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PulmoXen Research

05:36 EST 17th December 2018 | BioPortfolio

Selective overexpression of cytoglobin in stellate cells attenuates thioacetamide-induced liver fibrosis in mice.

Cytoglobin (CYGB), discovered in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), is known to possess a radical scavenger function, but its pathophysiological roles remain unclear. Here, for the first time, we generated a new transgenic (TG) mouse line in which both Cygb and mCherry reporter gene expression were under the control of the native Cygb gene promoter. We demonstrated that the expression of Cygb-mCherry ...

A population-based study of cystic white matter injury on ultrasound in very preterm infants born over two decades in Nova Scotia, Canada.

To identify the temporal trends, risk factors and outcomes of cystic white matter injury (WMI) detected by ultrasound in a population-based cohort of very preterm infants (VPI) with a minimal risk of selection bias.

Salvanic acid B inhibits myocardial fibrosis through regulating TGF-β1/Smad signaling pathway.

Salvanic Acid B (Sal B) was proved to show significant effect against fibrosis and myocardial injury. This study aimed to investigate the protective effects and the mechanisms of Sal B on myocardial fibrosis.

Modulation of the unfolded protein response pathway as an antiviral approach in airway epithelial cells.

Rhinovirus (RV) infection is a major cause of cystic fibrosis (CF) lung morbidity with limited therapeutic options. Various diseases involving chronic inflammatory response and infection are associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and subsequent activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR), an adaptive response to maintain cellular homeostasis. Recent evidence suggests impaired ER s...

FTY720 inhibits the activation of pancreatic stellate cells by promoting apoptosis and suppressing autophagy via the AMPK/mTOR pathway.

Pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) play a critical role in the development of pancreatic fibrosis. Any agents that can affect PSC activation could become potential candidates for treating pancreatic fibrosis. FTY720 can attenuate chronic pancreatic fibrosis by suppressing T-cell infiltration, but its effect on PSCs remains unknown. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of FTY720 on PSC...

Use of a Primary Epithelial Cell Screening Tool to Investigate Phage Therapy in Cystic Fibrosis.

Antimicrobial-resistant microbes are an increasing threat to human health. In cystic fibrosis (CF), airway infections with remain a key driver of lung damage. With few new antibiotics on the development horizon, alternative therapeutic approaches are needed against antimicrobial-resistant pathogens. Phage therapy, or the use of viruses that infect bacteria, is one proposed novel therapy to treat ...

Host Regulators of Liver Fibrosis During Human Schistosomiasis.

Liver fibrosis is a wound-healing process purposely aimed at restoring organ integrity after severe injury caused by autoimmune reactions, mechanical stress or infections. The uncontrolled solicitation of this process is pathogenic and a pathognomonic feature of diseases like hepatosplenic schistosomiasis where exacerbated liver fibrosis is centrally positioned among the drivers of the disease mor...

Case of a giant gauzeoma diagnosed 21 years after an inguinal hernia surgery.

Gauze remnants form gauzeomas after surgery, if infection has not occurred. We present a case of gauzeoma diagnosed after surgery. A 72-year-old man noticed a mass in his lower abdomen. He had undergone surgery for left inguinal hernia 21 years ago. A retroperitoneal mass was found on computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and he was then referred to our hospital. A detail...

Inhibition of heparanase protects against chronic kidney dysfunction following ischemia/reperfusion injury.

Renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury occurs in patients undergoing renal transplantation and with acute kidney injury and is responsible for the development of chronic allograft dysfunction as characterized by parenchymal alteration and fibrosis. Heparanase (HPSE), an endoglycosidase that regulates EMT and macrophage polarization, is an active player in the biological response triggered by isch...

The multikinase inhibitor regorafenib decreases angiogenesis and improves portal hypertension.

Angiogenesis is critically involved in the development of liver fibrosis, portal hypertension (PHT) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Regorafenib is a novel second-line therapy for HCC, but might also be beneficial in fibrosis and PHT even in absence of HCC. This study investigated the effects of regorafenib in experimental models without HCC.

Mechanistic Insights From Global Metabolomics Studies into Synergistic Bactericidal Effect of a Polymyxin B Combination With Tamoxifen Against Cystic Fibrosis MDR .

Polymyxins are amongst the most important antibiotics in modern medicine, in recent times their clinical utility has been overshadowed by nosocomial outbreaks of polymyxin resistant MDR Gram-negative 'superbugs'. An effective strategy to surmount polymyxin resistance is combination therapy with FDA-approved non-antibiotic drugs. Herein we used untargeted metabolomics to investigate the mechanism(s...

Live birth following laparoscopic fertility-sparing surgery for papillary thyroid carcinoma arising from mature ovarian cystic teratoma: A case report.

Papillary thyroid carcinoma arising from ovarian mature cystic teratoma is clinically rare. We herein present a case of live birth following two laparoscopic surgeries for papillary thyroid carcinoma arising in a mature ovarian cystic teratoma. A 30-year-old female patient, gravida 1 para 1, was treated by laparoscopic bilateral ovarian cystectomy for suspicion of bilateral mature cystic teratoma....

Measurable Krukenberg tumor is preferably characterized as a non-target lesion in the clinical evaluation of gastric cancer therapeutics: A case report.

Metastatic cystic lesions may be considered as target lesions according to the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) 1.1. However, cystic lesions are considered as non-measurable according to RECIST 1.0. Krukenberg tumors are cystic metastases from gastric cancer. The aim of the present case report was to address the question of whether a Krukenberg tumor can be considered as a tar...

IVIM with fractional perfusion as a novel biomarker for detecting and grading intestinal fibrosis in Crohn's disease.

Intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides information on both perfusion and diffusion and has been used to evaluate Crohn's disease (CD) activity and fibrosis in children; however, there are no reports on its use in adults. We aimed to determine its value for detecting and grading intestinal fibrosis in adults with CD compared with contrast-en...

Increases in cytosolic Ca induce dynamin- and calcineurin-dependent internalisation of CFTR.

The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a cAMP-regulated, apical anion channel that regulates ion and fluid transport in many epithelia including the airways. We have previously shown that cigarette smoke (CS) exposure to airway epithelia causes a reduction in plasma membrane CFTR expression which correlated with a decrease in airway surface hydration. The effect of CS on...

Mechanisms for the Resolution of Organ Fibrosis.

Fibrosis is a dynamic process with the potential for reversibility and restoration of near-normal tissue architecture and organ function. Herein, we review mechanisms for resolution of organ fibrosis, in particular that involving the lung, with an emphasis on the critical roles of myofibroblast apoptosis and clearance of deposited matrix.

Identification of molecular signatures of cystic fibrosis disease status using plasma-based functional genomics

Although cystic fibrosis (CF) is attributed to dysfunction of a single gene, the relationships between the abnormal gene product and development of inflammation and progression of lung disease are not fully understood, limiting our ability to predict an individual patient's clinical course and treatment response. To better understand CF progression, we characterized the molecular signatures of CF ...

Corticosteroid use and increased CXCR2 levels on leukocytes are associated with lumacaftor/ivacaftor discontinuation in cystic fibrosis patients homozygous for the F508del CFTR mutation.

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common life-shortening genetic disease and is caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. Several current therapies aim at improving availability and/or function of the mutant CFTR proteins. The combination therapeutic lumacaftor/ivacaftor (Orkambi, luma/iva) partially corrects folding and potentiates CFTR function im...

An unusual presentation of papillary thyroid carcinoma in a pediatric patient: A case report.

Cystic neck masses in the pediatric population are common but rarely concerning for malignancy. Given this typically benign nature, they are frequently managed conservatively. Here we present an unusual case of a waxing and waning cystic neck mass in a pediatric patient. After surgical removal, the mass was found to be metastatic papillary thyroid cancer. This is a unique presentation in the pedia...

The Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor TAS-115 Attenuates Bleomycin-Induced Lung Fibrosis in Mice.

The signaling pathways of growth factors including platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) can be considered specific targets for overcoming the poor prognosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Nintedanib, the recently approved multiple kinase inhibitor, has shown promising anti-fibrotic effects in IPF patients; however, its efficacy is still limited, and in some cases, treatment discontinuati...

Another Weapon in the Battle Against Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis?

The Actual Prevalence of Symptoms in Pancreatic Cystic Neoplasms: A Prospective Propensity Matched Cohort Analysis.

The prevalence of symptoms in pancreatic cystic neoplasms (PCNs) is mainly based on retrospective surgical series. The aim of this study is to describe the actual prevalence of symptoms in PCNs under surveillance.

Fibroblast-specific integrin alpha V differentially regulates type 17 and type 2 driven inflammation and fibrosis.

Fibroproliferative diseases affect a significant proportion of the world's population. Despite this, core mechanisms driving organ fibrosis of diverse etiologies remain ill defined. Recent studies suggest that integrin-alpha V serves as a master driver of fibrosis in multiple organs. Although diverse mechanisms contribute to the progression of fibrosis, TGF-β and IL-13 have emerged as central med...

Tanshinone IIA Inhibits High Glucose-Induced Collagen Synthesis via Nuclear Factor Erythroid 2-Related Factor 2 in Cardiac Fibroblasts.

Diabetes is associated with increased incidence of myocardial dysfunction, which is partly characterized by interstitial and perivascular fibrosis. Cardiac fibroblasts have been identified as an important participant in the development of cardiac fibrosis. Exposure of cultured cardiac fibroblasts to high glucose resulted in increased collagen synthesis. Tanshinone IIA can alleviate the ventricular...

GLUT3 expression in cystic change induced by hypoxia in pituitary adenomas.

Tumor cells require large amounts of energy to sustain growth. Through the mediated transport of glucose transporters, the uptake and utilization of glucose by tumor cells are significantly enhanced in the hypoxic microenvironment. Pituitary adenomas are benign tumors with high energy metabolisms. We aimed to investigate the role of expression of glucose transporter 3 (GLUT3) and glucose transport...

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