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These highlights do not include all the information needed to use ARIXTRA safely and effectively. See full prescribing information for ARIXTRA.ARIXTRA (fondaparinux sodium) Solution for subcutaneous injection Initial U.S. Approval: 2001 | ARIXTRA

04:54 EDT 27th August 2014 | BioPortfolio
Note: While we endeavour to keep our records up-to-date one should not rely on these details being accurate without first consulting a professional. Click here to read our full medical disclaimer.

Epidural or spinal hematomas may occur in patients who are anticoagulated with low molecular weight heparins (LMWH), heparinoids, or fondaparinux sodium and are receiving neuraxial anesthesia or undergoing spinal puncture. These hematomas may result in long-term or permanent paralysis. Consider these risks when scheduling patients for spinal procedures. Factors that can increase the risk of developing epidural or spinal hematomas in these patients include:

● use of indwelling epidural catheters

● concomitant use of other drugs that affect hemostasis, such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), platelet inhibitors, or other anticoagulants

● a history of traumatic or repeated epidural or spinal puncture

● a history of spinal deformity or spinal surgery

Monitor patients frequently for signs and symptoms of neurologic impairment. If neurologic compromise is noted, urgent treatment is necessary.

Consider the benefit and risks before neuraxial intervention in patients anticoagulated or to be anticoagulated for thromboprophylaxis. [See Warnings and Precautions (5.5) and Drug Interactions (7).]

ARIXTRA is indicated for the prophylaxis of deep vein thrombosis (DVT), which may lead to pulmonary embolism (PE):

ARIXTRA is indicated for the treatment of acute deep vein thrombosis when administered in conjunction with warfarin sodium.

ARIXTRA is indicated for the treatment of acute pulmonary embolism when administered in conjunction with warfarin sodium when initial therapy is administered in the hospital.

Do not mix other medications or solutions with ARIXTRA. Administer ARIXTRA only subcutaneously.

In patients undergoing hip fracture, hip replacement, or knee replacement surgery, the recommended dose of ARIXTRA is 2.5 mg administered by subcutaneous injection once daily after hemostasis has been established. Administer the initial dose no earlier than 6 to 8 hours after surgery. Administration of ARIXTRA earlier than 6 hours after surgery increases the risk of major bleeding. The usual duration of therapy is 5 to 9 days; up to 11 days of therapy was administered in clinical trials.

In patients undergoing hip fracture surgery, an extended prophylaxis course of up to 24 additional days is recommended. In patients undergoing hip fracture surgery, a total of 32 days (peri-operative and extended prophylaxis) was administered in clinical trials. [See Warnings and Precautions (5.6), Adverse Reactions (6), and Clinical Studies (14)].

In patients undergoing abdominal surgery, the recommended dose of ARIXTRA is 2.5 mg administered by subcutaneous injection once daily after hemostasis has been established. Administer the initial dose no earlier than 6 to 8 hours after surgery. Administration of ARIXTRA earlier than 6 hours after surgery increases the risk of major bleeding. The usual duration of administration is 5 to 9 days, and up to 10 days of ARIXTRA was administered in clinical trials.

In patients with acute symptomatic DVT and in patients with acute symptomatic PE, the recommended dose of ARIXTRA is 5 mg (body weight <50 kg), 7.5 mg (body weight 50 to 100 kg), or 10 mg (body weight >100 kg) by subcutaneous injection once daily (ARIXTRA treatment regimen). Initiate concomitant treatment with warfarin sodium as soon as possible, usually within 72 hours. Continue treatment with ARIXTRA for at least 5 days and until a therapeutic oral anticoagulant effect is established (INR 2 to 3). The usual duration of administration of ARIXTRA is 5 to 9 days; up to 26 days of ARIXTRA injection was administered in clinical trials. [See Warnings and Precautions (5.6), Adverse Reactions (6), and Clinical Studies (14)].

No dose adjustment is recommended in patients with mild to moderate hepatic impairment, based upon single-dose pharmacokinetic data. Pharmacokinetic data are not available for patients with severe hepatic impairment. Patients with hepatic impairment may be particularly vulnerable to bleeding during ARIXTRA therapy. Observe these patients closely for signs and symptoms of bleeding. [See Clinical Pharmacology (12.4).]

ARIXTRA Injection is provided in a single-dose, prefilled syringe affixed with an automatic needle protection system. ARIXTRA is administered by subcutaneous injection. It must not be administered by intramuscular injection. ARIXTRA is intended for use under a physician’s guidance. Patients may self-inject only if their physician determines that it is appropriate and the patients are trained in subcutaneous injection techniques.

Prior to administration, visually inspect ARIXTRA to ensure the solution is clear and free of particulate matter.

To avoid the loss of drug when using the prefilled syringe, do not expel the air bubble from the syringe before the injection. Administration should be made in the fatty tissue, alternating injection sites (e.g., between the left and right anterolateral or the left and right posterolateral abdominal wall).

To administer ARIXTRA:

1. Wipe the surface of the injection site with an alcohol swab.
2. Hold the syringe with either hand and use your other hand to twist the rigid needle guard (covers the needle) counter-clockwise. Pull the rigid needle guard straight off the needle (Figure 1). Discard the needle guard. 3. Do not try to remove the air bubbles from the syringe before giving the injection. 4. Pinch a fold of skin at the injection site between your thumb and forefinger and hold it throughout the injection.5. Hold the syringe with your thumb on the top pad of the plunger rod and your next 2 fingers on the finger grips on the syringe barrel. Pay attention to avoid sticking yourself with the exposed needle (Figure 2).
6. Insert the full length of the syringe needle perpendicularly into the skin fold held between the thumb and forefinger (Figure 3).7. Push the plunger rod firmly with your thumb as far as it will go. This will ensure you have injected all the contents of the syringe (Figure 4).
8. When you have injected all the contents of the syringe, the plunger should be released. The plunger will then rise automatically while the needle withdraws from the skin and retracts into the security sleeve. Discard the syringe into the sharps container. 9. You will know that the syringe has worked when: The needle is pulled back into the security sleeve and the white safety indicator appears above the upper body. You may also hear or feel a soft click when the plunger rod is released fully.

Single-dose, prefilled syringes containing either 2.5 mg, 5 mg, 7.5 mg, or 10 mg of fondaparinux.

ARIXTRA is contraindicated in the following conditions:

Use ARIXTRA with extreme caution in conditions with increased risk of hemorrhage, such as congenital or acquired bleeding disorders, active ulcerative and angiodysplastic gastrointestinal disease, hemorrhagic stroke, uncontrolled arterial hypertension, diabetic retinopathy, or shortly after brain, spinal, or ophthalmological surgery. Isolated cases of elevated aPTT temporally associated with bleeding events have been reported following administration of ARIXTRA (with or without concomitant administration of other anticoagulants) [See Adverse Reactions (6.5)].

Do not administer agents that enhance the risk of hemorrhage with ARIXTRA unless essential for the management of the underlying condition, such as vitamin K antagonists for the treatment of VTE. If co-administration is essential, closely monitor patients for signs and symptoms of bleeding.

Do not administer the initial dose of ARIXTRA earlier than 6 to 8 hours after surgery. Administration earlier than 6 hours after surgery increases risk of major bleeding [see Dosage and Administration (2) and Adverse Reactions (6.1)].

ARIXTRA increases the risk of bleeding in patients with impaired renal function due to reduced clearance [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.4)].

The incidence of major bleeding by renal function status reported in clinical trials of patients receiving ARIXTRA for VTE surgical prophylaxis is provided in Table 1. In these patient populations, the following is recommended:

CrCl = creatinine clearance.

Hip fracture, hip replacement, and knee replacement surgery prophylaxis.

Assess renal function periodically in patients receiving ARIXTRA. Discontinue the drug immediately in patients who develop severe renal impairment while on therapy. After discontinuation of ARIXTRA, its anticoagulant effects may persist for 2 to 4 days in patients with normal renal function (i.e., at least 3 to 5 half-lives). The anticoagulant effects of ARIXTRA may persist even longer in patients with renal impairment [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.4)].

Table 1. Incidence of Major Bleeding in Patients Treated With ARIXTRA by Renal Function Status for Surgical Prophylaxis and Treatment of Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) and Pulmonary Embolism (PE)
Degree of Renal Impairment
Population Timing of Dose Normal % (n/N) Mild % (n/N) Moderate % (n/N) Severe % (n/N)
CrCl (mL/min) ≥80 ≥50 - <80 ≥30 - <50 <30
Orthopedic surgerya Overall 1.6% (25/1,565) 2.4% (31/1,288) 3.8% (19/504) 4.8% (4/83)
6-8 hours after surgery 1.8% (16/905) 2.2% (15/675) 2.3% (6/265) 0% (0/40)
Abdominal surgery Overall 2.1% (13/606) 3.6% (22/613) 6.7% (12/179) 7.1% (1/14)
6-8 hours after surgery 2.1% (10/467) 3.3% (16/481) 5.8% (8/137) 7.7% (1/13)
DVT and PE Treatment 0.4% (4/1,132) 1.6% (12/733) 2.2% (7/318) 7.3% (4/55)

ARIXTRA increases the risk for bleeding in patients who weigh less than 50 kg, compared to patients with higher weights.

In patients who weigh less than 50 kg:

During the randomized clinical trials of VTE prophylaxis in the peri-operative period following hip fracture, hip replacement, or knee replacement surgery and abdominal surgery, major bleeding occurred at a higher rate among patients with a body weight <50 kg compared to those with a body weight >50 kg (5.4% versus 2.1% in patients undergoing hip fracture, hip replacement, or knee replacement surgery; 5.3% versus 3.3% in patients undergoing abdominal surgery).

Thrombocytopenia can occur with the administration of ARIXTRA. Thrombocytopenia of any degree should be monitored closely. Discontinue ARIXTRA if the platelet count falls below 100,000/mm. Moderate thrombocytopenia (platelet counts between 100,000/mm and 50,000/mm) occurred at a rate of 3.0% in patients given ARIXTRA 2.5 mg in the peri-operative hip fracture, hip replacement, or knee replacement surgery and abdominal surgery clinical trials. Severe thrombocytopenia (platelet counts less than 50,000/mm) occurred at a rate of 0.2% in patients given ARIXTRA 2.5 mg in these clinical trials. During extended prophylaxis, no cases of moderate or severe thrombocytopenia were reported.

Moderate thrombocytopenia occurred at a rate of 0.5% in patients given the ARIXTRA treatment regimen in the DVT and PE treatment clinical trials. Severe thrombocytopenia occurred at a rate of 0.04% in patients given the ARIXTRA treatment regimen in the DVT and PE treatment clinical trials.

Isolated occurrences of thrombocytopenia with thrombosis that manifested similar to heparin-induced thrombocytopenia have been reported with the use of ARIXTRA in postmarketing experience. [See Adverse Reactions (6.5).]

Spinal or epidural hematomas, which may result in long-term or permanent paralysis, can occur with the use of anticoagulants and neuraxial (spinal/epidural) anesthesia or spinal puncture. The risk of these events may be higher with post-operative use of indwelling epidural catheters or concomitant use of other drugs affecting hemostasis such as NSAIDs [see Boxed Warning]. In the postmarketing experience, epidural or spinal hematoma has been reported in association with the use of ARIXTRA by subcutaneous (SC) injection. Monitor patients undergoing these procedures for signs and symptoms of neurologic impairment. Consider the potential risks and benefits before neuraxial intervention in patients anticoagulated or who may be anticoagulated for thromboprophylaxis.

Routine coagulation tests such as Prothrombin Time (PT) and Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (aPTT) are relatively insensitive measures of the activity of ARIXTRA and international standards of heparin or LMWH are not calibrators to measure anti-Factor Xa activity of ARIXTRA. If unexpected changes in coagulation parameters or major bleeding occur during therapy with ARIXTRA, discontinue ARIXTRA. In postmarketing experience, isolated occurrences of aPTT elevations have been reported following administration of ARIXTRA [see Adverse Reactions (6.5)].

Periodic routine complete blood counts (including platelet count), serum creatinine level, and stool occult blood tests are recommended during the course of treatment with ARIXTRA.

The anti-Factor Xa activity of fondaparinux sodium can be measured by anti-Xa assay using the appropriate calibrator (fondaparinux). The activity of fondaparinux sodium is expressed in milligrams (mg) of the fondaparinux and cannot be compared with activities of heparin or low molecular weight heparins. [See Clinical Pharmacology (12.2, 12.3).]

The packaging (needle guard) of the prefilled syringe of ARIXTRA contains dry natural latex rubber that may cause allergic reactions in latex sensitive individuals.

The most serious adverse reactions reported with ARIXTRA are bleeding complications and thrombocytopenia [see Warnings and Precautions (5)].

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.

The adverse reaction information below is based on data from 8,877 patients exposed to ARIXTRA in controlled trials of hip fracture, hip replacement, major knee, or abdominal surgeries, and DVT and PE treatment. These trials consisted of the following:

During administration of ARIXTRA, the most common adverse reactions were bleeding complications [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].

Hip Fracture, Hip Replacement, and Knee Replacement Surgery: The rates of major bleeding events reported during the hip fracture, hip replacement, or knee replacement surgery clinical trials with ARIXTRA 2.5 mg are provided in Table 2.

Enoxaparin sodium dosing regimen: 30 mg every 12 hours or 40 mg once daily.

Not approved for use in patients undergoing hip fracture surgery.

Major bleeding was defined as clinically overt bleeding that was (1) fatal, (2) bleeding at critical site (e.g. intracranial, retroperitoneal, intraocular, pericardial, spinal, or into adrenal gland), (3) associated with re-operation at operative site, or (4) with a bleeding index (BI) ≥2.

BI ≥2: Overt bleeding associated only with a bleeding index (BI) ≥2 calculated as [number of whole blood or packed red blood cell units transfused + [(pre-bleeding) – (post-bleeding)] hemoglobin (g/dL) values].

Minor bleeding was defined as clinically overt bleeding that was not major.

A separate analysis of major bleeding across all randomized, controlled, peri-operative, prophylaxis clinical studies of hip fracture, hip replacement, or knee replacement surgery according to the time of the first injection of ARIXTRA after surgical closure was performed in patients who received ARIXTRA only post-operatively. In this analysis, the incidences of major bleeding were as follows: <4 hours was 4.8% (5/104), 4 to 6 hours was 2.3% (28/1,196), 6 to 8 hours was 1.9% (38/1,965). In all studies, the majority (≥75%) of the major bleeding events occurred during the first 4 days after surgery.

Abdominal Surgery: In a randomized study of patients undergoing abdominal surgery, ARIXTRA 2.5 mg once daily (n = 1,433) was compared with dalteparin 5,000 IU once daily (n = 1,425). Bleeding rates are shown in Table 3.

Major bleeding was defined as bleeding that was (1) fatal, (2) bleeding at the surgical site leading to intervention, (3) non-surgical bleeding at a critical site (e.g. intracranial, retroperitoneal, intraocular, pericardial, spinal, or into adrenal gland), or leading to an intervention, and/or with a bleeding index (BI) ≥2.

Minor bleeding was defined as clinically overt bleeding that was not major.

The rates of major bleeding according to the time interval following the first ARIXTRA injection were as follows: <6 hours was 3.4% (9/263) and 6 to 8 hours was 2.9% (32/1112).

Treatment of Deep Vein Thrombosis and Pulmonary Embolism: The rates of bleeding events reported during the DVT and PE clinical trials with the ARIXTRA injection treatment regimen are provided in Table 4.

Bleeding rates are during the study drug treatment period (approximately 7 days). Patients were also treated with vitamin K antagonists initiated within 72 hours after the first study drug administration.

Major bleeding was defined as clinically overt: –and/or contributing to death – and/or in a critical organ including intracranial, retroperitoneal, intraocular, spinal, pericardial, or adrenal gland – and/or associated with a fall in hemoglobin level ≥2 g/dL – and/or leading to a transfusion ≥2 units of packed red blood cells or whole blood.

Clinically overt bleeding with a 2 g/dL fall in hemoglobin and/or leading to transfusion of PRBC or whole blood ≥2 units.

Minor bleeding was defined as clinically overt bleeding that was not major.

Table 2. Bleeding Across Randomized, Controlled Hip Fracture, Hip Replacement, and Knee Replacement Surgery Studies
Peri-Operative Prophylaxis
(Day 1 to Day 7 ± 1 post-surgery)
Extended Prophylaxis
(Day 8 to Day 28 ± 2 post-surgery)
ARIXTRA 2.5 mg SC once daily N = 3,616 Enoxaparin Sodiuma, b N = 3,956 ARIXTRA 2.5 mg SC once daily N = 327 Placebo SC once daily N = 329
Major bleedingc 96 (2.7%) 75 (1.9%) 8 (2.4%) 2 (0.6%)
   Hip fracture 18/831 (2.2%) 19/842 (2.3%) 8/327 (2.4%) 2/329 (0.6%)
   Hip replacement 67/2,268 (3.0%) 55/2,597 (2.1%)
   Knee replacement 11/517 (2.1%) 1/517 (0.2%)
Fatal bleeding 0 (0.0%) 1 (<0.1%) 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%)
Non-fatal bleeding at critical site 0 (0.0%) 1 (<0.1%) 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%)
Re-operation due to bleeding 12 (0.3%) 10 (0.3%) 2 (0.6%) 2 (0.6%)
BI ≥2d 84 (2.3%) 63 (1.6%) 6 (1.8%) 0 (0.0%)
Minor bleedinge 109 (3.0%) 116 (2.9%) 5 (1.5%) 2 (0.6%)
Table 3. Bleeding in the Abdominal Surgery Study
ARIXTRA 2.5 mg SC once daily Dalteparin Sodium 5,000 IU SC once daily
N = 1,433 N = 1,425
Major bleedinga 49 (3.4%) 34 (2.4%)
Fatal bleeding 2 (0.1%) 2 (0.1%)
Non-fatal bleeding at critical site 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%)
Other non-fatal major bleeding
   Surgical site 38 (2.7%) 26 (1.8%)
   Non-surgical site 9 (0.6%) 6 (0.4%)
Minor bleedingb 31 (2.2%) 23 (1.6%)
Table 4. Bleedinga in Deep Vein Thrombosis and Pulmonary Embolism Treatment Studies
ARIXTRA N = 2,294 Enoxaparin Sodium N = 1,101 Heparin aPTT adjusted IV N = 1,092
Major bleedingb 28 (1.2%) 13 (1.2%) 12 (1.1%)
Fatal bleeding 3 (0.1%) 0 (0.0%) 1 (0.1%)
Non-fatal bleeding at a critical site 3 (0.1%) 0 (0.0%) 2 (0.2%)
Intracranial bleeding 3 (0.1%) 0 (0.0%) 1 (0.1%)
Retro-peritoneal bleeding 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) 1 (0.1%)
Other clinically overt bleedingc 22 (1.0%) 13 (1.2%) 10 (0.9%)
Minor bleedingd 70 (3.1%) 33 (3.0%) 57 (5.2%)

Local irritation (injection site bleeding, rash, and pruritus) may occur following subcutaneous injection of ARIXTRA.

In the peri-operative prophylaxis randomized clinical trials of 7 ± 2 days, asymptomatic increases in aspartate (AST) and alanine (ALT) aminotransferase levels greater than 3 times the upper limit of normal were reported in 1.7% and 2.6% of patients, respectively, during treatment with ARIXTRA 2.5 mg once daily versus 3.2% and 3.9% of patients, respectively, during treatment with enoxaparin sodium 30 mg every 12 hours or 40 mg once daily enoxaparin sodium. These elevations are reversible and rarely associated with increases in bilirubin. In the extended prophylaxis clinical trial, no significant differences in AST and ALT levels between ARIXTRA 2.5 mg and placebo-treated patients were observed.

In the DVT and PE treatment clinical trials, asymptomatic increases in AST and ALT levels greater than 3 times the upper limit of normal of the laboratory reference range were reported in 0.7% and 1.3% of patients, respectively, during treatment with ARIXTRA. In comparison, these increases were reported in 4.8% and 12.3% of patients, respectively, in the DVT treatment trial during treatment with enoxaparin sodium 1 mg/kg every 12 hours and in 2.9% and 8.7% of patients, respectively, in the PE treatment trial during treatment with aPTT adjusted heparin.

Since aminotransferase determinations are important in the differential diagnosis of myocardial infarction, liver disease, and pulmonary emboli, elevations that might be caused by drugs like ARIXTRA should be interpreted with caution.

Other adverse reactions that occurred during treatment with ARIXTRA in clinical trials with patients undergoing hip fracture, hip replacement, or knee replacement surgery are provided in Table 5.

Enoxaparin sodium dosing regimen: 30 mg every 12 hours or 40 mg once daily.

Not approved for use in patients undergoing hip fracture surgery.

Localized blister coded as bullous eruption.

Adverse reactions in the abdominal surgery study and in the VTE treatment trials generally occurred at lower rates than in the hip and knee surgery trials described above. The most common adverse reaction in the abdominal surgery trial was post-operative wound infection (4.9%), and the most common adverse reaction in the VTE treatment trials was epistaxis (1.3%).

Table 5. Adverse Reactions Across Randomized, Controlled, Hip Fracture Surgery, Hip Replacement Surgery, and Knee Replacement Surgery Studies
Adverse Reactions Peri-Operative Prophylaxis
(Day 1 to Day 7 ± 1 post-surgery)
Extended Prophylaxis
(Day 8 to Day 28 ± 2 post-surgery)
ARIXTRA 2.5 mg SC once daily Enoxaparin Sodiuma, b ARIXTRA 2.5 mg SC once daily Placebo SC once daily
N = 3,616 N = 3,956 N = 327 N = 329
Anemia 707 (19.6%) 670 (16.9%) 5 (1.5%) 4 (1.2%)
Insomnia 179 (5.0%) 214 (5.4%) 3 (0.9%) 1 (0.3%)
Wound drainage increased 161 (4.5%) 184 (4.7%) 2 (0.6%) 0 (0.0%)
Hypokalemia 152 (4.2%) 164 (4.1%) 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%)
Dizziness 131 (3.6%) 165 (4.2%) 2 (0.6%) 0 (0.0%)
Purpura 128 (3.5%) 137 (3.5%) 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%)
Hypotension 126 (3.5%) 125 (3.2%) 1 (0.3%) 0 (0.0%)
Confusion 113 (3.1%) 132 (3.3%) 4 (1.2%) 1 (0.3%)
Bullous eruptionc 112 (3.1%) 102 (2.6%) 0 (0.0%) 1 (0.3%)
Hematoma 103 (2.8%) 109 (2.8%) 7 (2.1%) 1 (0.3%)
Post-operative hemorrhage 85 (2.4%) 69 (1.7%) 2 (0.6%) 2 (0.6%)

The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of ARIXTRA. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.

Isolated occurrences of thrombocytopenia with thrombosis that manifested similar to heparin-induced thrombocytopenia have been reported in the postmarketing experience and isolated cases of elevated aPTT temporally associated with bleeding events have been reported following administration of ARIXTRA (with or without concomitant administration of other anticoagulants) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)].

In clinical studies performed with ARIXTRA, the concomitant use of oral anticoagulants (warfarin), platelet inhibitors (acetylsalicylic acid), NSAIDs (piroxicam), and digoxin did not significantly affect the pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics of fondaparinux sodium. In addition, ARIXTRA neither influenced the pharmacodynamics of warfarin, acetylsalicylic acid, piroxicam, and digoxin, nor the pharmacokinetics of digoxin at steady state.

Agents that may enhance the risk of hemorrhage should be

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Physicians Total Care, Inc.

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