Advertisement

Topics

These highlights do not include all the information needed to use GEMCITABINE FOR INJECTION safely and effectively. See full prescribing information for GEMCITABINE FOR INJECTION. GEMCITABINE for injection, for intravenous useInitial U.S. Approval: 1996 | GEMCITABINE HYDROCHLORIDE [Cipla USA Inc.] | BioPortfolio

12:31 EST 27th January 2019 | BioPortfolio

Note: While we endeavour to keep our records up-to-date one should not rely on these details being accurate without first consulting a professional. Click here to read our full medical disclaimer.

Gemcitabine for injection in combination with carboplatin is indicated for the treatment of patients with advanced ovarian cancer that has relapsed at least 6 months after completion of platinum-based therapy.

Gemcitabine for injection in combination with paclitaxel is indicated for the first-line treatment of patients with metastatic breast cancer after failure of prior anthracycline-containing adjuvant chemotherapy, unless anthracyclines were clinically contraindicated.

Gemcitabine for injection is indicated in combination with cisplatin for the first-line treatment of patients with inoperable, locally advanced (Stage IIIA or IIIB), or metastatic (Stage IV) non-small cell lung cancer.

Gemcitabine for injection is indicated as first-line treatment for patients with locally advanced (nonresectable Stage II or Stage III) or metastatic (Stage IV) adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. Gemcitabine for injection is indicated for patients previously treated with 5-FU.

Recommended Dose and Schedule

The recommended dose of gemcitabine for injection is 1000 mg/m as an intravenous infusion over 30 minutes on Days 1 and 8 of each 21-day cycle, in combination with carboplatin AUC 4 intravenously after gemcitabine administration on Day 1 of each 21-day cycle. Refer to carboplatin prescribing information for additional information.

Dose Modifications

Recommended gemcitabine for injection dose modifications for myelosuppression are described in Table 1 and Table 2 [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]. Refer to Dosage and Administration (2.5) for recommendations for non-hematologic adverse reactions.

Table 1: Dosage Reduction Guidelines for Gemcitabine for Injection for Myelosuppression on Day of Treatment in Ovarian Cancer
Treatment
Day
Absolute granulocyte
count (x 106/L)

Platelet count
(x 106/L)
% of full dose
Day 1

≥1500
<1500
and
or
≥100,000
<100,000
100%
Delay Treatment Cycle
Day 8

≥1500
1000-1499
<1000
and
or
or
≥100,000
75,000-99,999
<75,000
100%
50%
Hold
Table 2: Gemcitabine for Injection Dose Modification for Myelosuppression in Previous Cycle in Ovarian Cancer
Occurrence
Myelosuppression During Treatment Cycle
Dose Modification
Initial Occurrence
Absolute granulocyte count less than 500 x 106/L for more than 5 days
Absolute granulocyte count less than 100 x 106/L for more than 3 days
Febrile neutropenia
Platelets less than 25,000x106/L
Cycle delay of more than one week due to toxicity
Permanently reduce gemcitabine for injection to 800 mg/m2 on Days 1 and 8
Subsequent Occurrence
If any of the above toxicities occur after the initial dose reduction
Permanently reduce gemcitabine for injection dose to 800 mg/m2 on Day 1 only

Recommended Dose and Schedule

The recommended dose of gemcitabine for injection is 1250 mg/m intravenously over 30 minutes on Days 1 and 8 of each 21-day cycle that includes paclitaxel. Paclitaxel should be administered at 175 mg/m on Day 1 as a 3 hour intravenous infusion before gemcitabine for injection administration.

Dose Modifications

Recommended dose modifications for gemcitabine for injection for myelosuppression are described in Table 3 [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]. Refer to Dosage and Administration (2.5) for recommendations for non-hematologic adverse reactions.

Table 3: Recommended Dose Reductions for Gemcitabine for Injection for Myelosuppression on Day of Treatment in Breast Cancer
Treatment
Day
Absolute granulocyte count
(x 106/L)

Platelet count
  (x 106/L)
% of full dose

Day 1

≥1500
less than 1500
and
or
≥100,000
less than 100,000
100%
Hold
Day 8

≥1200
1000-1199
700-999
<700
and
or
and
or
>75,000
50,000-75,000
≥50,000
<50,000
100%
75%
50%
Hold

Recommended Dose and Schedule

Every 4-week schedule

The recommended dose of gemcitabine for injection is 1000 mg/m intravenously over 30 minutes on Days 1, 8, and 15 in combination with cisplatin therapy. Administer cisplatin intravenously at 100 mg/m on Day 1 after the infusion of gemcitabine for injection.

Every 3-week schedule.

The recommended dose of gemcitabine for injection is 1250 mg/m intravenously over 30 minutes on Days 1 and 8 in combination with cisplatin therapy. Administer cisplatin intravenously at 100 mg/mon Day 1 after the infusion of gemcitabine for injection.

Dose Modifications

Recommended dose modifications for gemcitabine for injection myelosuppression are described in Table 4 [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]. Refer to Dosage and Administration (2.5) for gemcitabine for injection recommendations for non-hematologic adverse reactions.

Recommended Dose and Schedule

The recommended dose of gemcitabine for injection is 1000 mg/m over 30 minutes intravenously. The recommended treatment schedule is as follows:

• Weeks 1-8: weekly dosing for the first 7 weeks followed by one week rest.

• After week 8: weekly dosing on Days 1, 8, and 15 of 28-day cycles.

Dose Modifications

Recommended dose modifications for gemcitabine for injection for myelosuppression are described in Table 4 [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]. Refer to Dosage and Administration (2.5) for recommendations for non-hematologic adverse reactions.

Patients receiving gemcitabine for injection should be monitored prior to each dose with a complete blood count (CBC), including differential and platelet count. If marrow suppression is detected, therapy should be modified or suspended according to the guidelines in Table 4.

Table 4: Recommended Dose Reductions for Gemcitabine for Injection for Myelosuppression in Pancreatic Cancer and Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
Absolute granulocyte
 count (x 106/L)

Platelet count
(x 106/L)
% of full dose

≥1000
500-999
<500
and
or
or
≥100,000
50,000-99,999
<50,000
100%
75%
Hold

Permanently discontinue gemcitabine for injection for any of the following

Withhold gemcitabine for injection or reduce dose by 50% for other severe (Grade 3 or 4) non-hematological toxicity until resolved. No dose modifications are recommended for alopecia, nausea, or vomiting.

Exercise caution and wear gloves when preparing gemcitabine solutions. Immediately wash the skin thoroughly or rinse the mucosa with copious amounts of water if gemcitabine for injection contacts the skin or mucus membranes. Death has occurred in animal studies due to dermal absorption. For further guidance on handling gemcitabine go to "OSHA Hazardous Drugs" (refer to antineoplastic weblinks including OSHA Technical Manual) at OSHA. http://www.osha.gov/SLTC/hazardousdrugs/index.html 

Reconstitute the vials with 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection without preservatives.

Add 5 mL to the 200-mg vial or 25 mL to the 1-g vial. These dilutions each yield a gemcitabine concentration of 38 mg/mL. Complete withdrawal of the vial contents will provide 200 mg or 1 g of gemcitabine for injection. Prior to administration the appropriate amount of drug must be diluted with 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection. Final concentrations may be as low as 0.1 mg/mL.

Reconstituted gemcitabine for injection is a clear, colorless to light straw-colored solution. Inspect visually prior to administration and discard for particulate matter or discoloration. Gemcitabine solutions are stable for 24 hours at controlled room temperature of 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F). Do not refrigerate as crystallization can occur.

No incompatibilities have been observed with infusion bottles or polyvinyl chloride bags and administration sets.

Gemcitabine for injection, USP is a white to off-white lyophilized powder available in sterile single-use vials containing 200 mg or 1 g gemcitabine.

Gemcitabine for injection is contraindicated in patients with a known hypersensitivity to gemcitabine.

In clinical trials evaluating the maximum tolerated dose of gemcitabine for injection, prolongation of the infusion time beyond 60 minutes or more frequent than weekly dosing resulted in an increased incidence of clinically significant hypotension, severe flu-like symptoms, myelosuppression, and asthenia. The half-life of gemcitabine is influenced by the length of the infusion [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

Myelosuppression manifested by neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and anemia occurs with gemcitabine for injection as a single agent and the risks are increased when gemcitabine is combined with other cytotoxic drugs. In clinical trials, Grade 3-4 neutropenia, anemia, and thrombocytopenia occurred in 25%, 8%, and 5%, respectively of patients receiving single-agent gemcitabine. The frequencies of Grade 3-4 neutropenia, anemia, and thrombocytopenia varied from 48% to 71%, 8 to 28%, and 5 to 55%, respectively, in patients receiving gemcitabine in combination with another drug.

Pulmonary toxicity, including interstitial pneumonitis, pulmonary fibrosis, pulmonary edema, and adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), has been reported. In some cases, these pulmonary events can lead to fatal respiratory failure despite discontinuation of therapy. The onset of pulmonary symptoms may occur up to 2 weeks after the last dose of gemcitabine for injection. Discontinue gemcitabine for injection in patients who develop unexplained dyspnea, with or without bronchospasm, or have any evidence of pulmonary toxicity [see Adverse Reactions (6.1 and 6.2)].

Hemolytic uremic syndrome, including fatalities from renal failure or the requirement for dialysis, can occur in patients treated with gemcitabine for injection. In clinical trials, HUS was reported in 6 of 2429 patients (0.25%). Most fatal cases of renal failure were due to HUS [see Adverse Reactions (6.1 and 6.2)]. Assess renal function prior to initiation of gemcitabine for injection and periodically during treatment. Consider the diagnosis of HUS in patients who develops anemia with evidence of microangiopathic hemolysis, elevation of bilirubin or LDH, or reticulocytosis; severe thrombocytopenia; or evidence of renal failure (elevation of serum creatinine or BUN) [see Dosage and Administration (2.5) and Use in Specific Populations (8.6)]. Permanently discontinue gemcitabine for injection in patients with HUS or severe renal impairment. Renal failure may not be reversible even with discontinuation of therapy.

Drug-induced liver injury, including liver failure and death, has been reported in patients receiving gemcitabine for injection alone or in combination with other potentially hepatotoxic drugs [see Adverse Reactions (6.1 and 6.2)]. Administration of gemcitabine for injection in patients with concurrent liver metastases or a pre-existing medical history or hepatitis, alcoholism, or liver cirrhosis can lead to exacerbation of the underlying hepatic insufficiency [see Use in Specific Populations (8.7)]. Assess hepatic function prior to initiation of gemcitabine for injection and periodically during treatment. Discontinue gemcitabine for injection in patients that develop severe liver injury.

Gemcitabine for injection can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman, based on its mechanism of action. Gemcitabine was teratogenic, embryotoxic, and fetotoxic in mice and rabbits. If this drug is used during pregnancy, or if a woman becomes pregnant while taking gemcitabine for injection, the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to a fetus [See Use in Specific Populations (8.1)].

Gemcitabine for injection is not indicated for use in combination with radiation therapy.

Concurrent (given together or ≤7 days apart) — Life-threatening mucositis, especially esophagitis and pneumonitis occurred in a trial in which gemcitabine for injection was administered at a dose of 1000 mg/m to patients with non-small cell lung cancer for up to 6 consecutive weeks concurrently with thoracic radiation.

Non-concurrent (given >7 days apart) — Excessive toxicity has not been observed when gemcitabine for injection is administered more than 7 days before or after radiation. Radiation recall has been reported in patients who receive gemcitabine after prior radiation.

Capillary leak syndrome (CLS) with severe consequences has been reported in patients receiving gemcitabine for injection as a single agent or in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents. Discontinue gemcitabine for injection if CLS develops during therapy.

Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) has been reported in patients receiving gemcitabine for injection as a single agent or in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents. PRES can present with headache, seizure, lethargy, hypertension, confusion, blindness, and other visual and neurologic disturbances. Confirm the diagnosis of PRES with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and discontinue gemcitabine for injection if PRES develops during therapy.

The following serious adverse reactions are discussed in greater detail in another section of the label

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in clinical practice.

Single-Agent Use:

The data described below reflect exposure to gemcitabine as a single agent administered at doses between 800 mg/mto 1250 mg/mover 30 minutes intravenously, once weekly, in 979 patients with a variety of malignancies. The most common (≥20%) adverse reactions of single-agent gemcitabine are nausea/vomiting, anemia, increased ALT, increased AST, neutropenia, increased alkaline phosphatase, proteinuria, fever, hematuria, rash, thrombocytopenia, dyspnea, and edema. The most common (≥5%) Grade 3 or 4 adverse reactions were neutropenia, nausea/vomiting; increased ALT, increase alkaline phosphatase, anemia, increased AST, and thrombocytopenia. Approximately 10% of the 979 patients discontinued gemcitabine for injection due to adverse reactions. Adverse reactions resulting in discontinuation of gemcitabine for injection in 2% of 979 patients were cardiovascular adverse events (myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular accident, arrhythmia, and hypertension) and adverse reactions resulting in discontinuation of gemcitabine for injection in less than 1% of the 979 patients were anemia, thrombocytopenia, hepatic dysfunction, renal dysfunction, nausea/vomiting, fever, rash, dyspnea, hemorrhage, infection, stomatitis, somnolence, flu-like syndrome, and edema.

Table 5 presents the incidence of adverse reactions reported in 979 patients with various malignancies receiving single-agent gemcitabine across 5 clinical trials. Table 5 includes all clinical adverse reactions, reported in at least 10% of patients. A listing of clinically significant adverse reactions is provided following the table.

Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer:

Table 6 presents the incidence of selected adverse reactions, occurring in ≥10% of gemcitabine-treated patients and at a higher incidence in the gemcitabine plus cisplatin arm, reported in a randomized trial of gemcitabine plus cisplatin (n=262) administered in 28-day cycles as compared to cisplatin alone (n=260) in patients receiving first-line treatment for locally advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) [see Clinical Studies (14.3)].

Patients randomized to gemcitabine plus cisplatin received a median of 4 cycles of treatment and those randomized to cisplatin received a median of 2 cycles of treatment. In this trial, the requirement for dose adjustments (>90% versus 16%), discontinuation of treatment for adverse reactions (15% versus 8%), and the proportion of patients hospitalized (36% versus 23%) were all higher for patients receiving gemcitabine plus cisplatin arm compared to those receiving cisplatin alone. The incidence of febrile neutropenia (9/262 versus 2/260), sepsis (4% versus 1%), Grade 3 cardiac dysrhythmias (3% versus <1%) were all higher in the gemcitabine plus cisplatin arm compared to the cisplatin alone arm. The two-drug combination was more myelosuppressive with 4 (1.5%) possibly treatment-related deaths, including 3 resulting from myelosuppression with infection and one case of renal failure associated with pancytopenia and infection. No deaths due to treatment were reported on the cisplatin arm.

Table 7 presents the incidence of selected adverse reactions, occurring in ≥10% of gemcitabine-treated patients and at a higher incidence in the gemcitabine plus cisplatin arm, reported in a randomized trial of gemcitabine plus cisplatin (n=69) administered in 21-day cycles as compared to etoposide plus cisplatin alone (n=66) in patients receiving first-line treatment for locally advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) [see Clinical Studies (14.3)]. A listing of clinically significant adverse reactions is provided following the table.

Patients in the gemcitabine cisplatin (GC) arm received a median of 5 cycles and those in the etoposide/cisplatin (EC) arm received a median of 4 cycles. The majority of patients receiving more than one cycle of treatment required dose adjustments; 81% in the (GC) arm and 68% in the (EC) arm. The incidence of hospitalizations for treatment-related adverse events was 22% (GC) and 27% in the (EC) arm. The proportion of discontinuation of treatment for treatment-related adverse reactions was higher for patients in the (GC) arm (14% versus 8%). The proportion of patients hospitalized for febrile neutropenia was lower in the (GC) arm (7% versus 12%). There was one death attributed to treatment, a patient with febrile neutropenia and renal failure, which occurred in the gemcitabine/cisplatin arm.

Breast Cancer

Table 8 presents the incidence of selected adverse reactions, occurring in ≥10% of gemcitabine-treated patients and at a higher incidence in the gemcitabine plus paclitaxel arm, reported in a randomized trial of gemcitabine plus paclitaxel (n=262) compared to paclitaxel alone (n=259) for the first-line treatment of metastatic breast cancer (MBC) in women who received anthracycline-containing chemotherapy in the adjuvant/neo-adjuvant setting or for whom anthracyclines were contraindicated [See Clinical Studies (14.2)].

The requirement for dose reduction of paclitaxel were higher for patients in the gemcitabine/paclitaxel arm (5% versus 2%). The number of paclitaxel doses omitted (<1%), the proportion of patients discontinuing treatment for treatment-related adverse reactions (7% versus 5%), and the number of treatment-related deaths (1 patient in each arm) were similar between the two arms.

Clinically relevant Grade 3 or 4 dyspnea occurred with a higher incidence in the gemcitabine plus paclitaxel arm compared with the paclitaxel arm (1.9% versus 0).

Ovarian Cancer

Table 9 presents the incidence of selected adverse reactions, occurring in ≥10% of gemcitabine-treated patients and at a higher incidence in the gemcitabine plus carboplatin arm, reported in a randomized trial of gemcitabine plus carboplatin (n=175) compared to carboplatin alone (n=174) for the second-line treatment of ovarian cancer in women with disease that had relapsed more than 6 months following first-line platinum-based chemotherapy [see Clinical Studies (14.1)]. Additional clinically significant adverse reactions, occurring in less than 10% of patients, are provided following Table 9.

The proportion of patients with dose adjustments for carboplatin (1.8% versus 3.8%), doses of carboplatin omitted (0.2% versus 0), and discontinuing treatment for treatment-related adverse reactions (10.9% versus 9.8%), were similar between arms. Dose adjustment for gemcitabine for injection occurred in 10.4% of patients and gemcitabine for injection dose was omitted in 13.7% of patients in the gemcitabine /carboplatin arm.

Hematopoietic growth factors were administered more frequently in the gemcitabine-containing arm: granulocyte growth factors (23.6% and 10.1%) and erythropoietic agents (7.3% and 3.9%).

The following clinically relevant, Grade 3 and 4 adverse reactions occurred more frequently in the gemcitabine plus carboplatin arm: dyspnea (3.4% versus 2.9%), febrile neutropenia (1.1% versus 0), hemorrhagic event (2.3% versus 1.1 %), motor neuropathy (1.1% versus 0.6%), and rash/desquamation (0.6% versus 0).

Table 5: Selected Per-Patient Incidence of Adverse Events in Patients Receiving Single-Agent Gemcitabinea
a Grade based on criteria from the World Health Organization (WHO).
b N=699-974; all patients with laboratory or non-laboratory data.
c Regardless of causality.
d For approximately 60% of patients, non-laboratory adverse events were graded only if assessed to be possibly drug-related.

All Patientsb
All Grades
Grade 3
Grade 4
Laboratoryc
Hematologic
 Anemia
 Neutropenia
 Thrombocytopenia
68
63
24
7
19
4
1
6
1
Hepatic
 Increased ALT
 Increased AST
 Increased Alkaline Phosphatase
 Hyperbilirubinemia
68
67
55
13
8
6
7
2
2
2
2
<1
Renal
 Proteinuria
 Hematuria
 Increased BUN
 Increased Creatinine
45
35
16
8
<1
<1
0
<1
0
0
0
0
Non-laboratoryd
 Nausea and Vomiting
 Fever
 Rash
 Dyspnea
 Diarrhea
 Hemorrhage
 Infection
 Alopecia
 Stomatitis
 Somnolence
 Paresthesias
69
41
30
23
19
17
16
15
11
11
10
13
2
<1
3
1
<1
1
<1
<1
<1
<1
1
0
0
<1
0
<1
<1
0
0
<1
0
Table 6: Per-Patient Incidence of Selected Adverse Reactions from Randomized Trial of Gemcitabine plus Cisplatin versus Single-Agent Cisplatin in Patients with NSCLC Occurring at Higher Incidence in Gemcitabine -Treated Patients [Between Arm Difference of ≥5% (All Grades) or ≥2% (Grades 3-4)]a
aNational Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC) for severity grading.
b N=217-253; all gemcitabine plus cisplatin patients with laboratory or non-laboratory data gemcitabine at 1000 mg/m2 on Days 1, 8, and 15 and cisplatin at 100 mg/m2 on Day 1 every 28 days.
c N=213-248; all cisplatin patients with laboratory or non-laboratory data. Cisplatin at 100 mg/m2 on Day 1 every 28 days.
dRegardless of causality.
ePercent of patients receiving transfusions. Percent transfusions are not CTC-graded events.
fNon-laboratory events were graded only if assessed to be possibly drug-related.

Gemcitabine  plus  Cisplatinb

Cisplatinc


All Grades

Grade 3

Grade 4

All Grades

Grade 3

Grade 4

Laboratoryd 
 Hematologic 
 Anemia 
 RBC Transfusione
 Neutropenia 
 Thrombocytopenia
 Platelet Transfusionse 
 Lymphopenia 


89
39
79
85
21
75


22
-
22
25
-
25


3
-
35
25
-
18


67
13
20
13
<1
51


6
-
3
3
-
12


1

1
1
-
5
 Hepatic
 Increased Transaminases
 Increased Alkaline Phosphatase

22
19

2
1

1
0

10
13

1
0

0
0
 Renal 
 Proteinuria 
 Hematuria 
 Elevated creatinine 

23
15
38

0
0
4

0
0
<1

18
13
31

0
0
2

0
0
<1
 Other Laboratory 
 Hyperglycemia 
 Hypomagnesemia 
 Hypocalcemia

30
30
18

4
4
2

0
3
0

23
17
7

3
2
0

0
0
<1
  Non - laboratoryf  
 Nausea 
 Vomiting 
 Alopecia 
 Neuro Motor 
 Diarrhea 
 Neuro Sensory 
 Infection 
 Fever 
 Neuro Cortical 
 Neuro Mood 
 Local 
 Neuro Headache 
 Stomatitis 
 Hemorrhage 
 Hypotension 
 Rash

93
78
53
35
24
23
18
16
16
16
15
14
14
14
12
11

25
11
1
12
2
1
3
0
3
1
0
0
1
1
1
0

2
12
0
0
2
0
2
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

87
71
33
15
13
18
12
5
9
10
6
7
5
4
7
3

20
10
0
3
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
0

<1
9
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Table 7: Per-Patient Incidence of Selected Adverse Reactions in Randomized Trial of Gemcitabine plus Cisplatin versus Etoposide plus Cisplatin in Patients with NSCLCa
a Grade based on criteria from the World Health Organization (WHO).
b N=67-69; all Gemcitabine plus cisplatin patients with laboratory or non-laboratory data. Gemcitabine at 1250 mg/m2 on Days 1 and 8 and cisplatin at 100 mg/m2 on Day 1 every 21 days.
c N =57-63; all cisplatin plus etoposide patients with laboratory or non-laboratory data. Cisplatin at 100 mg/m2 on Day 1 and intravenous etoposide at 100 mg/m2 on Days 1, 2, and 3 every 21 days.
d Regardless of causality.
e WHO grading scale not applicable to proportion of patients with transfusions
fNon-laboratory events were graded only if assessed to be possibly drug-related. Pain data were not collected.
gFlu-like syndrome and edema were not graded.

Gemcitabine  plus  Cisplatinb
Etoposide  plus  Cisplatinc

All Grades
Grade 3
Grade 4 
All Grades
Grade 3
Grade 4 
  Laboratoryd






 Hematologic






 Anemia
88
22
0
77
13
2
 RBC Transfusionse
29
-
-
21
-
-
 Neutropenia
88
36
28
87
20
56
 Thrombocytopenia
81
39
16
45
8
5
 Platelet Transfusionse
3
-
-
8
-
-
 Hepatic






 Increased ALT
6
0
0
12
0
0
 Increased AST
3
0
0
11
0
0
 Increased Alkaline Phosphatase
16
0
0
11
0
0
 Bilirubin
0
0
0
0
0
0
 Renal






 Proteinuria
12
0
0
5
0
0
 Hematuria
22
0
0
10
0
0
 BUN
6
0
0
4
0
0
 Creatinine
2
0
0
2
0
0
  Non - laboratoryf






 Nausea and Vomiting
96
35
4
86
19
7
 Fever
6
0
0
3
0
0
 Rash
10
0
0
3
0
0
 Dyspnea
1
0
1
3
0
0
 Diarrhea
14
1
1
13
0
2
 Hemorrhage
9
0
3
3
0
3
 Infection
28
3
1
21
8
0
 Alopecia
77
13
0
92
51
0
 Stomatitis
20
4
0
18
2
0
 Somnolence
3
0
0
3
2
0
 Paresthesias
38
0
0
16
2
0
 Flu-like syndromeg
3
-
-
0
-
-
 Edemag
12
-
-
2
-
-
Table 8: Per-Patient Incidence of Selected Adverse Reactions from Comparative Trial of Gemcitabine plus Paclitaxel versus Single-Agent Paclitaxel in Breast Cancera Occurring at Higher Incidence in Gemcitabine-Treated Patients [Between Arm Difference of ≥5% (All Grades) or ≥2% (Grades 3-4)]
aSeverity grade based on National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC) Version 2.0
b Regardless of causality.
c Non-laboratory events were graded only if assessed to be possibly drug-related.

Gemcitabine  plus  Paclitaxel  ( N = 262 )
Paclitaxel  ( N = 259 )

All Grade
Grade 3 
Grade 4
All Grades
Grade 3
Grade 4
  Laboratoryb






 Hematologic






 Anemia
69
6
1
51
3
<1
 Neutropenia
69
31
17
31
4
7
 Thrombocytopenia
26
5
<1
7
<1
<1
 Hepatobiliary






 Increased ALT
18
5
<1
6
<1
0
 Increased AST
16
2
0
5
<1
0
  Non - laboratoryc






 Alopecia
90
14
4
92
19
3
 Neuropathy-sensory
64
5
<1
58
3
0
 Nausea
50
1
0
31
2
0
 Fatigue
40
6
<1
28
1
<1
 Vomiting
29
2
0
15
2
0
 Diarrhea
20
3
0
13
2
0
 Anorexia
17
0
0
12
<1
0
 Neuropathy-motor
15
2
<1
10
<1
0
 Stomatitis/pharyngitis
13
1
<1
8
<1
0
 Fever
13
<1
0
3
0
0
 Rash/desquamation
11
<1
<1
5
0
0
 Febrile neutropenia
6
5
<1 
2
1
0
Table 9: Per-Patient Incidence of Adverse Reactions in Randomized Trial of Gemcitabine plus Carboplatin versus Carboplatin in Ovarian Cancera Occurring at Higher Incidence in Gemcitabine-Treated Patients [Between Arm Difference of ≥5% (All Grades) or ≥2% (Grades 3-4)]
aGrade based on Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC) Version 2.0.
bRegardless of causality.
cPercent of patients receiving transfusions. Transfusions are not CTC-graded events. Blood transfusions included both packed red blood cells and whole blood.

Gemcitabine  plus  Carboplatin  ( N = 175 )
Carboplatin  ( N = 174 )

All Grades
Grade 3
Grade 4
All Grades
Grade3
Grade 4
  Laboratoryb






 Hematologic






 Neutropenia
90
42
29
58
11
1
 Anemia
86
22
6
75
9
2
 Thrombocytopenia
78
30
5
57
10
1
 RBC Transfusionsc
38
-
-
15
-
-
 Platelet Transfusionsc
9
-
-
3
-
-
  Non - laboratoryb






 Nausea
69
6
0
61
3
0
 Alopecia
49
0
0
17
0
0
 Vomiting
46
6
0
36
2
<1
 Constipation
42
6
1
37
3
0
 Fatigue
40
3
<1
32
5
0
 Diarrhea
25
3
0
14
<1
0
 Stomatitis/pharyngitis
22
<1
0
13
0
0

The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of gemcitabine for injection. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.

Cardiovascular — Congestive heart failure, myocardial infarction, arrhythmias, supraventricular arrhythmias.

Vascular Disorders — Peripheral vasculitis, gangrene, and capillary leak syndrome [see Warnings and Precautions (5.8)]

Skin — Cellulitis, pseudocellulitis, severe skin reactions, including desquamation and bullous skin eruptions

Hepatic — Hepatic failure, hepatic veno-occlusive disease

Pulmonary — Interstitial pneumonitis, pulmonary fibrosis, pulmonary edema, and adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)

Nervous System — Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.9)]

No drug interaction studies have been conducted.

Pregnancy Category D [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)].

Risk Summary

Gemcitabine can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Based on its mechanism of action, gemcitabine for injection is expected to result in adverse reproductive effects. Gemcitabine was teratogenic, embryotoxic, and fetotoxic in mice and rabbits. If gemcitabine for injection is used during pregnancy, or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking gemcitabine for injection, the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to a fetus.

Animal Data

Gemcitabine is embryotoxic causing fetal malformations (cleft palate, incomplete ossification) at doses of 1.5 mg/kg/day in mice (approximately 0.005 times the recommended human dose on a mg/mbasis). Gemcitabine is fetotoxic causing fetal malformations (fused pulmonary artery, absence of gall bladder) at doses of 0.1 mg/kg/day in rabbits (about 0.002 times the recommended human dose on a mg/mbasis). Embryotoxicity was characterized by decreased fetal viability, reduced live litter sizes, and developmental delays [See Warnings and Precautions (5.6)].

It is not known whether this drug is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk and because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from gemcitabine for injection, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.

The safety and effectiveness of gemcitabine for injection have not been established in pediatric patients. The safety and pharmacokinetics of gemcitabine were evaluated in a trial in pediatric patients with refractory leukemia. The maximum tolerated dose was 10 mg/m/min for 360 minutes weekly for three weeks followed by a one-week rest period. The safety and activity of gemcitabine for injection were evaluated in a trial of pediatric patients with relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia (22 patients) and acute myelogenous leukemia (10 patients) at a dose of 10 mg/m/min administered over 360 minutes weekly for three weeks followed by a one-week rest period. Patients with M1 or M2 bone marrow on Day 28 who did not experience unacceptable toxicity were eligible to receive a maximum of one additional four-week course. Toxicities observed included bone marrow suppression, febrile neutropenia, elevation of serum transaminases, nausea, and rash/desquamation. No meaningful clinical activity was observed in this trial.

In clinical studies of gemcitabine for injection, enrolling 979 patients with various cancers who received gemcitabine for injection as a single agent, no overall differences in safety were observed between patients aged 65 and older and younger patients, with the exception of a higher rate of Grade 3-4 thrombocytopenia in older patients as compared to younger patients. In a randomized trial in women with ovarian cancer, 175 women received gemcitabine plus carboplatin, of which 29% were age 65 years or older. Similar effectiveness was observed between older and younger women. There was significantly higher Grade 3/4 neutropenia in women 65 years of age or older.

Gemcitabine clearance is affected by age, however there are no recommended dose adjustments based on patients' age [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

No clinical studies have been conducted with gemcitabine in patients with decreased renal function.

No clinical studies have been conducted with gemcitabine in patients with decreased hepatic function.

Gemcitabine clearance is affected by gender [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. In single-agent studies of gemcitabine for injection, women, especially older women, were more likely not to proceed to a subsequent cycle and to experience Grade 3/4 neutropenia and thrombocytopenia.

Myelosuppression, paresthesias, and severe rash were the principal toxicities seen when a single dose as high as 5700 mg/mwas administered by intravenous infusion over 30 minutes every 2 weeks to several patients in a dose-escalation study.

Gemcitabine is a nucleoside metabolic inhibitor that exhibits antitumor activity. Gemcitabine HCl is 2´-deoxy-2´, 2´-difluorocytidine monohydrochloride (β-isomer).

The structural formula is as follows:

The empirical formula for gemcitabine HCl is CHFNO • HCl. It has a molecular weight of 299.66.

Gemcitabine HCl is soluble in water, slightly soluble in methanol, and practically insoluble in ethanol and polar organic solvents.

Gemcitabine for injection, USP is supplied in a sterile form for intravenous use only. Vials of Gemcitabine for injection, USP contain either 200 mg or 1 g of gemcitabine HCl (expressed as free base) formulated with mannitol (200 mg or 1 g, respectively) and sodium acetate (12.5 mg or 62.5 mg, respectively) as a sterile lyophilized powder. Hydrochloric acid and/or sodium hydroxide may have been added for pH adjustment.

Gemcitabine kills cells undergoing DNA synthesis and blocks the progression of cells through the G1/S-phase boundary. Gemcitabine is metabolized by nucleoside kinases to diphosphate (dFdCDP) and triphosphate (dFdCTP) nucleosides. Gemcitabine diphosphate inhibits ribonucleotide reductase, an enzyme responsible for catalyzing the reactions that generate deoxynucleoside triphosphates for DNA synthesis, resulting in reductions in deoxynucleotide concentrations, including dCTP. Gemcitabine triphosphate competes with dCTP for incorporation into DNA. The reduction in the intracellular concentration of dCTP by the action of the diphosphate enhances the incorporation of gemcitabine triphosphate into DNA (self-potentiation). After the gemcitabine nucleotide is incorporated into DNA, only one additional nucleotide is added to the growing DNA strands, which eventually results in the initiation of apoptotic cell death.

Absorption and Distribution

The pharmacokinetics of gemcitabine were examined in 353 patients, with various solid tumors. Pharmacokinetic parameters were derived using data from patients treated for varying durations of therapy given weekly with periodic rest weeks and using both short infusions (<70 minutes) and long infusions (70 to 285 minutes). The total gemcitabine for injection dose varied from 500 to 3600 mg/m.

The volume of distribution was increased with infusion length. Volume of distribution of gemcitabine was 50 L/mfollowing infusions lasting <70 minutes. For long infusions, the volume of distribution rose to 370 L/m.

Gemcitabine pharmacokinetics are linear and are described by a 2-compartment model. Population pharmacokinetic analyses of combined single and multiple dose studies showed that the volume of distribution of gemcitabine was significantly influenced by duration of infusion and gender. Gemcitabine plasma protein binding is negligible.

Metabolism

Gemcitabine disposition was studied in 5 patients who received a single 1000 mg/m/30 minute infusion of radiolabeled drug. Within one (1) week, 92% to 98% of the dose was recovered, almost entirely in the urine. Gemcitabine (<10%) and the inactive uracil metabolite, 2´-deoxy-2´, 2´-difluorouridine (dFdU), accounted for 99% of the excreted dose. The metabolite dFdU is also found in plasma.

The active metabolite, gemcitabine triphosphate, can be extracted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The half-life of the terminal phase for gemcitabine triphosphate from mononuclear cells ranges from 1.7 to 19.4 hours.

Elimination

Clearance of gemcitabine was affected by age and gender. The lower clearance in women and the elderly results in higher concentrations of gemcitabine for any given dose. Differences in either clearance or volume of distribution based on patient characteristics or the duration of infusion result in changes in half-life and plasma concentrations. Table 10 shows plasma clearance and half-life of gemcitabine following short infusions for typical patients by age and gender.

Gemcitabine half-life for short infusions ranged from 42 to 94 minutes, and the value for long infusions varied from 245 to 638 minutes, depending on age and gender, reflecting a greatly increased volume of distribution with longer infusions.

Drug Interactions

When gemcitabine (1250 mg/mon Days 1 and 8) and cisplatin (75 mg/mon Day 1) were administered in NSCLC patients, the clearance of gemcitabine on Day 1 was 128 L/hr/mand on Day 8 was 107 L/hr/m. Analysis of data from metastatic breast cancer patients shows that, on average, gemcitabine has little or no effect on the pharmacokinetics (clearance and half-life) of paclitaxel and paclitaxel has little or no effect on the pharmacokinetics of gemcitabine. Data from NSCLC patients demonstrate that gemcitabine and carboplatin given in combination does not alter the pharmacokinetics of gemcitabine or carboplatin compared to administration of either single agent. However, due to wide confidence intervals and small sample size, interpatient variability may be observed.

Table 10: Gemcitabine Clearance and Half-Life for the “Typical” Patient
a Half-life for patients receiving <70 minute infusion.
Age

Clearance Men 
(L/hr/m2)
Clearance Women 
(L/hr/m2)
Half-Lifea Men 
(min)
Half-Lifea Women
 (min)
29
92.2
69.4
42
49
45
75.7
57.0
48
57
65
55.1
41.5
61
73
79
40.7
30.7
79
94

Long-term animal studies to evaluate the carcinogenic potential of gemcitabine for injection have not been conducted. Gemcitabine was mutagenic in an in vitro mouse lymphoma (L5178Y) assay and was clastogenic in an in vivo mouse micronucleus assay. Gemcitabine IP doses of 0.5 mg/kg/day (about 1/700 the human dose on a mg/m basis) in male mice had an effect on fertility with moderate to severe hypospermatogenesis, decreased fertility, and decreased implantations. In female mice, fertility was not affected but maternal toxicities were observed at 1.5 mg/kg/day administered intravenously (about 1/200 the human dose on a mg/m basis) and fetotoxicity or embryolethality was observed at 0.25 mg/kg/day administered intravenously (about 1/1300 the human dose on a mg/m basis).

The safety and efficacy of gemcitabine for injection was studied in a randomized trial of 356 women with advanced ovarian cancer that had relapsed at least 6 months after first-line platinum-based therapy. Patients were randomized to receive either gemcitabine 1000 mg/mon Days 1 and 8 of a 21-day cycle and carboplatin AUC 4 administered after gemcitabine infusion on Day 1 of each cycle (n=178) or to carboplatin AUC 5 administered on Day 1 of each 21-day cycle (n=178). The primary efficacy outcome measure was progression free survival (PFS).

Patient characteristics are shown in Table 11. The addition of gemcitabine to carboplatin resulted in statistically significant improvements in PFS and overall response rate as shown in Table 12 and Figure 1. Approximately 75% of patients in each arm received additional chemotherapy for disease progression; 13 of 120 patients in the carboplatin alone arm received gemcitabine for treatment of disease progression. There was no significant difference in overall survival between the treatment arms.

Figure 1: Kaplan-Meier Curve of Progression Free Survival in Gemcitabine plus Carboplatin versus Carboplatin in Ovarian Cancer (N=356).

Table 11: Randomized Trial of Gemcitabine plus Carboplatin versus Carboplatin in Ovarian Cancer -Baseline Demographics and Clinical Characteristics
a 5 patients on gemcitabine plus carboplatin arm and 4 patients on carboplatin arm with no baseline Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status.
b 2 on gemcitabine plus carboplatin arm and 1 on carboplatin arm had platinum-free interval <6 months.

Gemcitabine / Carboplatin
Carboplatin
Number of randomized patients
178
178
Median age, years
59
58
Range
36 to 78
21 to 81
Baseline ECOG performance status 0-1a
94%
95%
Disease Status


Evaluable
8%
3%
Bidimensionally measurable
92%
96%
Platinum-free intervalb


6-12 months
40%
40%
>12 months
59%
60%
First-line therapy


Platinum-taxane combination
70%
71%
Platinum-non-taxane combination
29%
28%
Platinum monotherapy
1%
1%
Table 12: Randomized Trial of Gemcitabine plus Carboplatin versus Carboplatin in Ovarian Cancer -Efficacy Outcomes
a CI=confidence interval
b Log rank, unadjusted.
C Chi square.
d CR=Complete response.
e PR plus PRNM=Partial response plus partial response, non-measurable disease.
f Independently reviewed cohort -gemcitabine/carboplatin (n=121), carboplatin (n=101); independent reviewers unable to measure disease detected by sonography or physical exam

Gemcitabine / Carboplatin
( N = 178 )
Carboplatin
( N = 178 )
Progression-free Survival


Median (95% CIa) months
8.6 (8.0, 9.7)
5.8 (5.2, 7.1)
Hazard Ratio (95% CI)
0.72 (0.57, 0.90)
p-valueb
p=0.0038
Overall Survival


Median (95% CI) months
18.0 (16.2, 20.3)
17.3 (15.2, 19.3)
Hazard Ratio (95% CI)
0.98 (0.78, 1.24)
p-valueb
p=0.8977
Investigator Reviewed


Overall Response Rate
47.2%
30.9%
p-valuec
p=0.0016
CRd
14.6%
6.2%
PR plus PRNMe
32.6%
24.7%
Independently Reviewed


Overall Response Ratef
46.3%
35.6%
p-valuec
p=0.11
CRd
9.1%
4.0%
PR plus PRNMe
37.2%
31.7%

The safety and efficacy of gemcitabine for injection were evaluated in a multi-national, randomized, open-label trial conducted in women receiving initial treatment for metastatic breast cancer in women who have received prior adjuvant/neoadjuvant anthracycline chemotherapy unless clinically contraindicated. Patients were randomized to receive gemcitabine 1250 mg/mon Days 1 and 8 of a 21-day cycle and paclitaxel 175 mg/madministered prior to gemcitabine on Day 1 of each cycle (n=267) or to receive paclitaxel 175 mg/mwas administered on Day 1 of each 21-day cycle (n=262). The primary efficacy outcome measure was time to documented disease progression.

A total of 529 patients were enrolled; 267 were randomized to gemcitabine and paclitaxel and 262 to paclitaxel alone. Demographic and baseline characteristics were similar between treatment arms (see Table 13). Efficacy results are presented in Table 13 and Figure 2. The addition of gemcitabine to paclitaxel resulted in statistically significant improvement in time to documented disease progression and overall response rate compared to paclitaxel alone. There was no significant difference in overall survival.

Figure 2: Kaplan-Meier Curve of Time to Documented Disease Progression in Gemcitabine plus Paclitaxel versus Paclitaxel Breast Cancer Study (N=529)

Table 13: Randomized Trial of Gemcitabine plus Paclitaxel versus Paclitaxel in Breast Cancer
a Karnofsky Performance Status.
b These represent reconciliation of investigator and Independent Review Committee assessments according to a predefined algorithm.
c Based on the ITT population

Gemcitabine / Paclitaxel
Paclitaxel
 Number of patients
267
262
  Demographic / Entry 
  Characteristics


 Median age (years)
53
52
 Range
26 to 83
26 to 75
 Metastatic disease
97%
97%
 Baseline KPSa ≥90
70%
74%
 Number of tumor sites


 1-2
57%
59%
 ≥3
43%
41%
 Visceral disease
73%
73%
 Prior anthracycline
97%
96%
  Efficacy  Outcomes
 Time to Documented Disease Progressionb


 Median in months (95% CI)
5.2
(4.2, 5.6)
2.9
(2.6, 3.7)
 Hazard Ratio (95% CI)
0.650 (0.524, 0.805)
 p-value
p<0.0001
 Overall Survivalc


 Median Survival in months (95% CI)
18.6
(16.5, 20.7)
15.8
(14.1, 17.3)
 Hazard Ratio (95% CI)
0.86 (0.71, 1.04)
 p-value
Not Significant
 Overall Response Rate
40.8%
22.1%
 (95% CI)
(34.9, 46.7)
(17.1, 27.2)
 p-value
p<0.0001

The safety and efficacy of gemcitabine for injection was evaluated in two randomized, multicenter trials.

28-Day Schedule

A multinational, randomized trial compared gemcitabine plus cisplatin to cisplatin alone in the treatment of patients with inoperable Stage IIIA, IIIB, or IV NSCLC who had not received prior chemotherapy. Patients were randomized to receive gemcitabine 1000 mg/mon Days 1, 8, and 15 of a 28-day cycle with cisplatin 100 mg/madministered on Day 1 of each cycle or to receive cisplatin 100 mg/mon Day 1 of each 28-day cycle. The primary efficacy outcome measure was overall survival. A total of 522 patients were enrolled at clinical centers in Europe, the US, and Canada. Patient demographics and baseline characteristics (shown in Table 14) were similar between arms with the exception of histologic subtype of NSCLC, with 48% of patients on the cisplatin arm and 37% of patients on the gemcitabine plus cisplatin arm having adenocarcinoma. Efficacy results are presented in Table 14 and Figure 3 for overall survival.

21-Day Schedule

A randomized (1:1), multicenter trial was conducted in 135 patients with Stage IIIB or IV NSCLC. Patients were randomized to receive gemcitabine 1250 mg/mon Days 1 and 8, and cisplatin 100 mg/mon Day 1 of a 21-day cycle or to receive etoposide 100 mg/mintravenously on Days 1, 2, and 3 and cisplatin 100 mg/mon Day 1 of a 21 -day cycle.

There was no significant difference in survival between the two treatment arms (Log rank p=0.18, two-sided, see Table 14). The median survival was 8.7 months for the gemcitabine plus cisplatin arm versus 7.0 months for the etoposide plus cisplatin arm. Median time to disease progression for the gemcitabine plus cisplatin arm was 5.0 months compared to 4.1 months on the etoposide plus cisplatin arm (Log rank p=0.015, two-sided). The objective response rate for the gemcitabine plus cisplatin arm was 33% compared to 14% on the etoposide plus cisplatin arm (Fisher's Exact p=0.01, two-sided).

Figure 3: Kaplan-Meier Survival Curve in Gemcitabine plus Cisplatin versus Cisplatin in Patients with NSCLC Study (N=522)

Table 14: Randomized Trials of Gemcitabine plus Cisplatin in Patients with NSCLC
a 28-day schedule — Gemcitabine plus cisplatin: Gemcitabine 1000 mg/m2 on Days 1, 8, and 15 and cisplatin 100 mg/m2 on Day 1 every 28 days; Single-agent cisplatin: cisplatin 100 mg/m2 on Day 1 every 28 days.
b21-day schedule — Gemcitabine plus cisplatin: Gemcitabine 1250 mg/m2 on Days 1 and 8 and cisplatin 100 mg/m2 on Day 1 every 21 days; Etoposide plus Cisplatin: cisplatin 100 mg/m2 on Day 1 and intravenous etoposide 100 mg/m2 on Days 1, 2, and 3 every 21 days.
cN/A Not applicable.
dKarnofsky Performance Status.
eCI=confidence intervals
fp-value two-sided Fisher’s exact test for difference in binomial proportions; log rank test for time-to-event analyses.
 Trial
28 - day  Schedulea
21 - day  Scheduleb
 Treatment Arm
Gemcitabine plus Cisplatin
Cisplatin
Gemcitabine plus Cisplatin
Etoposide plus Cisplatin
 Number of patients
260
262
69
66
  Demographic / Entry   Characteristics




 Male
70%
71%
93%
92%
 Median age, years
62
63
58
60
 Range
36 to 88
35 to 79
33 to 76
35 to 75
 Stage IIIA
7%
7%
N/Ac
N/Ac
 Stage IIIB
26%
23%
48%
52%
 Stage IV
67%
70%
52%
49%
 Baseline KPSd 70 to 80
41%
44%
45%
52%
 Baseline KPSd 90 to 100
57%
55%
55%
49%
  Efficacy  Outcomes




 Survival




 Median in months
9.0
7.6
8.7
7.0
 (95% CIe) months
8.2, 11.0
6.6, 8.8
7.8, 10.1
6.0, 9.7
 p-valuef
p=0.008
p=0.18
 Time to Disease  Progression




 Median in months
5.2
3.7
5.0
4.1
 (95% CIe) months
4.2, 5.7
3.0, 4.3
4.2, 6.4
2.4, 4.5
 p-valuef
p=0.009
p=0.015
 Tumor Response
26%
10%
33%
14%
 p-valuef
p<0.0001
p=0.01

The safety and efficacy of gemcitabine for injection was evaluated in two trials, a randomized, single-blind, two-arm, active-controlled trial conducted in patients with locally advanced or metastatic pancreatic cancer who had received no prior chemotherapy and in a single-arm, open-label, multicenter trial conducted in patients with locally advanced or metastatic pancreatic cancer previously treated with 5-FU or a 5-FU-containing regimen. The first trial randomized patients to receive gemcitabine for injection 1000 mg/mintravenously over 30 minutes once weekly for 7 weeks followed by a one-week rest, then once weekly dosing for 3 consecutive weeks every 28-days in subsequent cycles (n=63) or to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) 600 mg/mintravenously over 30 minutes once weekly (n=63). In the second trial, all patients received gemcitabine for injection 1000 mg/mintravenously over 30 minutes once weekly for 7 weeks followed by a one-week rest, then once weekly dosing for 3 consecutive weeks every 28-days in subsequent cycles.

The primary efficacy outcome measure in both trials was "clinical benefit response". A patient was considered to have had a clinical benefit response if either of the following occurred:

• The patient achieved a ≥50% reduction in pain intensity (Memorial Pain Assessment Card) or analgesic consumption, or a 20-point or greater improvement in performance status (Karnofsky Performance Status) for a period of at least 4 consecutive weeks, without showing any sustained worsening in any of the other parameters. Sustained worsening was defined as 4 consecutive weeks with either any increase in pain intensity or analgesic consumption or a 20-point decrease in performance status occurring during the first 12 weeks of therapy.

OR

• The patient was stable on all of the aforementioned parameters, and showed a marked, sustained weight gain (≥7% increase maintained for ≥4 weeks) not due to fluid accumulation.

The randomized trial enrolled 126 patients across 17 sites in the US and Canada. The demographic and entry characteristics were similar between the arms (Table 15). The efficacy outcome results are shown in Table 15 and for overall survival in Figure 4. Patients treated with gemcitabine for injection had statistically significant increases in clinical benefit response, survival, and time to disease progression compared to those randomized to receive 5-FU. No confirmed objective tumor responses were observed in either treatment arm.

Figure 4: Kaplan-Meier Survival Curve

Table 15: Randomized Trial of Gemcitabine versus 5-Fluorouracil in Pancreatic Cancer
aKarnofsky Performance Status.
bp-value for clinical benefit response calculated using the two-sided test for difference in binomial proportions. All other p-values are calculated using log rank test.

Gemcitabine
5 - FU
 Number of patients
63
63
  Demographic / Entry  Characteristics 
 Male

54%

54%
 Median age
62 years
61 years
 Range
37 to 79
36 to 77
 Stage IV disease
71%
76%
 Baseline KPSa ≤70
70%
68%
  Efficacy  Outcomes
 Clinical benefit response
22.2%
4.8%
 p-valueb
p=0.004
 Survival


 Median
5.7 months
4.2 months
 (95% CI)
(4.7, 6.9)
(3.1, 5.1)
 p-valueb
p=0.0009
 Time to Disease Progression


 Median
2.1 months
0.9 months
 (95% CI)
(1.9, 3.4)
(0.9, 1.1)
 p-valueb
p=0.0013

Gemcitabine for injection, USP, is available in sterile single-use vials individually packaged in a carton containing:

200 mg white to off-white, lyophilized powder in a 10-mL size sterile single-use vial- NDC 69097-313-37.

1 g white to off-white, lyophilized powder in a 50-mL size sterile single-use vial- NDC 69097-314-42.

Unopened vials of gemcitabine for injection, USP are stable until the expiration date indicated on the package when stored at controlled room temperature 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature] [see Dosage and Administration (2.6 and 2.7)].

• Advise patients of the risks of low blood cell counts and the potential need for blood transfusions and increased susceptibility to infections. Instruct patients to immediately contact their healthcare provided for development of signs or symptoms of infection, fever, prolonged or unexpected bleeding, bruising, or shortness of breath [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].

• Advise patients of the risks of pulmonary toxicity including respiratory failure and death. Instruct patients to immediately contact their healthcare provider for development of shortness of breath, wheezing, or cough [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].

• Advise patients of the risks of hemolytic-uremic syndrome and associated renal failure. Instruct patients to immediately contact their healthcare provider for changes in the colour or volume of urine output or for increased bruising or bleeding [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)].

• Advise patients of the risks of hepatic toxicity including liver failure and death. Instruct patients to immediately contact their healthcare provider for signs of jaundice or for pain/tenderness in the right upper abdominal quadrant [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)].

Manufactured By:

Cipla Ltd.,

Verna Goa, INDIA.

Manufactured for:

Cipla USA, Inc.

1560 Sawgrass Corporate Parkway,

Suite 130, Sunrise, FL 33323

Revised: 07/2018

NDC 69097-313-37              Rx Only

     Gemcitabine

for Injection, USP

     200 mg/vial

     (lyophilized)

DO NOT REFRIGERATE

For Intravenous Use Only

Sterile Single-Dose Vial

            Cipla

 NDC 69097-314-42              Rx Only

      Gemcitabine

for Injection, USP

         1 g/ vial

     (lyophilized)

DO NOT REFRIGERATE

For Intravenous Use Only

Sterile Single-Dose Vial

             Cipla

Manufacturer

Cipla USA Inc.

Active Ingredients

Source

Drugs and Medications [242 Associated Drugs and Medications listed on BioPortfolio]

Gemcitabine [bedford laboratories]

These highlights do not include all the information needed to use gemcitabine for injection safely and effectively. See full prescribing information for gemcitabine for injection. Gemcitabine For Inje...

Gemcitabine [dr. reddy's laboratories limited ]

These highlights do not include all the information needed to used GEMCITABINE FOR INJECTION safely and effectively. See full prescribing information for GEMCITABINE FOR INJECTION. GEMCITABINE for inj...

Gemcitabine [hospira, inc.]

These highlights do not include all the information needed to use GEMCITABINE FOR INJECTION safely and effectively. See full prescribing information for GEMCITABINE FOR INJECTION. GEMCITABINE for inje...

Gemcitabine [hospira, inc.]

These highlights do not include all the information needed to use GEMCITABINE FOR INJECTION safely and effectively. See full prescribing information for GEMCITABINE FOR INJECTION.GEMCITABINE for injec...

Gemcitabine hydrochloride [bluepoint laboratories]

These highlights do not include all the information needed to use Gemcitabine for Injection safely and effectively. See full prescribing information for Gemcitabine for Injection. Gemcitabine for inje...

Clinical Trials [3153 Associated Clinical Trials listed on BioPortfolio]

Gemcitabine Hydrochloride With or Without GDC-0449 in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Metastatic Pancreatic Cancer

RATIONALE: Drugs used in chemotherapy, such as gemcitabine hydrochloride, work in different ways to stop the growth of tumor cells, either by killing the cells or by stopping them from div...

Gemcitabine Hydrochloride, Dasatinib, and Erlotinib Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Metastatic Pancreatic Cancer That Cannot Be Removed by Surgery

This phase I trial studies the side effects and best dose of gemcitabine hydrochloride and dasatinib when given together with erlotinib hydrochloride in treating patients with pancreatic c...

Cisplatin, Capecitabine, Gemcitabine Hydrochloride and Epirubicin Hydrochloride or Docetaxel in Treating Patients With Stage III or Stage IV Pancreatic Cancer

RATIONALE: Drugs used in chemotherapy, such as cisplatin, capecitabine, gemcitabine hydrochloride, epirubicin hydrochloride, and docetaxel, work in different ways to stop the growth of tum...

Gemcitabine Hydrochloride and Genistein in Treating Women With Stage IV Breast Cancer

RATIONALE: Drugs used in chemotherapy, such as gemcitabine hydrochloride and genistein, work in different ways to stop the growth of tumor cells, either by killing the cells or by stopping...

Gemcitabine Hydrochloride, Oxaliplatin, and Erlotinib Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Advanced Biliary Tract Cancer, Pancreatic Cancer, Duodenal Cancer, or Ampullary Cancer

RATIONALE: Drugs used in chemotherapy, such as gemcitabine hydrochloride and oxaliplatin, work in different ways to stop the growth of tumor cells, either by killing the cells or by stoppi...

PubMed Articles [318 Associated PubMed Articles listed on BioPortfolio]

Comparison of Gemcitabine monotherapy with Gemcitabine and Cisplatin combination in metastatic pancreatic cancer: a retrospective analysis.

Gemcitabine is among the standard first-line agents for the treatment of metastatic pancreatic cancer. However, as the median survival with gemcitabine monotherapy is 6 months, different combinations ...

USP9X inhibition improves gemcitabine sensitivity in pancreatic cancer by inhibiting autophagy.

Gemcitabine is the cornerstone of pancreatic cancer treatment. Although effective in most patients, development of tumor resistance to gemcitabine can critically limit its efficacy. The mechanisms res...

Protective effects of berberine hydrochloride on DSS-induced ulcerative colitis in rats.

Berberine hydrochloride is one the effective compound among Rhizoma Coptidis, Cortex Phellodendri, and other plants. There are several clinical functions of berberine hydrochloride including anti-infl...

Digoxin sensitizes gemcitabine-resistant pancreatic cancer cells to gemcitabine via inhibiting Nrf2 signaling pathway.

Chemoresistance is a major therapeutic obstacle in the treatment of human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). As an oxidative stress responsive transcription factor, nuclear factor erythroid 2-re...

Gemcitabine exhibits a suppressive effect on pancreatic cancer cell growth by regulating processing of PVT1 to miR1207.

Gemcitabine serves as a first-line chemotherapy agent for advanced pancreatic cancer. However, the molecular basis by which gemcitabine exerts its effects is not well-established, and the targeted gen...

Advertisement
Quick Search
Advertisement
Advertisement

 

Relevant Topics

Cancer
  Bladder Cancer Brain Cancer Breast Cancer Cancer Cervical Cancer Colorectal Head & Neck Cancers Hodgkin Lymphoma Leukemia Lung Cancer Melanoma Myeloma Ovarian Cancer Pancreatic Cancer ...

Gilotrif (afatinib)
GILOTRIF (afatinib) is a kinase inhibitor indicated for the first-line treatment of patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) whose tumors have epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) exon 19 deletions or exon 21 (L8...


Drugs and Medication Quicklinks


Searches Linking to this Drug Record