MYOVIEW™Kit for the Preparation of Technetium Tc99m Tetrofosmin for Injection |

05:33 EDT 27th August 2014 | BioPortfolio

Note: While we endeavour to keep our records up-to-date one should not rely on these details being accurate without first consulting a professional. Click here to read our full medical disclaimer.

DiagnosticRadiopharmaceuticalFor intravenous use only



The MYOVIEW kit is supplied as a pack of five vials for use in the preparation of a technetium Tc99m tetrofosmin intravenous injection to be used for the scintigraphic delineation of regions of reversible myocardial ischemia in the presence or absence of infarcted myocardium and for the evaluation of ventricular function. Each vial contains a predispensed, sterile, non-pyrogenic, lyophilized mixture of 0.23 mg tetrofosmin [6,9-bis(2-ethoxyethyl)-3,12-dioxa-6,9-diphosphatetradecane], 0.03 mg stannous chloride dihydrate (minimum stannous tin 0.005 mg; maximum total stannous and stannic tin 0.0158 mg), 0.32 mg disodium sulphosalicylate and 1.0 mg sodium D-gluconate, and 1.8 mg sodium hydrogen carbonate. The lyophilized powder is sealed under a nitrogen atmosphere with a rubber closure. The product contains no antimicrobial preservative.

The structural formula of tetrofosmin is:

When sterile, pyrogen-free sodium pertechnetate Tc99m in isotonic saline is added to the vial, a Tc99m complex of tetrofosmin is formed.

Administration is by intravenous injection for diagnostic use.

IMAGE myoview-image01.jpg

Physical Characteristics

Technetium Tc99m decays by isomeric transition with a physical half-life of 6.03 hours. Photons that are useful for imaging studies are listed in Table 1.

Table 1 Principal radiation emission data - technetium Tc99m
RadiationMean %
Mean energy
Gamma 287.87140.5

External Radiation

The specific gamma ray constant for technetium Tc99m is 206 microCoulomb. kg/37 MBq-hr (0.8 R/mCi-hr) at 1 cm. The first half-value thickness of lead (Pb) for technetium Tc99m is 0.2 mm.

A range of values for the relative attenuation of the radiation emitted by this radionuclide that results from the interposition of various thicknesses of Pb is shown in Table 2. For example, the use of a 2.7 mm thickness of Pb will decrease the external radiation exposure by a factor of 1000.

To correct for physical decay of this radionuclide, the fractions that remain at selected intervals relative to the time of calibration are shown in Table 3.

Table 2 Radiation attenuation by lead shielding
Shield thickness
(Pb) mm
Coefficient of
Table 3 Physical decay chart - Tc99m half-life 6.03 hours
0Calibration time (time of preparation)1.00070.447



When technetium Tc99m pertechnetate is added to tetrofosmin in the presence of stannous reductant, a lipophilic, cationic technetium Tc99m complex is formed, Tc99m tetrofosmin. This complex is the active ingredient in the reconstituted drug product, on whose biodistribution and pharmacokinetic properties the indications for use depend.


Studies in normal volunteers have demonstrated rapid myocardial uptake of Tc99m tetrofosmin, and rapid blood, liver and lung clearances. Uptake in the myocardium reaches a maximum of about 1.2% of the injected dose (i.d.) at 5 minutes and approximately 1% of the i.d. at 2 hours, respectively. Background activities in the blood, liver and lung were less than 5% of the administered activity in whole blood at 10 minutes post-injection, less than 4.5% i.d., after 60 minutes, and less than 2% i.d. after 30 minutes. Approximately 66% of the injected activity is excreted within 48 hours post-injection, with approximately 40% excreted in the urine and 26% in the feces.

The kinetics, elimination and protein binding of Tc99m tetrofosmin have not been determined.


The pharmacodynamic cellular uptake of tetrofosmin in humans has not been established. In humans the recommended imaging time is 15 minutes at stress and 30 minutes at rest.


The metabolic profile of tetrofosmin has not been established.

Drug-Drug Interactions

Specific drug-drug interactions have not been studied.

Clinical Studies

1. Exercise Stress Studies

A total of 252 subjects with ischemic heart disease or atypical chest pain who had a reason for exercise stress imaging were studied in two open-label, multi-center, clinical studies of MYOVIEW (study a and study b). Of these 252 subjects there were 212 (84%) males and 40 (16%) females with a mean age of 60.5 years (range 33.7 to 82.4 years). At peak exercise, maximum heart rate achieved and peak systolic blood pressure were comparable after MYOVIEW and thallium-201 exercise studies.

All subjects had exercise and rest planar imaging with MYOVIEW and thallium-201; 191 (76%) subjects also had single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging. The MYOVIEW and thallium-201 images were separated by a mean of 5.1 days (1-14 days before or 2-14 days after MYOVIEW). For MYOVIEW imaging, each subject received 185-296 MBq (5-8 mCi) Tc99m tetrofosmin at peak exercise and 555-888 MBq (15-24 mCi) Tc99m tetrofosmin at rest approximately 4 hours later. For thallium-201 imaging, subjects received thallium-201 55.5-74 MBq (1.5-2.0 mCi) at peak exercise.

The images were evaluated for the quality of the image (excellent, good or poor) and the diagnosis (with scores of 0 = normal, 1 = ischemia, 2 = infarct, 3 = mixed infarct and ischemia). The primary outcome variable was the percentage of correct diagnoses in comparison to the final clinical diagnosis. All planar images were blindly read; SPECT images were evaluated by the unblinded investigator. A subset of 181/252 (72%) subjects had coronary angiography comparisons to the planar images of MYOVIEW or thallium-201.

In comparison to the clinical diagnosis, results of MYOVIEW and thallium-201 imaging were comparable within the 95% confidence intervals. The results for each blinded reader are noted in Table 4.

Table 4 Overall diagnostic outcome
Total percentage
correctly diagnosed
IschemiaReader 1Reader 2Reader 1Reader 2
Study a77.7%75.0%66.3%63.6%
Study b75.6%68.9%66.4%66.4%
Study a75.9%75.0%75.9%75.0%
Study b70.6%69.7%73.1%68.1%

2. Pharmacologic Stress Studies

MYOVIEW imaging after pharmacologic stress was evaluated in two studies in subjects with known or suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). Three blinded reads were obtained for 57 subjects (45 male [79%], 12 female [21%]; mean age 60.1 years) all of whom had angiography. A subset of 19 subjects also had thallium-201 SPECT imaging. Subject level analyses were based on the finding of SPECT myocardial perfusion abnormalities in patients with angiographically confirmed disease. Subject level sensitivities for MYOVIEW ranged from 68-83% across readers and studies. Subject level sensitivities for thallium-201 ranged from 79-89% across readers.

3. Ventricular Function Studies

Two open-label, multicenter, identically designed, blinded image read clinical studies were conducted to assess left ventricular function using MYOVIEW ECG gated SPECT (GSPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging. A total of 329 subjects (216 male [65.7%], 113 female [34.3%]); mean age of 60.4 years) with known or suspected heart disease or requiring ventricular function assessments were dosed with MYOVIEW. Of these, 297 were considered evaluable. MYOVIEW was administered at rest and at peak stress using either a one-day or a 2-day dosing protocol.

For both studies, all subjects' stress GSPECT exams were compared to the reference exam of radionuclide ventriculography with Tc99m labeled RBCs (multiple gated acquisition [MUGA]), performed 1 to 5 days after the second MYOVIEW injection. All subjects' GSPECT exams were assessed by 3 independent blinded readers per study. The MUGA exams were evaluated as a truth standard by an independent consensus panel composed of 3 blinded readers. Subject level assessments were based upon discrimination between normal and abnormal values for LVEF (LVEF ≥50% was considered normal) and normal and abnormal wall motion as judged visually. Sensitivity and specificity of LVEF determinations ranged from 81%-88% and 76%-85% respectively (across studies and readers). Sensitivity and specificity of wall motion determinations ranged from 80%-92% and 68%-86% respectively (across studies and readers). In an analysis of LVEF by severity of dysfunction (i.e. mild dysfunction 40%-49%, moderate dysfunction 30%-39%, severe dysfunction of <30%), across subgroups there was individual reader variation in agreement with MUGA. These studies were not designed to determine whether differences between GSPECT and MUGA LVEF values were due to over estimation or under estimation by either of the methods.


MYOVIEW is indicated for scintigraphic imaging of the myocardium following separate administrations under exercise and/or resting conditions. It is useful in the delineation of regions of reversible myocardial ischemia in the presence or absence of infarcted myocardium.

MYOVIEW is also indicated for scintigraphic imaging of the myocardium to identify changes in perfusion induced by pharmacologic stress in patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease.

MYOVIEW is also indicated for the assessment of left ventricular function (left ventricular ejection fraction and wall motion) in patients being evaluated for heart disease.


None known.


In studying patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease, care should be taken to ensure continuous cardiac monitoring and the availability of emergency cardiac treatment.

Pharmacologic induction of cardiovascular stress may be associated with serious adverse events such as myocardial infarction, arrhythmia, hypotension, bronchoconstriction, and cerebrovascular events. Caution should be used when pharmacologic stress is selected as an alternative to exercise; it should be used when indicated and in accordance with the pharmacologic stress agent's labeling.



To minimize radiation dose to the bladder, the patient should be encouraged to void when the examination is completed and as often thereafter as possible. Adequate hydration should be encouraged to permit frequent voiding.

The contents of the MYOVIEW vial are intended only for use in the preparation of MYOVIEW Injection and are NOT to be administered directly to the patient.

As with all injectable drug products, allergic reactions and anaphylaxis may occur.

Sometimes Tc99m labeled myocardial imaging agents may produce planar and SPECT images with different imaging information.

In patients who have a MYOVIEW GSPECT LVEF value or wall motion assessment that is not consistent with the clinical status, additional evaluations with other modalities should be considered as appropriate.

MYOVIEW Injection, like other radioactive drugs, must be handled with care and appropriate safety measures should be used to minimize radiation exposure to clinical personnel. Care should also be taken to minimize radiation exposure to the patient consistent with proper patient management.

Radiopharmaceuticals should be used by or under the control of physicians who are qualified by specific training and experience in the safe use and handling of radionuclides, and whose experience and training have been approved by the appropriate governmental agency authorized to license the use of radionuclides.

Drug Interactions

Drug interactions were not noted and were not studied in clinical studies in which MYOVIEW was administered to subjects receiving concomitant medication. Drugs such as beta blockers, calcium blockers and nitrates may influence myocardial function and blood flow. The effects of such drugs on imaging results are not known.

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

Studies have not been conducted to evaluate carcinogenic potential or effects on fertility.

Tetrofosmin sulphosalicylate was not mutagenic in vitro in the Ames test, mouse lymphoma, or human lymphocyte tests, nor was it clastogenic in vivo in the mouse micronucleus test.

Pregnancy Category C

Animal reproduction studies have not been conducted with MYOVIEW. It is not known whether MYOVIEW can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman or can affect reproductive capacity. Therefore, MYOVIEW should not be administered to a pregnant woman unless the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.

Nursing Mothers

Technetium Tc99m pertechnetate can be excreted in human milk. Therefore, formula should be substituted for breast milk until the technetium has cleared from the body of the nursing woman.

Pediatric Use

Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established.

Geriatric Use

Of 2300 patients in clinical studies of MYOVIEW™ (Kit for the Preparation of Technetium Tc99m Tetrofosmin for Injection), 1053 (46%) patients were 65 or older and 270 (12%) were 75 or older. No overall differences in safety were observed between these subjects and younger subjects, and other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between elderly and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out.


Adverse events were evaluated in clinical studies (using an exercise/rest protocol) of 764 adults (511 men and 253 women) with a mean age of 58.7 years (range 29-94 years). The subjects received a mean dose of 7.67 mCi on the first injection and 22.4 mCi on the second injection of MYOVIEW.

Deaths did not occur during the clinical study period of 2 days. Six cardiac deaths occurred 3 days to 6 months after injection and were thought to be related to the underlying disease or cardiac surgery. After MYOVIEW injection, serious episodes of angina occurred in 4 subjects, ventricular tachycardia in 1 subject, and respiratory arrest in 1 subject. The respiratory arrest occurred within minutes of MYOVIEW and pharmacologic stress dosing in a subject with underlying pulmonary disease. The patient was treated and fully recovered. Whether this event was caused by underlying disease or concurrent use of MYOVIEW injection and a pharmacologic stress agent cannot be determined.

Overall cardiac adverse events occurred in less than 1% of subjects after MYOVIEW injection.

The following events were noted in less than 1% of subjects:

Cardiovascular: angina, hypertension, Torsades de Pointes.

Gastrointestinal: vomiting, abdominal discomfort.

Hypersensitivity: cutaneous allergy, hypotension, dyspnea.

Special Senses: metallic taste, burning of the mouth, smell alteration.

There was a low incidence (less than 4%) of a transient and clinically insignificant rise in white blood cell counts following administration of the agent.

Adverse events were also evaluated in clinical studies using pharmacologic stress. In four studies of 438 adults (232 men and 205 women; gender was not recorded for one subject) with a mean age of 65.4 years (range 27-97 years; age was not recorded for two subjects) received a single pharmacologic stress agent. The subjects received a mean dose of 7.46-7.79 mCi on the rest/first injection and 22.12 - 33.79 mCi on the stress/second injection.

Among the 438 subjects, 319 experienced an adverse event (73%). Events occurring in ≥1% of the subjects included angina (39%), flushing (36%), dyspnea (28%), headache (14%), abdominal pain (11%), dizziness (7%), palpitations (2%), nausea (2%), hypotension (1%) and pain (1%). Events occurring in <1% include cough, arrhythmia, bronchospasm, ECG abnormalities, hypertension, vomiting and asthenia. Attribution of the above events to MYOVIEW and/or the pharmacologic stress agent cannot be determined due to study design.

In additional ventricular function studies with 1 and 2 day dosing protocols, the overall adverse event profile was similar to previous reports and included one subject who was withdrawn for syncope.

Post-marketing experience

The following are spontaneously reported adverse reactions from post-marketing experience. Because the reports cite reactions reported spontaneously from worldwide post-marketing experience, frequency of reactions and the role of MYOVIEW in their causation cannot be reliably determined. The most common adverse reactions reported included the following: rash, urticaria, abnormal vision, allergic reactions, and fever.


The recommended dose range for MYOVIEW is 5-33 mCi (185-1221 MBq).

For stress and rest imaging, 2 separate doses of MYOVIEW are used. When rest and stress injections are administered on the same day, the first dose should be 5-12 mCi (185-444 MBq) and followed by the second dose of 15-33 mCi (555-1221 MBq) given approximately 1 to 4 hours later.

Imaging may begin 15 minutes following administration of the agent.

Dose adjustment has not been established in renally or liver impaired, pediatric or geriatric patients.


Based on human data, the absorbed radiation doses to an average human adult (70 kg) from intravenous injections of the agent under exercise and resting conditions are listed in Table 5. The values are listed in descending order as rad/mCi and µGy/MBq and assume urinary bladder emptying at 3.5 hours.

Dose calculations were performed using the standard MIRD method (MIRD Pamphlet No.1 (rev),Society of Nuclear Medicine, 1976). Effective dose equivalents (EDE) were calculated in accordance with ICRP 53 (Ann. ICRP 18 (1-4),1988) and gave values of 8.61 × 10 mSV/MBq and 1.12 × 10 mSV/MBq after exercise and rest, respectively.

Table 5 Estimated Absorbed Radiation Dose (Technetium Tc99m Tetrofosmin Injection)
Absorbed radiation dose
Target organrad/mCiµGy/MBqrad/mCiµGy/MBq
Gall bladder wall0.12333.20.18048.6
Upper large intestine0.07520.10.11330.4
Bladder wall0.05815.60.07119.3
Lower large intestine0.05715.30.08222.2
Small intestine0.04512.10.06317.0
Salivary glands0.0308.040.04311.6
Bone surface0.0236.230.0215.58
Heart wall0.0154.140.0153.93
Red marrow0.0154.140.0153.97



The user should wear waterproof gloves and use shielding at all times when handling the reconstituted vial or syringes containing the radioactive agent.

The patient dose should be measured by a suitable radioactivity calibration system immediately prior to administration.

Cautionary notes

Quality Control

An assay of the radiochemical purity of the prepared injection can be performed using the following chromatographic procedure.

Equipment and eluent



The kit comprises five vials containing a sterile, non-pyrogenic, freeze dried mixture of tetrofosmin, stannous chloride dihydrate, disodium sulphosalicylate, sodium D-Gluconate and sodium hydrogen carbonate, together with appropriate number of radiation labels, and a package insert.

NDC 17156-024-05


Store the kit in a refrigerator at 2°-8°C (36°-46°F). The kit should be protected from light.

Store the reconstituted product at 2°-25°C (36°-77°F), using appropriate radiation shielding. Use product within 12 hours of preparation.

This reagent kit is approved for use by persons licensed by the Illinois Emergency Management Agency pursuant to 32 Ill. Code Adm. Section, Section 330.260(a) and 335.4010 or under equivalent licenses of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, or an Agreement State.

Manufactured for:GE HealthcareMedi-Physics, Inc.Arlington Heights, IL 60004

by:GE Healthcare ASOslo, Norway

Patent No. 5,045,302 (r)

Distributed by:GE HealthcareMedi-Physics, Inc.Arlington Heights, IL 600041-800-633-4123 (Toll Free)

MYOVIEW is a trademark of GE Healthcare.

GE and the GE Monogram are trademarks of General Electric Company.


Revised August 2006

1141011 USA


GE Healthcare, Medi-Physics, Inc.

Active Ingredients


Clinical Trials [163560 Results]

The Utility of Peri-operative Arnica Montana for Reduction of Ecchymosis in Rhinoplasty Surgery

Arnica montana is a homeopathic drug that is made in accordance with the official methods of the Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia of the United States (HPUS) and is commonly used by cosmetic surg...

Pharyngeal Size in Patients With Obstructive Tonsils Under Orthodontic Treatment

Enlarged tonsils and malocclusion has relationship with sleep disturbance in children. The consequences of these features can include aggravation of craniofacial growth such that the devel...

The Biology of Chronic Preconditioning: Genomic and Physiologic Mechanisms of Response

The purpose of this study is to assess the effects of repeated RIPC and exercise, on exercise performance, skeletal muscle responses and circulating cellular and humoral biology in humans

Pilot Study of Raltegravir Lipodystrophy IISP

The substitution of raltegravir for the NRTIs will result in some reversal of the long term adverse effect of lipodystrophy (specifically peripheral lipoatrophy) that is associated with th...

Esophagoscopy in Evaluating Treatment in Patients With Stage I-IV Head and Neck Cancer Who Are Undergoing Radiation Therapy and/or Chemotherapy

Brief Summary: RATIONALE: Comparing results of diagnostic procedures, such as esophagoscopy, done before and after radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy may help doctors predict a patient...

PubMed Articles [1006812 Results]

Effects of proinsulin misfolding on β-cell dynamics, differentiation and function in diabetes.

ER stress due to proinsulin misfolding has an important role in the pathophysiology of rare forms of permanent neonatal diabetes (PNDM) and probably also of common type 1 (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2...

Regulation of islet glucagon secretion: Beyond calcium.

The islet of Langerhans plays a key role in glucose homeostasis through regulated secretion of the hormones insulin and glucagon. Islet research has focused on the insulin-secreting β-cells, even tho...

Biosynthesis, structure, and folding of the insulin precursor protein.

Insulin synthesis in pancreatic β-cells is initiated as preproinsulin. Prevailing glucose concentrations, which oscillate pre- and postprandially, exert major dynamic variation in preproinsulin biosy...

Role of ghrelin in pancreatic development and function.

Ghrelin is a gastric peptide with anabolic functions. It acutely stimulates growth hormone (GH) secretion from the anterior pituitary glands and modulates hypothalamic circuits that control food intak...

Lysosomes in nutrient signalling: A focus on pancreatic β-cells.

Regulated insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells is a major process maintaining glucose homeostasis in mammals. Enhancing insulin release in response to chronic nutrient overload and obesity-relat...

Quick Search


Relevant Topics

Within medicine, nutrition (the study of food and the effect of its components on the body) has many different roles. Appropriate nutrition can help prevent certain diseases, or treat others. In critically ill patients, artificial feeding by tubes need t...

Drug Discovery
Clinical Approvals Clinical Trials Drug Approvals Drug Delivery Drug Discovery Generics Drugs Prescription Drugs In the fields of medicine, biotechnology and pharmacology, drug discovery is the process by which drugs are dis...

Hepatology is the study of liver, gallbladder, biliary tree, and pancreas, and diseases associated with them. This includes viral hepatitis, alcohol damage, cirrhosis and cancer. As modern lifestyles change, with alcoholism and cancer becoming more promi...

Drugs and Medication Quicklinks

Searches Linking to this Drug Record