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Pulmonary Hypertension Research

04:29 EDT 23rd March 2019 | BioPortfolio

Tailored nanocarriers for the pulmonary delivery of levofloxacin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa: a comparative study.

Cystic fibrosis (CF) patients are faced with chronic bacterial infections displaying persistent resistance if not eradicated during the first stage of the disease. Nanoantibiotics for pulmonary administration, such as liposomal ciprofloxacin or amikacin, have progressed through clinics thanks to their sustained release, prolonged lung residence time and low systemic absorption. In this work, we so...

BCG overexpressing an endogenous STING agonist provides enhanced protection against pulmonary tuberculosis.

STING is a key cytosolic receptor for small nucleotides and plays a key role in anti-cancer and antiviral immunity. Cyclic dinucleotide STING agonists may comprise a novel class of vaccine adjuvants capable of inducing cellular immune responses and protective efficacy against intracellular pathogens.

Apelin peptides linked to anti-serum albumin domain antibodies retain affinity in vitro and are efficacious receptor agonists in vivo.

The apelin receptor is a potential target in the treatment of heart failure and pulmonary arterial hypertension where levels of endogenous apelin peptides are reduced but significant receptor levels remain. Our aim was to characterise the pharmacology of a modified peptide agonist, MM202, designed to have high affinity for the apelin receptor and resistance to peptidase degradation and linked to a...

Role of T-cell Activation in Salt-sensitive Hypertension.

The contributions of T lymphocytes to the pathogenesis of salt-sensitive hypertension has been well established. Under hypertensive stimuli, naïve T cells develop into different subsets, including Th1, Th2, Th17, Treg and cytotoxic CD8 T cells, depending on the surrounding microenviroment in organs. Distinct subsets of T cells may play totally different roles in tissue damage and hypertension. Th...

Four-dimensional Flow MRI: Principles and Cardiovascular Applications.

In-plane phase-contrast (PC) imaging is now a routine component of MRI of regional blood flow in the heart and great vessels. In-plane PC MRI provides a volumetric, isotropic, time-resolved cine sequence that enables three-directional velocity encoding, a technique known as four-dimensional (4D) flow MRI. Recent advances in 4D flow MRI have shortened imaging times, while progress in big-data proce...

A Novel Arterial Line Simulation Model.

With damage control surgery and resuscitation teams, the military is bringing surgical as well as intensive care far forward to areas where mass casualty events are an ever-present threat. One procedure that the team is required to be proficient in is arterial line insertion and transducing. To our knowledge, there are no previously described field arterial line simulation models. We present an ar...

Silicosis: Diagnosis and Medicolegal Implications.

Despite well-publicized sources of occupational hazard, silicosis continues to threaten industrial workers in the United States. We performed a retrospective search of the University of Wisconsin electronic pathology database to retrieve autopsy cases of silicosis and collaborated with the Wisconsin Department of Health Services to obtain statewide epidemiologic data regarding silicosis morbidity/...

Neurogenic pulmonary edema following seizures: A retrospective computed tomography study.

Data on the frequency and clinical relevance of neurogenic pulmonary edema (NPE) following epileptic seizures are limited. The aim of the present study was to analyze computed tomography (CT) examinations in patients with previous seizures.

The protective effect of oleanolic acid on NMDA-induced MLE-12 cells apoptosis and lung injury in mice by activating SIRT1 and reducing NF-κB acetylation.

Overactivation of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor promotes oxidative stress, aggravates the inflammatory response and induces excitotoxic lung injury. NMDA is a synthetic agonist that selectively activates the NMDA receptor. Oleanolic acid (OA) is a natural anti-inflammatory and antioxidant compound. This study investigated the effect and possible mechanism of OA on NMDA-induced acute lun...

Leptin mediates the relationship between fat mass and blood pressure: The Hamamatsu School-based health study.

Animal studies have shown that leptin mediates the association between obesity and hypertension. However, only a few studies have assessed this relationship in population-based epidemiological studies. This study aimed to determine whether leptin mediates the relationship between body fat and blood pressure in school-aged children.A cross-sectional survey was conducted among school-aged children i...

Relationship between arterial stiffness and circadian pattern of blood pressure.

Arterial stiffness is a risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The relationship between the arterial stiffness and the circadian pattern of blood pressure (BP) has been controversial. The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between arterial stiffness by pulse wave analysis (PWA) and variables of 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) in patients wit...

Comorbidities Associated with Severity of Atopic Dermatitis in Young Adult Males: A National Cohort Study.

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a systemic inflammatory disorder. However, the relationship between severity of AD and metabolic and atopic conditions is not well studied. The aim of this study was to elucidate the relationship between severity of AD and comorbidities, such as metabolic conditions (increased body mass index, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, and type II diabetes mellitus) and other atopic ...

β‑estradiol alleviates hypertension‑ and concanavalin A‑mediated inflammatory responses via modulation of connexins in peripheral blood lymphocytes.

Gap junctions (GJs) formed by connexins (Cxs) in T lymphocytes have been reported to have important roles in the T lymphocyte‑driven inflammatory response and hypertension‑mediated inflammation. Estrogen has a protective effect on cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension and it attenuates excessive inflammatory responses in certain autoimmune diseases. However, the mechanisms involve...

MicroRNA‑132 mediates proliferation and migration of pulmonary smooth muscle cells via targeting PTEN.

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a severe and progressive disease characterized by the remodeling of small pulmonary arteries. The aberrant proliferation of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) is the primary feature of PAH. MicroRNA (miR)‑132 has been demonstrated to inhibit the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells and repress neointimal formation. Phosphatase and te...

Helminth mediated modulation of the systemic and mycobacterial antigen - stimulated cytokine profiles in extra-pulmonary tuberculosis.

Helminth infections are known to regulate cytokine responses in both pulmonary and latent tuberculosis infection. Whether helminth infections also modulate cytokine responses in extra-pulmonary tuberculosis, specifically tuberculous lymphadenitis (TBL), has not been examined thus far.

Use of time in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: Longitudinal associations with symptoms and quality of life using a compositional analysis approach.

This study explored whether, for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), changes to the 24-hour composition of physical activity (PA), sedentary behaviour (SB) and sleep were associated with changes in symptoms and health-related quality of life (HRQoL); and how time re-allocations between these behaviours were associated with changes in outcomes.

Quantitative CT analysis of honeycombing area predicts mortality in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis with definite usual interstitial pneumonia pattern: A retrospective cohort study.

Honeycombing on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) images is a key finding in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). In IPF, honeycombing area determined by quantitative CT analysis is correlated with pulmonary function test findings. We hypothesized that quantitative CT-derived honeycombing area (HA) might predict mortality in patients with IPF.

Transcriptional profiles in the chicken ductus arteriosus during hatching.

The ductus arteriosus, an essential embryonic blood vessel between the pulmonary artery and the descending aorta, constricts after birth or hatching and eventually closes to terminate embryonic circulation. Chicken embryos have two long ductus arteriosi, which anatomically differ from mammal ductus arteriosus. Each long ductus arteriosus is divided into two parts: the pulmonary artery-sided and de...

Refractory ascites and graft dysfunction in early renal transplantation.

The occurrence of ascites after Renal Transplant (RT) is infrequent, and may be a consequence of surgical or medical complications. Case report: 61 year-old, male, history of arterial hypertension, tongue carcinoma and alcoholic habits 12-20g/day. He had chronic kidney disease secondary to autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, without hepatic polycystic disease. He underwent cadaver donor ...

Household dietary salt consumption and mortality from cardiovascular diseases: an ecological panel analysis in Japan.

Epidemiological evidence has shown that lower salt intake reduces hypertension-related disease mortality. Japan has experienced a drastic decrease in cardiovascular mortality, although this varies across regions. This regional variation does not necessarily match the local patterns of reported average salt intake. In this study, we examined population-level risk factors for hypertension-related di...

The age-related reduction in cerebral blood flow affects vertebral artery more than internal carotid artery blood flow.

Aging reduces cerebral blood flow (CBF) while mean arterial pressure (MAP) becomes elevated. According to 'the selfish brain' hypothesis of hypertension, a reduction in vertebral artery blood flow (VA) leads to increased sympathetic activity and thus increases MAP. In twenty-two young (24 ± 3 years; mean ± SD) and eleven elderly (70 ± 5 years) normotensive men duplex ultrasound evaluated whethe...

Risk stratification for short-term mortality at hospital admission for acute exacerbations of COPD.

Exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (ECOPD) are associated with increased in-hospital and short-term mortality. Developing an easy-to-use model to predict adverse outcomes will be useful in daily clinical practice and will facilitate management decisions. We aimed to assess mortality rates and potential predictors for short-term mortality after severe ECOPD. Classification and R...

Giant lung cysts following necrotizing pneumonia: Resolution with conservative treatment.

Necrotizing pneumonia is characterized by destruction and liquefaction of the lung tissue and loss of the normal pulmonary parenchymal architecture. During the course of resolution areas of hyperlucency are formed, sometimes with the development of giant lung cysts that can be a field with fluid resembling lung abscess. There is no consensus on the management of these abnormalities.

Acute pulmonary edema and tocolytic therapy in pregnant women : clinical case and review of literature.

We report the case of a pregnant woman, treated by nifedipine and next by atosiban for premature labour, who develop an acute pulmonary edema. The severity of symptoms and hypoxemia lead the patient to a cesarean and next to the intensive care hospitalization. This clinical case allow us to make a review of literature and reminds us the differential diagnosis to look for during an acute dyspnea in...

Pulmonary arterial hypertension.

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rare vascular lung disease with a complex etiopathogeny characterized by an increased pulmonary arterial pressure of 25 mmHg or above assessed by right heart catheterization. The diagnosis is difficult due to the atypical presentation with shortness of breath requiring a sequential approach bringing at the end the clinician to perform a right heart cathet...

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