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Atropine Sulfate 0.4 mg/mL Injection, USP Vial | Atropine Sulfate

04:38 EDT 27th August 2014 | BioPortfolio

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Atropine Sulfate Injection, USP is a sterile solution of atropine sulfate in Water for Injection.  Each mL contains Atropine Sulfate 0.4 mg or 1.0 mg; Sodium Chloride 9 mg; Benzyl Alcohol 9 mg; Water for Injection qs; pH may be adjusted with Sulfuric Acid if necessary. pH 3.0-6.5.  Atropine Sulfate Injection, USP may be given intramuscularly, intravenously or subcutaneously.  Atropine is a white crystalline alkaloid which may be extracted from belladonna root or may be produced synthetically.  It is used as atropine sulfate because this compound has much greater solubility.  Atropine sulfate is an anticholinergic drug.  The empirical formula of atropine sulfate is (CHNO)HSOHO.

The Structural Formula is:

The most important therapeutic action of atropine is the inhibition of smooth muscle and glands innervated by postganglionic cholinergic nerves.  It also has central nervous system activity, which may be stimulating or depressing depending upon the dose.  Following the administration of usual clinical doses, atropine produces stimulation of the medulla and higher cerebral centers.  This effect is manifested by mild central vagal excitation and moderate respiratory stimulation.  Atropine sulfate also acts peripherally as a competitive antagonist of the muscarinic actions of acetylcholine.  It does not prevent the release of acetylcholine but antagonizes the effect of acetylcholine on the effector cells.  These actions include vasodilation, drying of the mouth, an increase in the pulse rate, inhibition of contractions of the gastrointestinal tract, ureter, and bladder, and reduction of salivary, bronchial, gastric and sweat gland secretions.  Following clinical and larger doses, atropine sulfate causes dilation of the pupils and paralysis of accommodation and in narrow-angle glaucoma, can increase intraocular pressure. 

Atropine sulfate is given parenterally as a preanesthetic medication to decrease salivation and bronchial secretions.  It is useful in pylorospasm and other spastic conditions of the gastrointestinal tract.  For ureteral and biliary colic, atropine sulfate given with morphine may be indicated.  Atropine sulfate is indicated for relaxation of the upper gastrointestinal tract and colon during hypotonic radiography. 

Atropine is used as an antidote for pilocarpine, physostigmine, isoflurophate, choline esters, certain species of aminata and in poisoning by the organic phosphate cholinesterase inhibitors found in certain insecticides and by chemical warfare "nerve gases".  Large doses relieve the muscarine-like symptoms and some of the central nervous system manifestations. 

Conditions at which inhibition of postganglionic cholinergic nerves are undesirable, such as glaucoma and tachycardia.  Also contraindicated in asthma, because the parenteral dose which might relive asthma would have an excessive drying effect upon mucous plugs in the bronchi.  Prostatic hypertrophy, while not a contraindication, requires special attention to signs of urinary retention. 

Atropine is a highly potent drug and due care is essential to avoid overdosage, especially with intravenous administration.  Pediatric populations are more susceptible than adults to the toxic effects of anticholinergic agents.

Atropine I.V. decreased the rate of mexiletine absorption without altering the relative oral bioavailability; this delay in mexiletine absorption was reversed by the combination of atropine and intravenous metoclopramide during pretreatment for anesthesia.  Atropine is not removed by dialysis. 

This drug is effective in very low dosage and overdose may cause permanent damage or death, especially in children.

This product contains Benzyl Alcohol which has been associated with a fatal gasping syndrome in infants and neonates. 

General

Doses of 0.5 to 1 mg atropine are mildly stimulating to the CNS.  Larger doses may produce mental disturbances; still larger doses are depressing.  Death from atropine poisoning, though rare, is usually due to paralysis of the medullary centers. 

Information for Patients

Atropine causes dryness of the mouth, and when used with other drugs that can cause dryness of the mouth, the effect is additive.  Patients receiving chronic treatment can develop blurred vision, and they should not be involved in activities that require good and clear vision. 

Drug Interactions

Atropine, by slowing gastric emptying and gastrointestinal mobility, may interfere with the absorption of other medications.  The effect of atropine on dryness of the mouth may be increased if it is given with other drugs that have anticholinergic action. 

Pregnancy Category C

Animal reproduction studies have not been conducted with atropine sulfate.  It is also not known whether atropine sulfate can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman or can affect reproduction capacity.  Atropine sulfate should be given to a pregnant woman only if clearly needed. 

Nursing Mothers

Caution should be exercised when atropine sulfate is administered to a nursing mother.

Individual tolerance varies greatly, but these systemic doses are likely to produce the following effects:

0.5 mg
Slight dryness of nose and mouth, bradycardia
1 mg
Greater dryness of nose and mouth, with thirst; slowing, then acceleration of heart; slight mydriasis.
2 mg
Very dry mouth, tachycardia, with palpitation, mydriasis, slight blurring of near vision.
5 mg
Increase in the above symptoms plus disturbance of speech, difficulty in swallowing, headache, hot, dry skin, restlessness with asthenia
10 mg and over
Above symptoms to extreme degree, plus ataxia, excitement, disorientation, hallucinations, delirium and coma.
65 mg
May be fatal.

Toxic doses from atropine are not uncommon, especially in children.

Symptoms

The principle manifestations of poisoning with atropine are delirium, tachycardia and fever.

Treatment

In the treatment of atropine poisoning, respiratory assistance and symptomatic support are indicated.  Physostigmine salicylate, 1 to 5 mL of a dilution containing 1 mg per 5 mL of saline, should be administered intravenously.  Administer the smaller dose in children and administer in not less than 2 minutes.  Monitor with ECG.  Medication can be repeated every 5 minutes for a total dose of 2 mg in children and every 30 minutes for a total of 6 mg in adults.

The fatal dose of atropine in children may be as low as 10 mg.  In an adult, recovery after 1,000 mg of atropine sulfate has been reported.  Death is usually due to paralysis of the medullary centers.  The fatality rate is less than 1%.  If the patients survives 24 hours, the will probably recover. 

The usual dose of atropine sulfate is 0.4 to 0.6 mg.  Suggested dosages for pediatric patients are as follows:

7-16 lbs
0.1 mg
17-24 lbs
0.15 mg
24-40 lbs.
0.2 mg
40-65 lbs.
0.3 mg
65-90 lbs.
0.4 mg
Over 90 lbs.
0.4 to 0.6 mg
Table of Dosage Equivalents Atropine sulfate Solution (mL required)
mg required
1 mg per mL
0.4 mg per mL
1
1

0.80
0.80

0.60
0.60

0.50
0.50

0.40
0.40
1
0.30
0.30
0.75
0.25
0.25
0.63
0.20
0.20
0.50
0.18
0.18
0.45
0.15
0.15
0.38
0.12
0.12
0.30
0.10
0.10
0.25

Atropine Sulfate Injection, USP is available in the following:

0.4 mg/mL

    1 mL vial packaged in 25s (NDC 10019-250-12)

    20 mL multiple dose vial packaged in 10s (NDC 10019-250-20)

1 mg/mL

    1 mL vial packaged in 25s (NDC 10019-251-12)

Use only if solution is clear and seal intact.

Store at 20 - 25 C (68 - 77 F), excursions permitted to 15 - 30 C (59 - 86 F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature].

Baxter is a registered trademark of Baxter International Inc.

Manufactured by

Baxter Healthcare Corporation

Deerfield, IL 60015 USA

For Product Inquiry 1 00 ANA DRUG (1-800-262-3784)

Revised: May 2005

   

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Manufacturer

General Injectables & Vaccines, Inc

Active Ingredients

Source

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Dicyclomine [Rebel Distributors Corp.]

Dicyclomine Hydrochloride

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ATROPINE CARE™(Atropine Sulfate Ophthalmic Solution, 1%)

Clinical Trials [868 Associated Clinical Trials listed on BioPortfolio]

The Use of Atropine 0.01% in the Prevention and Control of Myopia (ATOM3)

Study of low dose atropine in preventing the onset and progression of myopia in high risk children with pre-myopia or low-myopia.

Evaluation of Short Term Use of Experimental Eye Drops BHVI2, 0.02% Atropine and BHVI2 Plus 0.02% Atropine Eye Drops

To assess the one-month ocular effects of nightly application of experimental BHVI2 and 0.02% atropine eye drops either alone or in combination, in children aged between 6 to 13 years old ...

The Influence of Atropine on Choroidal Thickness

Atropine eye drops are increasingly prescribed for the management of progressive myopia or short-sightedness. A previous study suggested that the back of the eye or choroid may be a part o...

Myopia Control by Combining Auricular Acupoint and Atropine Eyedrops

This study was designed to compare the difference of using atropine eyedrops alone from atropine combined with the stimulation of auricular acupoints therapy in reducing myopia progression...

Subconjunctival Atropine and Intracameral Epinephrine for Pupil Dilation in Phacoemulsification

Mydriatic eye drops are routinely used before phacoemulsification but they are not free of drawbacks. Several alternatives were tried to overcome their limitations.

PubMed Articles [859 Associated PubMed Articles listed on BioPortfolio]

Specific quantification of atropine using molecularly imprinted polymer on graphene quantum dots.

Herein, development of a reliable and specific fluorometric assay was disclosed for the sensitive detection of atropine. The method was designed using the surface molecularly imprinted polymer on high...

Potentiation of antiseizure and neuroprotective efficacy of standard nerve agent treatment by addition of tariquidar.

Organophosphate (OP) induced seizures are commonly treated with anticholinergics, oximes and anticonvulsants. Inhibition of P-glycoprotein (PgP) enhanced the efficacy of nerve agent treatment in soman...

Short-term effects of low-concentration atropine eye drops on pupil size and accommodation in young adult subjects.

A single eye drop containing 0.01% atropine every evening has previously been found to inhibit myopia progression in young adults. We have tested the short-term effects of very low-dose atropine eye d...

Effect of Atropine With Propofol vs Atropine With Atracurium and Sufentanil on Oxygen Desaturation in Neonates Requiring Nonemergency Intubation: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

Propofol or a combination of a synthetic opioid and muscle relaxant are both recommended for premedication before neonatal intubation but have yet to be compared.

The contribution of muscarinic receptor mediated responses to epineurial vascular diameter at the sciatic nerve.

We used an anaesthetized rat model to directly observe changes in diameter of the vessels suppling the sciatic nerve in response to acetylcholine (10-4M), muscarinic receptor agonist, and atropine (10...

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