2013 and December 2013. 1910 elderly people aged 60 years and over were selected in a community of Nanjing, China, including 977 elderly women. The self-designed elderly health assessment scale que...

The effect of environmental lead exposure on human health and the contribution of inflammatory mechanisms, a review.

Lead (Pb) pollution has been considered as a major threat for human health due to induction of inflammatory cascades in various tissues. The aim of present review is to summarize the literature on the effects of lead exposure on respiratory, neurologic, digestive, cardiovascular and urinary disorders and the role of inflammation as an underlying mechanism for these effects. Various databases such ...

Antidepressant fluoxetine induces multiple antibiotics resistance in Escherichia coli via ROS-mediated mutagenesis.

Antibiotic resistance poses a great threat to global public health. Overuse of antibiotics is generally considered as the major factor contributing to it. However, little is known about whether non-antibiotic drugs could play potential roles in the emergence of antibiotic resistance.

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