INDIUM IN 111OXYQUINOLINE SOLUTION | Indium in 111 Oxyquinoline [Medi-Physics Inc. dba GE Healthcare.] | BioPortfolio

12:31 EST 27th January 2019 | BioPortfolio
Note: While we endeavour to keep our records up-to-date one should not rely on these details being accurate without first consulting a professional. Click here to read our full medical disclaimer.

For the Radiolabeling of Autologous Leukocytes


Diagnostic—For intravenous useFor single dose, single use only


Indium In 111 oxyquinoline (oxine) is a diagnostic radiopharmaceutical intended for radiolabeling autologous leukocytes. It is supplied as a sterile, non-pyrogenic, isotonic aqueous solution with a pH range of 6.5 to 7.5. Each mL of the solution contains 37 MBq, 1 mCi of indium In 111 [no carrier added, >1.85 GBq/µg indium (>50 mCi/µg indium)] at calibration time, 50 µg oxyquinoline, 100 µg polysorbate 80, and 6 mg of HEPES (N-2-hydroxyethyl-piperazine-N'-2-ethane sulfonic acid) buffer in 0.75% sodium chloride solution. The drug is intended for single use only and contains no bacteriostatic agent. The radionuclidic impurity limit for indium 114m is not greater than 37 kBq, 1 µCi of indium 114m per 37 MBq, 1 mCi of indium In 111 at the time of calibration. The radionuclidic composition at expiration time is not less than 99.75% of indium In 111 and not more than 0.25% of indium In 114m/114.

Chemical name: Indium In 111 Oxyquinoline.

The precise structure of the indium In 111 oxyquinoline complex is unknown at this time. The empirical formula is (CHNO) In 111.


Indium In 111 decays by electron capture with a physical half-life of 67.2 hours (2.8 days). The energies of the photons that are useful for detection and imaging studies are listed in Table 1.

Table 1. Principal Radiation Emission DataKocher, David C., "Radioactive Decay Data Tables", DOE/TIC-11026, 115 (1981).
Radiation Mean %/
Mean Energy
Gamma 2 90.2 171.3
Gamma 3 94 245.4


The exposure rate constant for 37 MBq, 1 mCi indium In 111 is 8.3 × 10 C/kg/h (3.21 R/h) at 1 cm. The first half value thickness of lead (Pb) for indium In 111 is 0.023 cm. A range of values for the relative attenuation of the radiation emitted by this radionuclide that results from the interposition of various thicknesses of Pb is shown in Table 2. For example, the use of 0.834 cm of lead will decrease the external radiation exposure by a factor of about 1,000.

These estimates of attenuation do not take into consideration the presence of longer-lived contaminants with higher energy photons, namely indium In 114m/114.

To allow correction for physical decay of indium In 111, the fractions that remain at selected intervals before and after the time of calibration are shown in Table 3.

Table 2. Radiation Attenuation by Lead ShieldingData supplied by Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Radiopharmaceutical Internal Dose Information Center, 1984.
Shield Thickness
(Pb) cm
Coefficient of
0.023 0.5
0.203 10-1
0.513 10-2
0.834 10-3
1.12   10-4
Table 3. Physical Decay Chart for Indium In 111, Half-life 67.2 hours
Day Fraction Remaining Day Fraction Remaining
-2 1.641 2 0.610
-1 1.281 3 0.476
  0Calibration Time 1.000 4 0.372
1 0.781 5 0.290


Indium forms a saturated (1:3) complex with oxyquinoline. The complex is neutral and lipid-soluble, which enables it to penetrate the cell membrane. Within the cell, indium becomes firmly attached to cytoplasmic components; the liberated oxyquinoline is released by the cell. It is thought likely that the mechanism of labeling cells with indium In 111 oxyquinoline involves an exchange reaction between the oxyquinoline carrier and subcellular components which chelate indium more strongly than oxyquinoline. The low stability constant of the oxyquinoline complex, estimated at approximately 10, supports this theory.

Following the recommended leukocyte cell labeling procedure, approximately 77% of the added indium In 111 oxyquinoline is incorporated in the resulting cell pellet (which represents approximately 3-4 × 10 WBC).

Cell clumping can occur and was found in about one fifth of the leukocyte preparations examined. The presence of red blood cells or plasma will lead to reduced leukocyte labeling efficiency. Transferrin in plasma competes for indium In 111 oxyquinoline.

After injection of labeled leukocytes into normal volunteers, about 30% of the dose is taken up by spleen and 30% by liver, reaching a plateau at 2-48 hours after injection. No significant clearance of radioactivity is observed at 72 hours in these two organs. Pulmonary uptake is 4-7.5% at 10 minutes but is lost rapidly; pulmonary radioactivity is usually visible in scans only up to about 4 hours after injection.

The human biodistribution studies in three normal subjects injected with indium In 111 oxyquinoline labeled leukocytes indicate a biexponential disappearance of indium In 111 from the blood when monitored for up to 72 hours. Between 9.5 to 24.4% of the injected dose remains in whole blood and clears with a biological half-time of 2.8 to 5.5 hours. The remainder (13-18%) clears from blood with a biological half-time of 64 to 116 hours.

Elimination from the body of injected indium In 111 oxyquinoline is probably mainly through decay to stable cadmium since only a negligible amount (less than 1%) of the dose is excreted in feces and urine in 24 hours.

Clearance from whole blood and biological distribution can vary considerably with the individual recipient, the condition of the injected cells and labeling techniques used.

Release of radioactivity from the labeled cells is about 3% at 1 hour and 24% at 24 hours.

Clearance from liver and spleen, for the purpose of calculating the radiation dose, is assumed to be equal to the physical half-life of indium In 111 (67.2 hours).


Indium In 111 oxyquinoline is indicated for radiolabeling autologous leukocytes.

Indium In 111 oxyquinoline labeled leukocytes may be used as an adjunct in the detection of inflammatory processes to which leukocytes migrate, such as those associated with abscesses or other infection, following reinjection and detection by appropriate imaging procedures. The degree of accuracy may vary with labeling techniques and with the size, location and nature of the inflammatory process.

Indium In 111 oxyquinoline labeled leukocyte imaging is not the preferred technique for the initial evaluation of patients with a high clinical probability of an abscess in a known location. Ultrasound or computed tomography may provide a better anatomical delineation of the infectious process and information may be obtained more quickly than with labeled leukocytes. If localization by these techniques is successful, labeled leukocytes should not be used as a confirmatory procedure. If localization or diagnosis by these methods fails or is ambiguous, indium In 111 oxyquinoline labeled leukocyte imaging may be appropriate.


None known.


The content of the vial of indium In 111 oxyquinoline solution is intended only for use in the preparation of indium In 111 oxyquinoline labeled autologous leukocytes, and is not to be administered directly. Autologous leukocyte labeling is not recommended in leukopenic patients because of the small number of available leukocytes.

Due to radiation exposure, indium In 111 oxyquinoline labeled leukocytes could cause fetal harm when administered to pregnant women. If this radiopharmaceutical is used during pregnancy, the patient should be informed of the potential hazard to the fetus.

Indium In 111 oxyquinoline labeled autologous leukocytes should be used only when the benefit to be obtained exceeds the risks involved in children under eighteen years of age owing to the high radiation burden and the potential for delayed manifestation of long-term adverse effects.


Clumping of cells may produce focal accumulations of radioactivity in lungs which do not wash out in 24 hours and thus may lead to false positive results. This phenomenon can be detected by imaging the chest immediately after injection.

The normally high uptake of indium In 111 oxyquinoline labeled leukocytes by spleen and liver may mask inflammatory lesions in these organs. Labeled leukocytes have been observed to accumulate in the colon and accessory spleens of patients with or without disease.

Chemotaxis of granulocytes deteriorates during storage and loss of chemotaxis may cause false negative scans. The spontaneous release of indium In 111 has been reported to range from about 3% at one hour to 24% at 24 hours [ten Berge, R.J.M., Natarajan, A.T., Hardeman, M.R., et al, Labeling with indium In 111 has detrimental effects on human lymphocytes, Journal of Nuclear Medicine, 24, 615-620 (1983)]. The maximum amount of time recommended between drawing the blood and reinjection should not exceed 5 hours. It is recommended that the labeled cells be used within one hour of preparation, if possible and in no case more than three hours after preparation.

Plasma and red cell contamination impairs labeling efficiency of leukocytes. Hemolyzed blood in labeled leukocytes may produce heart pool activity and should be avoided.

Cell aggregates of various degrees have been reported. Cell labeling techniques and standing of cell preparation may be contributing factors.

Nuclear medicine procedures involving withdrawal and reinjection of blood have the potential for transmission of blood borne pathogens. Procedures should be implemented to avoid administration errors and viral contamination of personnel during blood product labeling. A system of checks similar to the ones used for administering blood transfusions should be routine.


Strict aseptic techniques should be used to maintain sterility throughout the procedures for using this product.

Do not use after the expiration time and date (5 days after calibration time) stated on the label.

The contents of the vial are radioactive. Adequate shielding of the preparation must be maintained at all times.

Indium In 111 oxyquinoline, like other radioactive drugs, must be handled with care and appropriate safety measures should be used to minimize radiation exposure to clinical personnel. Care should also be taken to minimize radiation exposure to the patient consistent with proper patient management.

Radiopharmaceuticals should be used only by physicians who are qualified by training and experience in the safe use and handling of radionuclides and whose experience and training have been approved by the appropriate governmental agency authorized to license the use of radio-nuclides.

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

Although earlier studies suggested that oxyquinoline (oxine) might have carcinogenic potential, recent studies have found no evidence of carcinogenicity in either rats or mice given oxyquinoline in feed at concentrations of 1,500 or 3,000 ppm for 103 weeks.

It has been reported [ten Berge, R.J.M., Natarajan, A.T., Hardeman, M.R., et al, Labeling with indium In 111 has detrimental effects on human lymphocytes, Journal of Nuclear Medicine, 24, 615-620 (1983)] that human lymphocytes labeled with recommended concentrations of indium In 111 oxyquinoline showed chromosome aberrations consisting of gaps, breaks and exchanges that appear to be radiation induced. At 555 kBq/10, 15 µCi/10 lymphocytes 93% of the cells were reported to be abnormal. The oncogenic potential of such lymphocytes has not been studied. It has been reported that the radiation dose to 10 leukocytes is 9 × 10 mGy (0.9 × 10 rads) from 18.5 MBq, 500 µCi [Goodwin, David A., Cell labeling with oxine chelates of radioactive metal ions: Techniques and clinical implications, Journal of Nuclear Medicine, 19, 557-559 (1978)].

Studies have not been performed to evaluate whether indium In 111 oxyquinoline affects fertility in male or female laboratory animals or humans.

Pregnancy Category C

Animal reproduction studies have not been conducted with Indium In 111 Oxyquinoline labeled leukocytes. It is also not known whether Indium In 111 Oxyquinoline labeled leukocytes can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman or can affect reproduction capacity.

However, Indium Nitrate, a closely related compound, was teratogenic and embryopathic in hamsters. Indium In 111 Oxyquinoline labeled leukocytes should be given to a pregnant woman only if clearly needed.

Ideally, examinations using radiopharmaceuticals, especially those elective in nature, in women of childbearing capability should be performed during the first few (approximately ten) days following the onset of menses.

Nursing Mothers

It is reported that indium 111 is secreted in human milk following administration of indium In 111 labeled leukocytes. Therefore, formula feedings should be substituted for breast feedings.

Pediatric Use

Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients below age 18 have not been established (See Warnings).

Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.


Sensitivity reactions (urticaria) have been reported. The presence of fever may mask pyrogenic reactions from indium In 111 oxyquinoline labeled leukocytes. The possibility of delayed adverse reactions has not been studied.


The recommended adult (70 kg) dose of indium In 111 oxyquinoline labeled autologous leukocytes is 7.4 to 18.5 MBq, 200-500 µCi. Indium In 111 oxyquinoline solution is intended for the radiolabeling of autologous leukocytes. The indium In 111 oxyquinoline labeled autologous leukocytes are administered intravenously.

Imaging is recommended at approximately 24 hours post injection. Typically, anterior and posterior views of the chest, abdomen and pelvis should be obtained with other views as required.

Aseptic procedures and a shielded syringe should be employed in the withdrawal of indium In 111 oxyquinoline from the vial. Similar procedures should be employed during the labeling procedure and the administration of the labeled leukocytes to the patient. The user should wear waterproof gloves during the entire procedure. The patient's dose should be measured by a suitable radioactivity calibration system immediately before administration. At this time, the leukocyte preparation should be checked for gross clumping and red blood cell contamination.


The estimated absorbed radiation doses to an adult patient weighing 70 kg from an intravenous dose of 18.5 MBq, 500 µCi of indium In 111 oxyquinoline labeled leukocytes including contributions from indium In 114m/114 as a radionuclidic impurity are shown in Table 4.

The dose of radiation absorbed by the organs will vary with the distribution of the blood cells in the organs, which in turn will depend on the predominance of the cell types labeled and their condition.

Table 4. Radiation Dose Estimate in a 70 kg Human for 18.5 MBq, 500 µCi at Expiry of Indium In 111 (99.75%) Oxyquinoline labeled leukocytes with Indium In 114m/114 (0.25%)
Assumptions: 30% to spleen, 30% to liver, 34% to red marrow, 6% to remainder of body, with no excretion.
Organ mGy/18.5 MBq
In 111
Rads/500 µCi
In 111
Spleen 130 13
Liver 19 1.9
Red Marrow 13 1.3
Skeleton 3.64 0.364
Testes 0.1 0.01
Ovaries 1.9 0.19
Total Body 3.1 0.31
Organ mGy/46.25 kBq
In 114m/114
Rads/1.25 µCi
In 114m/114
Spleen 70 7
Liver 7.1 0.71
Red Marrow 6.9 0.69
Skeleton 0.85 0.085
Testes 0.04 0.004
Ovaries 0.06 0.006
Total Body 0.6 0.06
Organ Total Dose
in mGy
Total Dose
in Rads
Spleen 200 20
Liver 26.6 2.66
Red Marrow 19.9 1.99
Skeleton 4.5 0.45
Testes 0.14 0.014
Ovaries 2.0 0.2
Total Body 3.7 0.37


Sterile technique must be used throughout. It is important that all equipment used for the preparation of reagents be thoroughly cleaned to assure the absence of trace metal impurities. The user should wear waterproof gloves during the handling and administration procedure.


It is generally advantageous to record any observations on cell abnormalities (e.g., cell clumping). A trypan blue exclusion test may also be performed.

It is recommended that the preparation be used within one hour of labeling (See Precautions).


Indium In 111 oxyquinoline solution is supplied in a vial as a single use only product containing 37 MBq, 1.0 mCi in 1.0 mL aqueous solution at the calibration date stated on the label. Vials are packaged in individual lead shields.

NDC 17156-021-01

The contents of the vial are radioactive and adequate shielding and handling precautions must be maintained.

This preparation is approved for use by persons licensed by the Illinois Emergency Management Agency pursuant to 32 IL. Adm. Code Section 330.260(a) and 335.4010 or equivalent licenses of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission or an Agreement State.


Indium In 111 oxyquinoline solution should be stored at room temperature (15-25°C, 59-77°F).

Indium In 111 oxyquinoline labeled autologous leukocytes should preferably be reinjected within one hour of labeling. The labeled cells may be stored at room temperature (15-25°C, 59-77°F) for up to three hours following completion of the cell labeling procedure. Reinjection of indium In 111 oxyquinoline labeled autologous leukocytes more than 5 hours after initial blood drawing is not recommended.

Sterile technique must be used throughout the collection, labeling and re-injection procedures.

Manufactured by: GE Healthcare Medi-Physics, Inc.Arlington Heights, IL 60004 U.S.A.

Customer Service: 1-800-292-8514Professional Services: 1-800-654-0118

GE and the GE Monogram are trademarks of General Electric Company.

© 2013 General Electric Company - All rightsreserved.

43-8021Revised June 2013

Indium In 111 Oxyquinoline SolutionFor the radiolabeling of autologousleukocytes. Each mL contains <0.1µgIndium, 50µg 8-hydroxyquinoline,~ 100µg polysorbate 80, 6mg(N-2-hydroxyethylpiperazine-N-2 ethane sulfonic acid). HEPESbuffer and 0.75% sodium chloride.pH adjusted with NaOH/HCl.Refer to package insert for furtherdetails. Rx ONLY Mfd. by GE Healthcare, Medi-Physics, Inc.Arlington Heights, IL 60004 U.S.A.

IN15PA Lot:Expiry

1mCi, 37 MBq1mL at 0600hrsCST on:




Medi-Physics Inc. dba GE Healthcare.

Active Ingredients


Drugs and Medications [10 Associated Drugs and Medications listed on BioPortfolio]

Indium 111 oxyquinolone [anazaohealth corporation]

Indium 111 Oxyquinolone (In-111 Oxine)

Indium in 111 chloride [curium us llc]

Indium In 111 Chloride Sterile Solution Rx only Diagnostic - For use only in radiolabeling ProstaScint™ (Capromab Pendetide). Radioimmunotherapy - For use only in radiolabeling Zevalin™ (Ibritumom...

Indiclor [medi-physics inc.]


Relegard [blansett pharmacal co]


In-111 dtpa [anazaohealth corporation]

In-111 DTPA (In-111 Pentetate Disodium)

Clinical Trials [27 Associated Clinical Trials listed on BioPortfolio]

111 Indium CHX-A DTPA Trastuzumab (Indium-Herceptin) for Imaging Breast Cancer

Background: - Some breast cancer cells have specific proteins (receptors) on their surface that make the tumor grow faster than normal cells. One of these receptors is called HER2...

Indium In 111 Pentetreotide in Treating Patients With Refractory Cancer

RATIONALE: Radiation therapy uses high-energy x-rays and other sources to damage tumor cells. Giving radiation therapy in different ways may kill more tumor cells. PURPOSE: Phase I trial ...

Biodistribution Study of CMD-193 in Patients With Advanced Tumours Expressing the Lewis-Y Antigen

This is a clinical trial of a drug called CMD-193 which is a humanised monoclonal antibody linked to a toxin (calicheamicin). The purpose of this study is to determine in patients with ad...

Multi-modality Imaging in Peritoneal Carcinomatosis of Colorectal Origin

Intraoperative tumor localization and resection can be enhanced using intraoperative fluorescence imaging and radiodetection. Labetuzumab specifically recognizes CEA which is is expressed ...

111-In-ch806 in Patients With Advanced Tumours Expressing the 806 Antigen

The purpose of this clinical trial is to describe the toxicity, biodistribution, pharmacokinetics and tumour uptake of a single infusion of ch806 (tagged with a trace amount of radioactive...

PubMed Articles [94 Associated PubMed Articles listed on BioPortfolio]

Indium Dopant Concentration Effects on Zinc Oxide Nanowires.

We report in detail the effects of varying the concentration of indium as a dopant in ZnO on the structural, vibrational and optical properties of ZnO nanowires. A highly versatile route to dope zinc ...

Influence of humic substances on the transport of indium and gallium in porous media.

Indium and gallium are used widely in modern industry, mostly for the production of semiconductors. They are considered as Technology-Critical Elements and have therefore received growing attention in...

Leaching and purification of indium from waste liquid crystal display panel after hydrothermal pretreatment: Optimum conditions determination and kinetic analysis.

Indium is one of the components with great recycling value in waste LCDs. Degradation of organic materials and the remain of indium in the solid phase can be simultaneously achieved by hydrothermal pr...

Two Indium Sulfate Tellurites: Centrosymmetric In(SO)(TeO)(OH)(HO) and Non-centrosymmetric In(SO)(TeO)F(HO).

Two new indium sulfate tellurites, namely, In(SO)(TeO)(OH)(HO) and In(SO)(TeO)F(HO), were synthesized by hydrothermal method in a one-pot reaction. Their pure phase yields have been successfully optim...

Bis(2-pyridyl) and Tris(2-pyridyl) Compounds of Gallium and Indium a Redox-Transmetalation Route.

Reactions of the tris(2-pyridyl)lead(II) compound [LiPb(2-py)] () with trialkyl compounds of the group 13 elements gallium and indium resulted in the bis(2-pyridyl) and tris(2-pyridyl) gallate complex...

Quick Search

Relevant Topics

Blood is a specialized bodily fluid that delivers necessary substances to the body's cells (in animals) – such as nutrients and oxygen – and transports waste products away from those same cells.  In vertebrates, it is composed of blo...

Within medicine, nutrition (the study of food and the effect of its components on the body) has many different roles. Appropriate nutrition can help prevent certain diseases, or treat others. In critically ill patients, artificial feeding by tubes need t...

Drug Discovery
Clinical Approvals Clinical Trials Drug Approvals Drug Delivery Drug Discovery Generics Drugs Prescription Drugs In the fields of medicine, biotechnology and pharmacology, drug discovery is the process by which drugs are dis...

Drugs and Medication Quicklinks

Searches Linking to this Drug Record