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Renal Cell Carcinoma Research

19:16 EDT 17th September 2019 | BioPortfolio

Single Cell Durotaxis Assay for Assessing Mechanical Control of Cellular Movement and Related Signaling Events.

Durotaxis is the process by which cells sense and respond to gradients of tension. In order to study this process in vitro, the stiffness of the substrate underlying a cell must be manipulated. While hydrogels with graded stiffness and long-term migration assays have proven useful in durotaxis studies, immediate, acute responses to local changes in substrate tension allow focused study of individu...

Quantitative Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) and Immunofluorescence (IF) of Specific Gene Products in KSHV-Infected Cells.

Mechanistic insight arrives from careful study and quantification of specific RNAs and proteins. The relative locations of these biomolecules throughout the cell at specific times can be captured with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and immunofluorescence (IF). During lytic herpesvirus infection, the virus hijacks the host cell to preferentially express viral genes, causing changes in ce...

Cell Cycle-specific Measurement of γH2AX and Apoptosis After Genotoxic Stress by Flow Cytometry.

The presented method or slightly modified versions have been devised to study specific treatment responses and side effects of various anti-cancer treatments as used in clinical oncology. It enables a quantitative and longitudinal analysis of the DNA damage response after genotoxic stress, as induced by radiotherapy and a multitude of anti-cancer drugs. The method covers all stages of the DNA dama...

Post-differentiation Replating of Human Pluripotent Stem Cell-derived Neurons for High-content Screening of Neuritogenesis and Synapse Maturation.

Neurons differentiated in two-dimensional culture from human pluripotent stem-cell-derived neural progenitor cells (NPCs) represent a powerful model system to explore disease mechanisms and carry out high content screening (HCS) to interrogate compound libraries or identify gene mutation phenotypes. However, with human cells the transition from NPC to functional, mature neuron requires several wee...

Visualizing and Analyzing Intracellular Transport of Organelles and Other Cargos in Astrocytes.

Astrocytes are among the most abundant cell types in the adult brain, where they play key roles in a multiplicity of functions. As a central player in brain homeostasis, astrocytes supply neurons with vital metabolites and buffer extracellular water, ions, and glutamate. An integral component of the "tri-partite" synapse, astrocytes are also critical in the formation, pruning, maintenance, and mod...

Evaluation of Fertilization State by Tracing Sperm Nuclear Morphology in Arabidopsis Double Fertilization.

Flowering plants have a unique sexual reproduction system called 'double fertilization', in which each of the sperm cells precisely fuses with an egg cell or a central cell. Thus, two independent fertilization events take place almost simultaneously. The fertilized egg cell and central cell develop into zygote and endosperm, respectively. Therefore, precise control of double fertilization is esse...

In situ condensation of an anti-cancer drug into fibrin gel enabling effective inhibition of tumor cell growth.

We show herein the highly effective inhibition of tumor cell growth using a gel consisting of a fibrin polymer formed with the in situ condensation of a camptothecin (CPT) derivative as an anti-cancer drug, which is efficiently conveyed with a carrier aptamer from a solution to the gel in a phenomenon, called selective oligonucleotide entrapment in fibrin polymers (SOEF).

H. pylori-miRNA interaction in gastric cancer tissues: First prospective study from Turkey.

Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is involved in the etiology of gastric cancer (GC). miRNAs are short RNAs that regulate gene expression by marking mRNAs for degradation. miRNAs are involved in tumorigenesis, metastasis, and cell proliferation. We aimed to investigate the miRNA expression profiles of tissues from H. pylori (+) and (-) GC patients. Forty GC patients, 20 H. pylori (+) and 20 H. pylor...

Web-based LGBT cultural competency training intervention for oncologists: Pilot study results.

Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) cancer patients experience substantial health disparities, including poorer overall health and lower satisfaction with their cancer care than their heterosexual and cisgender counterparts, which may be due in part to a lack of culturally competent providers. To address these disparities, a web-based LGBT cultural competency training tailored to oncolo...

Increasing incidence of Epstein-Barr virus-related nasopharyngeal carcinoma in the United States.

The incidence of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) has been historically low in the United States. Although etiological factors differ by histological subtype, Epstein-Barr virus is accepted as the primary risk factor for nonkeratinizing NPC. In light of the changing epidemiology of viral-associated cancers, it is important to evaluate the temporal incidence of NPC in the United States.

Cancer, sleep problems, and mind-body medicine use: Results of the 2017 National Health Interview Survey.

Sleep problems affect physical and emotional well-being as well as immune system function. Evidence has demonstrated an improvement in sleep problems in patients with cancer through the use of mind-body medicine (MBM). In the current study, the authors sought to elucidate the prevalence of sleep problems and the use of MBM in adult cancer survivors.

Large-Scale Antitumor Screening Based on Heterotypic 3D Tumors Using an Integrated Microfluidic Platform.

Chemotherapy screening plays a crucial role in cancer drug discovery and clinical medicine. While conventional methods have contributed greatly to macromanipulation of cell populations, a profounder insight related to tumor microenvironment requires approaches for completing integrated cell/3D tumor micromanipulation, massive tumor simulation and production, dynamic and high-throughput tumor analy...

On the role of lattice oxygen in oxygen evolution reaction on CoO: isotope exchange determined using a new DEMS cell design.

This work demonstrates the role of lattice oxygen of metal oxide catalysts in oxygen evolution reaction (OER) as evidenced by isotope labeling together with differential electrochemical mass spectrometry (DEMS) method. Our recent report assessed this role for Co3O4 using a flow-through DEMS cell, which however requires a large volume of electrolyte. Herein, we extend this procedure to different Co...

Quantitative translation of microfluidic transporter data to reveals impaired albumin-facilitated indoxyl sulfate secretion in chronic kidney disease.

Indoxyl sulfate (IxS), a highly albumin-bound uremic solute, accumulates in chronic kidney disease (CKD) due to reduced renal clearance. This study was designed to specifically investigate the role of human serum albumin (HSA) in IxS handling via organic anion transporter 1 (OAT1) in a microfluidic system and subsequently apply quantitative translation of data to predict extent of change in IxS r...

Frequency spectrum of chemical fluctuation: A probe of reaction mechanism and dynamics.

Even in the steady-state, the number of biomolecules in living cells fluctuates dynamically, and the frequency spectrum of this chemical fluctuation carries valuable information about the dynamics of the reactions creating these biomolecules. Recent advances in single-cell techniques enable direct monitoring of the time-traces of the protein number in each cell; however, it is not yet clear how th...

Spatial distribution of breast cancer in Sudan 2010-2016.

Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer among females worldwide including Sudan. The aim of this study was to determine the spatial distribution of breast cancer in Sudan.

Increased proliferation and altered cell cycle regulation in pancreatic stem cells derived from patients with congenital hyperinsulinism.

Congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI) is characterised by inappropriate insulin secretion causing profound hypoglycaemia and brain damage if inadequately controlled. Pancreatic tissue isolated from patients with diffuse CHI shows abnormal proliferation rates, the mechanisms of which are not fully resolved. Understanding cell proliferation in CHI may lead to new therapeutic options, alongside opportunit...

Correction: The mean cell volume difference (dMCV) reflects serum hypertonicity in diabetic dogs.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0219864.].

Mucosal CD8+ T cell responses induced by an MCMV based vaccine vector confer protection against influenza challenge.

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a ubiquitous β-herpesvirus that establishes life-long latent infection in a high percentage of the population worldwide. CMV induces the strongest and most durable CD8+ T cell response known in human clinical medicine. Due to its unique properties, the virus represents a promising candidate vaccine vector for the induction of persistent cellular immunity. To take advantag...

Knockout model reveals the role of Nischarin in mammary gland development, breast tumorigenesis and response to metformin treatment.

Previously, our lab discovered the protein Nischarin and uncovered its role in regulating cell migration and invasion via its interactions with several proteins. We subsequently described a role for Nischarin in breast cancer, in which it is frequently underexpressed. To characterize Nischarin's role in breast tumorigenesis and mammary gland development more completely, we deleted a critical regio...

Long-term outcome of methylmalonic aciduria after kidney, liver or combined liver-kidney transplantation: the French experience.

Organ transplantation is discussed in methylmalonic aciduria (MMA) for renal failure, and poor quality of life and neurological outcome. We retrospectively evaluated 23 French MMA patients after kidney (KT), liver-kidney (LKT) and liver transplantation (LT). Two patients died, one after LKT, one of hepatoblastoma after KT. One graft was lost early after KT. Of 18 evaluable patients, 12 previously ...

SI-CLP inhibits the growth of mouse mammary adenocarcinoma by preventing recruitment of tumor-associated macrophages.

Chitinase-like proteins (CLP) are chitin-binding proteins that lack chitin hydrolyzing activity, but possess cytokine-like and growth factor-like properties, and play crucial role in intercellular crosstalk. Both human and mice express two members of CLP family: YKL-40 and stabilin-1 interacting chitinase-like protein (SI-CLP). Despite numerous reports indicating the role of YKL-40 in the support ...

Critical individual roles of the BCR and FGFR1 kinase domains in BCR-FGFR1-driven stem cell leukemia/lymphoma syndrome.

Constitutive activation of FGFR1, as a result of diverse chromosome translocations, is the hallmark of stem cell leukemia/lymphoma syndrome. The BCR-FGFR1 variant is unique in that the BCR component contributes a serine-threonine kinase (STK) to the N-terminal end of the chimeric FGFR1 kinase. We have deleted the STK domain and mutated the critical Y177 residue and demonstrate that the transformin...

A two year review of publicly funded cell-free DNA screening in Ontario: utilization and adherence to funding criteria.

Ontario offers a publicly funded modified contingent model of prenatal screening for aneuploidy in which cell-free DNA (cfDNA) screening is covered for pregnancies at higher risk of fetal aneuploidy. The objective of this study was to review utilization of provincially funded cfDNA and adherence to the criteria laid out in Ontario prenatal screening guidelines.

Scanning electrochemical flow cell with online mass spectroscopy for accelerated screening of carbon dioxide reduction electrocatalysts.

Electrochemical conversion of carbon dioxide into valuable chemicals or fuels is an increasingly important strategy for achieving carbon neutral technologies. The lack of a sufficiently active and selective electrocatalyst, particularly for synthesizing highly reduced products, motivates accelerated screening to evaluate new catalyst spaces. Traditional techniques, which couple electrocatalyst ope...

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