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These highlights do not include all the information needed to use risperidone safely and effectively. See full prescribing information for risperidone tablets, USP. Risperidone Tablets, USPInitial U.S. Approval: 1993 | Risperidone [Aurolife Pharma LLC] | BioPortfolio

12:46 EST 27th January 2019 | BioPortfolio

Note: While we endeavour to keep our records up-to-date one should not rely on these details being accurate without first consulting a professional. Click here to read our full medical disclaimer.

Risperidone tablets, USP are indicated for the treatment of irritability associated with autistic disorder in children and adolescents aged 5 to 16 years, including symptoms of aggression towards others, deliberate self-injuriousness, temper tantrums, and quickly changing moods [see Clinical Studies (14.4)].

The dosage of risperidone should be initiated at 0.5 mg once daily, administered as a single-daily dose in either the morning or evening. Dosage adjustments, if indicated, should occur at intervals not less than 24 hours, in increments of 0.5 or 1 mg/day, as tolerated, to a recommended dose of 3 mg/day. Although efficacy has been demonstrated in studies of adolescent patients with schizophrenia at doses between 1 and 6 mg/day, no additional benefit was seen above 3 mg/day, and higher doses were associated with more adverse events. Doses higher than 6 mg/day have not been studied.   

Patients experiencing persistent somnolence may benefit from administering half the daily dose twice daily. 

There are no controlled data to support the longer term use of risperidone beyond 8 weeks in adolescents with schizophrenia. The physician who elects to use risperidone for extended periods in adolescents with schizophrenia should periodically re-evaluate the long-term risks and benefits of the drug for the individual patient. 

Patients experiencing persistent somnolence may benefit from administering half the daily dose twice daily. 

The safety and effectiveness of risperidonein pediatric patients with autistic disorder less than 5 years of age have not been established.

The dosage of risperidoneshould be individualized according to the response and tolerability of the patient. The total daily dose of risperidonecan be administered once daily, or half the total daily dose can be administered twice daily. 

Dosing should be initiated at 0.25 mg per day for patients < 20 kg and 0.5 mg per day for patients ≥ 20 kg. After a minimum of four days from treatment initiation, the dose may be increased to the recommended dose of 0.5 mg per day for patients < 20 kg and 1 mg per day for patients ≥ 20 kg. This dose should be maintained for a minimum of 14 days. In patients not achieving sufficient clinical response, dose increases may be considered at ≥ 2-week intervals in increments of 0.25 mg per day for patients < 20 kg or 0.5 mg per day for patients ≥ 20 kg. Caution should be exercised with dosage for smaller children who weigh less than 15 kg. 

In clinical trials, 90% of patients who showed a response (based on at least 25% improvement on ABC-I, [see Clinical Studies (14.4)]) received doses of risperidonebetween 0.5 mg and 2.5 mg per day. The maximum daily dose of risperidonein one of the pivotal trials, when the therapeutic effect reached plateau, was 1 mg in patients < 20 kg, 2.5 mg in patients ≥ 20 kg, or 3 mg in patients > 45 kg. No dosing data is available for children who weighed less than 15 kg. 

Once sufficient clinical response has been achieved and maintained, consideration should be given to gradually lowering the dose to achieve the optimal balance of efficacy and safety. The physician who elects to use risperidonefor extended periods should periodically re-evaluate the long-term risks and benefits of the drug for the individual patient. 

Patients experiencing persistent somnolence may benefit from a once-daily dose administered at bedtime or administering half the daily dose twice daily, or a reduction of the dose.

Atypical antipsychotic drugs have been associated with metabolic changes that may increase cardiovascular/cerebrovascular risk. These metabolic changes include hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and body weight gain. While all of the drugs in the class have been shown to produce some metabolic changes, each drug has its own specific risk profile.

Hyperglycemia and Diabetes Mellitus

Pooled data from three double-blind, placebo-controlled schizophrenia studies and four double-blind, placebo-controlled bipolar monotherapy studies are presented in Table 1a. 

Table 1a. Change in Random Glucose from Seven Placebo-Controlled, 3- to 8-Week, Fixed- or Flexible-Dose Studies in Adult Subjects with Schizophrenia or Bipolar Mania

In longer-term, controlled and uncontrolled studies, risperidone was associated with a mean change in glucose of +2.8 mg/dL at Week 24 (n=151) and +4.1 mg/dL at Week 48 (n=50).

Data from the placebo-controlled 3- to 6-week study in children and adolescents with schizophrenia (13 to 17 years of age), bipolar mania (10 to 17 years of age), or autistic disorder (5 to 17 years of age) are presented in Table 1b.

Table 1b. Change in Fasting Glucose from Three Placebo-Controlled, 3- to 6-Week, Fixed-Dose Studies in Children and Adolescents with Schizophrenia (13 to 17 years of age), Bipolar Mania (10 to 17 years of age), or Autistic Disorder (5 to 17 years of age)

In longer-term, uncontrolled, open-label extension pediatric studies, risperidone was associated with a mean change in fasting glucose of +5.2 mg/dL at Week 24 (n=119). 

Dyslipidemia

Undesirable alterations in lipids have been observed in patients treated with atypical antipsychotics.

Pooled data from 7 placebo-controlled, 3- to 8- week, fixed- or flexible-dose studies in adult subjects with schizophrenia or bipolar mania are presented in Table 2a.

Table 2a. Change in Random Lipids From Seven Placebo-Controlled, 3-to 8-Week, Fixed- or Flexible-Dose Studies in Adult Subjects With Schizophrenia or Bipolar Mania

In longer-term, controlled and uncontrolled studies, risperidone was associated with a mean change in (a) non-fasting cholesterol of +4.4 mg/dL at Week 24 (n=231) and +5.5 mg/dL at Week 48 (n=86); and (b) non-fasting triglycerides of +19.9 mg/dL at Week 24 (n=52). 

Pooled data from 3 placebo-controlled, 3- to 6-week, fixed-dose studies in children and adolescents with schizophrenia (13 to 17 years of age), bipolar mania (10 to 17 years of age), or autistic disorder (5 to 17 years of age) are presented in Table 2b. 

Table 2b. Change in Fasting Lipids From Three Placebo-Controlled, 3- to 6-Week, Fixed-Dose Studies in Children and Adolescents With Schizophrenia (13 to 17 Years of Age), Bipolar Mania (10 to 17 Years of Age), or Autistic Disorder (5 to 17 Years of Age)

In longer-term, uncontrolled, open-label extension pediatric studies, risperidonewas associated with a mean change in (a) fasting cholesterol of +2.1 mg/dL at Week 24 (n=114); (b) fasting LDL of -0.2 mg/dL at Week 24 (n=103); (c) fasting HDL of +0.4 mg/dL at Week 24 (n=103); and (d) fasting triglycerides of +6.8 mg/dL at Week 24 (n=120). 

Weight Gain

Weight gain has been observed with atypical antipsychotic use. Clinical monitoring of weight is recommended. 

Data on mean changes in body weight and the proportion of subjects meeting a weight gain criterion of 7% or greater of body weight from 7 placebo-controlled, 3- to 8- week, fixed- or flexible-dose studies in adult subjects with schizophrenia or bipolar mania are presented in Table 3a. 

Table 3a. Mean Change in Body Weight (kg) and the Proportion of Subjects with ≥7% Gain in Body Weight From Seven Placebo-Controlled, 3- to 8-Week, Fixed-or Flexible-Dose Studies in Adult Subjects With Schizophrenia or Bipolar Mania

In longer-term, controlled and uncontrolled studies, risperidonewas associated with a mean change in weight of +4.3 kg at Week 24 (n=395) and +5.3 kg at Week 48 (n=203).

Data on mean changes in body weight and the proportion of subjects meeting the criterion of ≥7% gain in body weight from nine placebo-controlled, 3- to 8-week, fixed-dose studies in children and adolescents with schizophrenia (13 to 17 years of age), bipolar mania (10 to 17 years of age), autistic disorder (5 to 17 years of age), or other psychiatric disorders (5 to 17 years of age) are presented in Table 3b.

Table 3b. Mean Change in Body Weight (kg) and the Proportion of Subjects With ≥7% Gain in Body Weight From Nine Placebo-Controlled, 3- to 8-Week, Fixed-Dose Studies in Children and Adolescents With Schizophrenia (13 to 17 Years of Age), Bipolar Mania (10 to 17 Years of Age), Autistic Disorder (5 to 17 Years of Age) or Other Psychiatric Disorders (5 to 17 Years of Age)

In longer-term, uncontrolled, open-label extension pediatric studies, risperidonewas associated with a mean change in weight of +5.5 kg at Week 24 (n=748) and +8 kg at Week 48 (n=242). 

 
 
Risperidone
Placebo
1 to 8 mg/day
>8 to 16 mg/day
Mean change from baseline (mg/dL)
n=555
n=748
n=164
Serum Glucose
-1.4
0.8
0.6
 
Proportion of patients with shifts
Serum Glucose
(<140 mg/dL to ≥200 mg/dL)
0.6%
(3/525)
0.4%
(3/702)
0%
(0/158)
 
Placebo
Risperidone
0.5 to 6 mg/day
Mean change from baseline (mg/dL)
n=76
n=135
Serum Glucose
-1.3
2.6
 
Proportion of patients with shifts
Serum Glucose
(<100 mg/dL to ≥126 mg/dL)
0%
(0/64)
0.8%
(1/120)
 
 
Risperidone
Placebo
1 to 8 mg/day
>8 to 16 mg/day
Mean change from baseline (mg/dL)
Cholesterol
n=559
n=742
n=156
Change from baseline
0.6
6.9
1.8
Triglycerides
n=183
n=307
n=123
Change from baseline
-17.4
-4.9
-8.3
 
Proportion of patients with shifts
Cholesterol
 
 
 
(<200 mg/dL to ≥240 mg/dL)
2.7%
(10/368)
4.3%
(22/516)
6.3%
(6/96)
Triglycerides
 
 
 
(<500 mg/dL to ≥500 mg/dL)
1.1%
(2/180)
2.7%
(8/301)
2.5%
(3/121)
 
Placebo
Risperidone
0.5 to 6 mg/day
Mean change from baseline (mg/dL)
Cholesterol
n=74
n=133
Change from baseline
0.3
-0.3
LDL
n=22
n=22
Change from baseline
3.7
0.5
HDL
n=22
n=22
Change from baseline
1.6
-1.9
Triglycerides
n=77
n=138
Change from baseline
-9
-2.6
 
Proportion of patients with shifts
Cholesterol
2.4%
3.8%
(<170 mg/dL to ≥200 mg/dL)
(1/42)
(3/80)
LDL
0%
0%
(<110 mg/dL to ≥130 mg/dL)
(0/16)
(0/16)
HDL
0%
10%
(≥40 mg/dL to <40 mg/dL)
(0/19)
(2/20)
Triglycerides
1.5%
7.1%
(<150 mg/dL to ≥200 mg/dL)
(1/65)
(8/113)
 
 
Risperidone
Placebo
(n=597)
1 to 8 mg/day
(n=769)
>8 to 16 mg/day
(n=158)
Weight (kg)
Change from baseline
 
-0.3
 
0.7
 
2.2
Weight Gain
≥7% increase from baseline
 
2.9%
 
8.7%
 
20.9%
 
Placebo
(n=375)
Risperidone 0.5 to 6 mg/day
(n=448)
Weight (kg)
Change from baseline
 
0.6
 
2
Weight Gain
≥7% increase from baseline
 
6.9%
 
32.6%

Somnolence was a commonly reported adverse event associated with risperidone treatment, especially when ascertained by direct questioning of patients. This adverse event is dose-related, and in a study utilizing a checklist to detect adverse events, 41% of the high-dose patients (risperidone 16 mg/day) reported somnolence compared to 16% of placebo patients. Direct questioning is more sensitive for detecting adverse events than spontaneous reporting, by which 8% of risperidone 16 mg/day patients and 1% of placebo patients reported somnolence as an adverse event. Since risperidone has the potential to impair judgment, thinking, or motor skills, patients should be cautioned about operating hazardous machinery, including automobiles, until they are reasonably certain that risperidone therapy does not affect them adversely.

During premarketing testing in adult patients with schizophrenia, seizures occurred in 0.3% (9/2607) of risperidone-treated patients, two in association with hyponatremia. Risperidone should be used cautiously in patients with a history of seizures.

Clinical experience with risperidone in patients with certain concomitant systemic illnesses is limited. Patients with Parkinson’s Disease or Dementia with Lewy Bodies who receive antipsychotics, including risperidone, are reported to have an increased sensitivity to antipsychotic medications. Manifestations of this increased sensitivity have been reported to include confusion, obtundation, postural instability with frequent falls, extrapyramidal symptoms, and clinical features consistent with the neuroleptic malignant syndrome.

The most common adverse reactions in clinical trials (≥ 10%) were somnolence, increased appetite, fatigue, insomnia, sedation, parkinsonism, akathisia, vomiting, cough, constipation, nasopharyngitis, drooling, rhinorrhea, dry mouth, abdominal pain upper, dizziness, nausea, anxiety, headache, nasal congestion, rhinitis, tremor, and rash.

The data described in this section are derived from a clinical trial database consisting of 9712 adult and pediatric patients exposed to one or more doses of risperidone for the treatment of schizophrenia, bipolar mania, autistic disorder, and other psychiatric disorders in pediatrics and elderly patients with dementia. Of these 9712 patients, 2626 were patients who received risperidone while participating in double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. The conditions and duration of treatment with risperidone varied greatly and included (in overlapping categories) double-blind, fixed- and flexible-dose, placebo- or active-controlled studies and open-label phases of studies, inpatients and outpatients, and short-term (up to 12 weeks) and longer-term (up to 3 years) exposures. Safety was assessed by collecting adverse events and performing physical examinations, vital signs, body weights, laboratory analyses, and ECGs. 

Adverse events during exposure to study treatment were obtained by general inquiry and recorded by clinical investigators using their own terminology. Consequently, to provide a meaningful estimate of the proportion of individuals experiencing adverse events, events were grouped in standardized categories using MedDRAterminology. 

Throughout this section, adverse reactions are reported. Adverse reactions are adverse events that were considered to be reasonably associated with the use of risperidone (adverse drug reactions) based on the comprehensive assessment of the available adverse event information. A causal association for risperidone often cannot be reliably established in individual cases. Further, because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in clinical practice. 

The majority of all adverse reactions were mild to moderate in severity.

Table 1.        Adverse Reactions in ≥1% of Risperidone-Treated Adult Patients with Schizophrenia in Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trials

* Parkinsonism includes extrapyramidal disorder, musculoskeletal stiffness, parkinsonism, cogwheel rigidity, akinesia, bradykinesia, hypokinesia, masked facies, muscle rigidity, and Parkinson’s disease. Akathisia includes akathisia and restlessness. Dystonia includes dystonia, muscle spasms, muscle contractions involuntary, muscle contracture, oculogyration, tongue paralysis. Tremor includes tremor and parkinsonian rest tremor. Dyskinesia includes dyskinesia, muscle twitching, chorea, and choreoathetosis.

* Parkinsonism includes extrapyramidal disorder, muscle rigidity, musculoskeletal stiffness, and hypokinesia. Akathisia includes akathisia and restlessness. Dystonia includes dystonia and oculogyration.

  System/Organ Class Adverse Reaction
Percentage of Patients Reporting Event
Risperidone
 
2 to 8 mg
per day
(N=366)
>8 to 16 mg
per day
(N=198)
Placebo(N=225)
Blood and Lymphatic System
Disorders
 
 
 
Anemia
<1
1
0
Cardiac Disorders  
 
 
Tachycardia
1
3
0
Ear and Labyrinth Disorders
 
 
 
Ear pain
<1
1
0
Eye Disorders
 
 
 
Vision blurred
3
1
1
Gastrointestinal Disorders
 
 
 
Nausea
9
4
4
Constipation
8
9
6
Dyspepsia
8
6
5
Vomiting
7
5
7
Dry mouth
4
0
1
Abdominal discomfort
3
1
1
Salivary hypersecretion
2
1
<1
Diarrhea
2
1
1
Abdominal pain
1
1
0
Abdominal pain upper
1
1
0
Stomach discomfort
1
1
1
General Disorders  
 
 
Fatigue
3
1
0
Chest pain
2
2
1
Asthenia
2
1
<1
Immune System Disorders  
 
 
Hypersensitivity
<1
1
0
Infections and Infestations
 
 
 
Nasopharyngitis
3
4
3
Upper respiratory tract infection
2
3
1
Sinusitis
1
2
1
Urinary tract infection
1
3
0
Investigations  
 
 
Weight increased
1
1
0
Blood creatine phosphokinase increased
1
2
<1
Heart rate increased
<1
2
0
Metabolism and Nutrition Disorders  
 
 
Decreased appetite
1
0
<1
Musculoskeletal and Connective Tissue Disorders  
 
 
Back pain
4
1
1
Arthralgia
2
3
<1
Pain in extremity
2
1
1
Joint stiffness
1
1
0
Nervous System Disorders
 
 
 
Parkinsonism*
14
17
8
Akathisia*
10
10
3
Dizziness
7
4
2
Somnolence
7
2
1
Dystonia*
3
4
2
Sedation
3
3
1
Tremor*
2
3
1
Dizziness postural
2
0
0
Dyskinesia*
1
2
2
Syncope
1
1
0
Psychiatric Disorders
 
 
 
Insomnia
32
25
27
Anxiety
16
11
11
Nervousness
1
1
<1
Renal and Urinary Disorders
 
 
 
Urinary incontinence
1
1
0
Reproductive System and Breast Disorders
 
 
 
Ejaculation failure
<1
1
0
Respiratory, Thoracic and Mediastinal Disorders
 
 
 
Nasal congestion
4
6
2
Dyspnea
1
2
0
Epistaxis
<1
2
0
Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders
 
 
 
Rash
1
4
1
Dry skin
1
3
0
Dandruff
1
1
0
Seborrheic dermatitis
<1
1
0
Hyperkeratosis
0
1
1
Vascular Disorders
 
 
 
Orthostatic hypotension
2
1
0
Hypotension
1
1
0
System/Organ ClassAdverse Reaction
Percentage of Patients Reporting Event
Risperidone
 
1 to 3 mg per day
(N=55)
4 to 6 mg per day
(N=51)
Placebo
(N=54)
Gastrointestinal Disorders
 
 
 
Salivary hypersecretion
0
10
2
Nervous System Disorders
 
 
 
Parkinsonism*
16
28
11
Sedation
13
8
2
Somnolence
11
4
2
Tremor
11
10
6
Akathisia*
9
10
4
Dizziness
7
14
2
Dystonia*
2
6
0
Psychiatric Disorders
 
 
 
Anxiety
7
6
0

* Parkinsonism includes extrapyramidal disorder, parkinsonism, musculoskeletal stiffness, hypokinesia, muscle rigidity, muscle tightness, bradykinesia, cogwheel rigidity. Akathisia includes akathisia and restlessness. Tremor includes tremor and parkinsonian rest tremor. Dystonia includes dystonia, muscle spasms, oculogyration, torticollis. Dyskinesia includes muscle twitching and dyskinesia.

* Parkinsonism includes extrapyramidal disorder, hypokinesia and bradykinesia. Akathisia includes hyperkinesia and akathisia.

* Parkinsonism includes musculoskeletal stiffness, extrapyramidal disorder, bradykinesia, and nuchal rigidity. Dystonia includes dystonia, laryngospasm, and muscle spasms. Akathisia includes restlessness and akathisia.

 
System/Organ ClassAdverse Reaction
Percentage of Patients Reporting Event
Risperidone
1 to 6 mg per day
(N=448)
Placebo
 
(N=424)
Cardiac Disorders
 
 
Tachycardia
1
<1
Eye Disorders
 
 
Vision blurred
2
1
Gastrointestinal Disorders
 
 
Nausea
5
2
Diarrhea
3
2
Salivary hypersecretion
3
1
Dyspepsia
2
2
Stomach discomfort
2
<1
General Disorders
 
 
Fatigue
2
1
Asthenia
1
1
Pyrexia
1
1
Infections and Infestations
 
 
Nasopharyngitis
1
1
Investigations
 
 
Aspartate aminotransferase increased
1
<1
Nervous System Disorders
 
 
Parkinsonism*
25
9
Akathisia*
9
3
Tremor*
6
3
Dizziness
6
5
Sedation
6
2
Somnolence
5
2
Dystonia*
5
1
Lethargy
2
1
Dyskinesia*
1
<1
Reproductive System and Breast Disorders
 
 
Galactorrhea
1
0
Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders
 
 
Acne
1
0
 
System/Organ ClassAdverse Reaction
Percentage of Patients Reporting Event
Risperidone + Mood Stabilizer
(N=127)
Placebo +
Mood Stabilizer
(N=126)
Cardiac Disorders
 
 
Palpitations
2
0
Gastrointestinal Disorders
 
 
Dyspepsia
9
8
Nausea
6
4
Diarrhea
6
4
Dry mouth
4
4
Vomiting
4
6
Constipation
3
3
Salivary hypersecretion
2
0
General Disorders
 
 
Chest pain
2
1
Fatigue
2
2
Infections and Infestations
 
 
Nasopharyngitis
2
3
Urinary tract infection
2
1
Investigations
 
 
Weight increased
2
2
Nervous System Disorders
 
 
Parkinsonism*
14
4
Headache
14
15
Akathisia*
8
0
Dizziness
7
2
Sedation
6
3
Tremor
6
2
Somnolence
3
1
Lethargy
2
1
Psychiatric Disorders
 
 
Insomnia
4
8
Anxiety
3
2
Respiratory, Thoracic and Mediastinal Disorders
 
 
Pharyngolaryngeal pain
5
2
Cough
2
0
 
    System/Organ ClassAdverse Reaction
Percentage of Patients Reporting Event
Risperidone
 
0.5 to 2.5 mg
per day
(N=50)
3 to 6 mg
per day
(N=61)
Placebo
(N=58)
Eye Disorders  
 
 
Vision blurred
4
7
0
Gastrointestinal Disorders
 
 
 
Abdominal pain upper
16
13
5
Nausea
16
13
7
Vomiting
10
10
5
Diarrhea
8
7
2
Dyspepsia
10
3
2
Stomach discomfort
6
0
2
General Disorders
 
 
 
Fatigue
18
30
3
Metabolism and Nutrition Disorders  
 
 
Increased appetite
4
7
2
Nervous System Disorders
 
 
 
Somnolence
22
30
12
Sedation
20
23
7
Dizziness
16
13
5
Parkinsonism*
6
12
3
Dystonia*
6
5
0
Akathisia*
0
8
2
Psychiatric Disorders
 
 
 
Anxiety
0
8
3
Respiratory, Thoracic and Mediastinal Disorders
 
 
 
Pharyngolaryngeal pain
10
3
5
Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders
 
 
 
Rash
0
7
2

* Parkinsonism includes musculoskeletal stiffness, extrapyramidal disorder, muscle rigidity, cogwheel rigidity, and muscle tightness.

In another study with patients treated for irritability associated with autistic disorder, headache (6%), epistaxis (6%) and pyrexia (6%) were also observed in risperidone-treated pediatric subjects.

 
System/Organ ClassAdverse Reaction
Percentage of Patients Reporting Event
Risperidone
0.5 to 4 mg per day
(N=76)
 
Placebo
(N=80)
Cardiac Disorders
 
 
Tachycardia
5
0
Gastrointestinal Disorders
 
 
Vomiting
25
21
Constipation
21
8
Dry mouth
15
6
Salivary hypersecretion
9
0
Nausea
8
6
General Disorders
 
 
Fatigue
42
13
Feeling abnormal
5
0
Infections and Infestations
 
 
Nasopharyngitis
21
10
Rhinitis
13
10
Upper respiratory tract infection
8
3
Investigations
 
 
Weight increased
5
0
Metabolism and Nutrition Disorders
 
 
Increased appetite
47
19
Nervous System Disorders
 
 
Somnolence
49
18
Sedation
29
3
Drooling
16
5
Tremor
12
1
Parkinsonism*
11
1
Dizziness
9
3
Dyskinesia
7
3
Lethargy
5
3
Respiratory, Thoracic and Mediastinal Disorders
 
 
Cough
24
18
Rhinorrhea
16
13
Nasal congestion
13
5
Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders
 
 
Rash
11
8

The following adverse reactions occurred in < 1% of the adult patients and in < 5% of the pediatric patients treated with risperidone in the above double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial data sets. In addition, the following also includes adverse reactions reported in risperidone-treated patients who participated in other studies, including double-blind, active-controlled and open-label studies in schizophrenia and bipolar mania studies in pediatric patients with psychiatric disorders other than schizophrenia, bipolar mania, or autistic disorder, and studies in elderly patients with dementia.

Blood and Lymphatic System Disorders: granulocytopenia, neutropenia

Cardiac Disorders: sinus bradycardia, sinus tachycardia, atrioventricular block first degree, bundle branch block left, bundle branch block right, atrioventricular block

Endocrine Disorders: hyperprolactinemia

Eye Disorders: ocular hyperemia, eye discharge, conjunctivitis, eye rolling, eyelid edema, eye swelling, eyelid margin crusting, dry eye, lacrimation increased, photophobia, glaucoma, visual acuity reduced

Gastrointestinal Disorders: dysphagia, fecaloma, fecal incontinence, gastritis, lip swelling, cheilitis, aptyalism

General Disorders: edema peripheral, thirst, gait disturbance, influenza-like illness, pitting edema, edema, chills, sluggishness, malaise, chest discomfort, face edema, discomfort, generalized edema, drug withdrawal syndrome, peripheral coldness

Immune System Disorders: drug hypersensitivity

Investigations: body temperature increased, blood prolactin increased, alanine aminotransferase increased, electrocardiogram abnormal, eosinophil count increased, white blood cell count decreased, blood glucose increased, hemoglobin decreased, hematocrit decreased, body temperature decreased, blood pressure decreased, transaminases increased

Nervous System Disorders: balance disorder, disturbance in attention, dysarthria, unresponsive to stimuli, depressed level of consciousness, movement disorder, hypersomnia, transient ischemic attack, coordination abnormal, cerebrovascular accident, speech disorder, loss of consciousness, hypoesthesia, tardive dyskinesia, cerebral ischemia, cerebrovascular disorder, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, diabetic coma, head titubation

Psychiatric Disorders: agitation, blunted affect, confusional state, middle insomnia, sleep disorder, listlessness, libido decreased, anorgasmia

Renal and Urinary Disorders: enuresis, dysuria, pollakiuria

Reproductive System and Breast Disorders: menstruation irregular, amenorrhea, gynecomastia, vaginal discharge, menstrual disorder, erectile dysfunction, retrograde ejaculation, ejaculation disorder, sexual dysfunction, breast enlargement

Respiratory, Thoracic, and Mediastinal Disorders: wheezing, pneumonia aspiration, sinus congestion, dysphonia, productive cough, pulmonary congestion, respiratory tract congestion, rales, respiratory disorder, hyperventilation, nasal edema

Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders: erythema, skin discoloration, skin lesion, pruritus, skin disorder, rash erythematous, rash papular, rash generalized, rash maculopapular

Schizophrenia – Adults

Approximately 7% (39/564) of risperidone-treated patients in double-blind, placebo-controlled trials discontinued treatment due to an adverse event, compared with 4% (10/225) who were receiving placebo. The adverse reactions associated with discontinuation in 2 or more risperidone-treated patients were:

Table 7. Adverse Reactions Associated With Discontinuation in 2 or More Risperidone-Treated Adult Patients in Schizophrenia Trials

Discontinuation for extrapyramidal symptoms (including Parkinsonism, akathisia, dystonia, and tardive dyskinesia) was 1% in placebo-treated patients, and 3.4% in active control-treated patients in a double-blind, placebo- and active-controlled trial.

Schizophrenia – Pediatrics

Approximately 7% (7/106), of risperidone-treated patients discontinued treatment due to an adverse event in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, compared with 4% (2/54) placebo-treated patients. The adverse reactions associated with discontinuation for at least one risperidone-treated patient were dizziness (2%), somnolence (1%), sedation (1%), lethargy (1%), anxiety (1%), balance disorder (1%), hypotension (1%), and palpitation (1%).

Bipolar Mania – Adults

In double-blind, placebo-controlled trials with risperidone as monotherapy, approximately 6% (25/448) of risperidone-treated patients discontinued treatment due to an adverse event, compared with approximately 5% (19/424) of placebo-treated patients. The adverse reactions associated with discontinuation in risperidone-treated patients were:

Table 8.  Adverse Reactions Associated With Discontinuation in 2 or More Risperidone-Treated Adult Patients in Bipolar Mania Clinical Trials

Bipolar Mania – Pediatrics

In a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial 12% (13/111) of risperidone-treated patients discontinued due to an adverse event, compared with 7% (4/58) of placebo-treated patients. The adverse reactions associated with discontinuation in more than one risperidone-treated pediatric patient were nausea (3%), somnolence (2%), sedation (2%), and vomiting (2%).

Autistic Disorder – Pediatrics

In the two 8-week, placebo-controlled trials in pediatric patients treated for irritability associated with autistic disorder (n = 156), one risperidone-treated patient discontinued due to an adverse reaction (Parkinsonism), and one placebo-treated patient discontinued due to an adverse event.

 
Adverse Reaction
Risperidone
 
2 to 8 mg/day
(N=366)
>8 to 16 mg/day
(N=198)
Placebo
(N=225)
Dizziness
1.4%
1%
0%
Nausea
1.4%
0%
0%
Vomiting
0.8%
0%
0%
Parkinsonism
0.8%
0%
0%
Somnolence
0.8%
0%
0%
Dystonia
0.5%
0%
0%
Agitation
0.5%
0%
0%
Abdominal pain
0.5%
0%
0%
Orthostatic hypotension
0.3%
0.5%
0%
Akathisia
0.3%
2%
0%
  Adverse Reaction Risperidone
1 to 6 mg/day
(N=448)
 
Placebo
(N=424)
Parkinsonism
0.4%
0%
Lethargy
0.2%
0%
Dizziness
0.2%
0%
Alanine aminotransferase
increased
0.2%
0.2%
Aspartate aminotransferase increased
0.2%
0.2%

Extrapyramidal Symptoms

Data from two fixed-dose trials in adults with schizophrenia provided evidence of dose-relatedness for extrapyramidal symptoms associated with risperidone treatment.

Two methods were used to measure extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) in an 8-week trial comparing 4 fixed doses of risperidone (2, 6, 10, and 16 mg/day), including (1) a Parkinsonism score (mean change from baseline) from the Extrapyramidal Symptom Rating Scale, and (2) incidence of spontaneous complaints of EPS:                                                                                                   

Similar methods were used to measure extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) in an 8-week trial comparing 5 fixed doses of risperidone (1, 4, 8, 12, and 16 mg/day): 

Dystonia 

Class Effect:Symptoms of dystonia, prolonged abnormal contractions of muscle groups, may occur in susceptible individuals during the first few days of treatment. Dystonic symptoms include: spasm of the neck muscles, sometimes progressing to tightness of the throat, swallowing difficulty, difficulty breathing, and/or protrusion of the tongue. While these symptoms can occur at low doses, they occur more frequently and with greater severity with high potency and at higher doses of first generation antipsychotic drugs. An elevated risk of acute dystonia is observed in males and younger age groups. 

Other Adverse Reactions Adverse event data elicited by a checklist for side effects from a large study comparing 5 fixed doses of risperidone (1, 4, 8, 12, and 16 mg/day) were explored for dose-relatedness of adverse events. A Cochran-Armitage Test for trend in these data revealed a positive trend (p<0.05) for the following adverse reactions: somnolence, vision abnormal, dizziness, palpitations, weight increase, erectile dysfunction, ejaculation disorder, sexual function abnormal, fatigue, and skin discoloration.

Dose Groups
Placebo
Risperidone
2 mg
Risperidone
 6 mg
Risperidone
 10 mg
Risperidone
16 mg
Parkinsonism
1.2
0.9
1.8
2.4
2.6
EPS Incidence
13%
17%
21%
21%
35%
Dose Groups
Risperidone
1 mg
Risperidone 4 mg
Risperidone
8 mg
Risperidone 12 mg
Risperidone 16 mg
Parkinsonism
0.6
1.7
2.4
2.9
4.1
EPS Incidence
7%
12%
17%
18%
20%

Between-group comparisons for pooled placebo-controlled trials in adults revealed no statistically significant differences between risperidone and placebo in mean changes from baseline in ECG parameters, including QT, QTc, and PR intervals, and heart rate. When all risperidone doses were pooled from randomized controlled trials in several indications, there was a mean increase in heart rate of 1 beat per minute compared to no change for placebo patients. In short-term schizophrenia trials, higher doses of risperidone (8 to 16 mg/day) were associated with a higher mean increase in heart rate compared to placebo (4 to 6 beats per minute). In pooled placebo-controlled acute mania trials in adults, there were small decreases in mean heart rate, similar among all treatment groups. 

In the two placebo-controlled trials in children and adolescents with autistic disorder (aged 5 to 16 years) mean changes in heart rate were an increase of 8.4 beats per minute in the risperidone groups and 6.5 beats per minute in the placebo group. There were no other notable ECG changes. 

In a placebo-controlled acute mania trial in children and adolescents (aged 10 to 17 years), there were no significant changes in ECG parameters, other than the effect of risperidoneto transiently increase pulse rate (< 6 beats per minute). In two controlled schizophrenia trials in adolescents (aged 13 to 17 years), there were no clinically meaningful changes in ECG parameters including corrected QT intervals between treatment groups or within treatment groups over time.

The following adverse reactions have been identified during postapproval use of risperidone; because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not possible to reliably estimate their frequency: agranulocytosis, alopecia, anaphylactic reaction, angioedema, atrial fibrillation, blood cholesterol increased, blood triglycerides increased, diabetes mellitus, diabetic ketoacidosis in patients with impaired glucose metabolism, drug withdrawal syndrome neonatal, dysgeusia, hypoglycemia, hypothermia, inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion, intestinal obstruction, jaundice, mania, pancreatitis, priapism, QT prolongation, sleep apnea syndrome, thrombocytopenia, urinary retention, and water intoxication. 

Other adverse events reported since market introduction, which were temporally related to risperidone but not necessarily causally related, include the following: pituitary adenoma, pulmonary embolism, precocious puberty, cardiopulmonary arrest, and sudden death.

In vitro studies indicate that risperidone is a relatively weak inhibitor of CYP 2D6. Therefore, risperidone is not expected to substantially inhibit the clearance of drugs that are metabolized by this enzymatic pathway. In drug interaction studies, risperidone did not significantly affect the pharmacokinetics of donepezil and galantamine, which are metabolized by CYP 2D6.

Pregnancy Category C. 

The teratogenic potential of risperidone was studied in three Segment II studies in Sprague-Dawley and Wistar rats (0.63 to 10 mg/kg or 0.4 to 6 times the maximum recommended human dose [MRHD] on a mg/m basis) and in one Segment II study in New Zealand rabbits (0.31 to 5 mg/kg or 0.4 to 6 times the MRHD on a mg/mbasis). The incidence of malformations was not increased compared to control in offspring of rats or rabbits given 0.4 to 6 times the MRHD on a mg/m basis. In three reproductive studies in rats (two Segment III and a multigenerational study), there was an increase in pup deaths during the first 4 days of lactation at doses of 0.16 to 5 mg/kg or 0.1 to 3 times the MRHD on a mg/m basis. It is not known whether these deaths were due to a direct effect on the fetuses or pups or to effects on the dams. 

There was no no-effect dose for increased rat pup mortality. In one Segment III study, there was an increase in stillborn rat pups at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg or 1.5 times the MRHD on a mg/m basis. In a cross-fostering study in Wistar rats, toxic effects on the fetus or pups, as evidenced by a decrease in the number of live pups and an increase in the number of dead pups at birth (Day 0), and a decrease in birth weight in pups of drug-treated dams were observed. In addition, there was an increase in deaths by Day 1 among pups of drug-treated dams, regardless of whether or not the pups were cross-fostered. Risperidone also appeared to impair maternal behavior in that pup body weight gain and survival (from Day 1 to 4 of lactation) were reduced in pups born to control but reared by drug-treated dams. These effects were all noted at the one dose of risperidone tested, i.e., 5 mg/kg or 3 times the MRHD on a mg/m basis. 

Placental transfer of risperidone occurs in rat pups. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. However, there was one report of a case of agenesis of the corpus callosum in an infant exposed to risperidone in utero. The causal relationship to risperidonetherapy is unknown. 

Non-Teratogenic Effects  

Neonates exposed to antipsychotic drugs (including risperidone) during the third trimester of pregnancy are at risk for extrapyramidal and/or withdrawal symptoms following delivery. There have been reports of agitation, hypertonia, hypotonia, tremor, somnolence, respiratory distress, and feeding disorder in these neonates. These complications have varied in severity; while in some cases symptoms have been self-limited, in other cases neonates have required intensive care unit support and prolonged hospitalization. 

Risperidone should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.

The effect of risperidone on labor and delivery in humans is unknown.

In animal studies, risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone are excreted in milk. Risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone are also excreted in human breast milk. Therefore, women receiving risperidone should not breast-feed.

The efficacy and safety of risperidone in the treatment of schizophrenia were demonstrated in 417 adolescents, aged 13 to 17 years, in two short-term (6 and 8 weeks, respectively) double-blind controlled trials [see Indications and Usage (1.1), Adverse Reactions (6.1), and Clinical Studies (14.1)]. Additional safety and efficacy information was also assessed in one long-term (6-month) open-label extension study in 284 of these adolescent patients with schizophrenia. 

Safety and effectiveness of risperidone in children less than 13 years of age with schizophrenia have not been established. 

The efficacy and safety of risperidone in the short-term treatment of acute manic or mixed episodes associated with Bipolar I Disorder in 169 children and adolescent patients, aged 10 to 17 years, were demonstrated in one double-blind, placebo-controlled, 3-week trial [see Indications and Usage (1.2), Adverse Reactions (6.2), and Clinical Studies (14.2)].

Safety and effectiveness of risperidonein children less than 10 years of age with bipolar disorder have not been established. 

The efficacy and safety of risperidonein the treatment of irritability associated with autistic disorder were established in two 8-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials in 156 children and adolescent patients, aged 5 to 16 years [see Indications and Usage (1.3), Adverse Reactions (6.3) and Clinical Studies (14.4)]. Additional safety information was also assessed in a long-term study in patients with autistic disorder, or in short- and long-term studies in more than 1200 pediatric patients with psychiatric disorders other than autistic disorder, schizophrenia, or bipolar mania who were of similar age and weight, and who received similar dosages of risperidoneas patients treated for irritability associated with autistic disorder. 

The safety and effectiveness of risperidonein pediatric patients less than 5 years of age with autistic disorder have not been established. 

Tardive Dyskinesia 

In clinical trials in 1885 children and adolescents treated with risperidone, 2 (0.1%) patients were reported to have tardive dyskinesia, which resolved on discontinuation of risperidone treatment [see also Warnings and Precautions (5.4)]. 

Weight Gain 

In a long-term, open-label extension study in adolescent patients with schizophrenia, weight increase was reported as a treatment-emergent adverse event in 14% of patients. In 103 adolescent patients with schizophrenia, a mean increase of 9 kg was observed after 8 months of risperidone treatment. The majority of that increase was observed within the first 6 months. The average percentiles at baseline and 8 months, respectively, were 56 and 72 for weight, 55 and 58 for height, and 51 and 71 for body mass index. 

In long-term, open-label trials (studies in patients with autistic disorder or other psychiatric disorders), a mean increase of 7.5 kg after 12 months of risperidone treatment was observed, which was higher than the expected normal weight gain (approximately 3 to 3.5 kg per year adjusted for age, based on Centers for Disease Control and Prevention normative data). The majority of that increase occurred within the first 6 months of exposure to risperidone. The average percentiles at baseline and 12 months, respectively, were 49 and 60 for weight, 48 and 53 for height, and 50 and 62 for body mass index. 

In one 3-week, placebo-controlled trial in children and adolescent patients with acute manic or mixed episodes of bipolar I disorder, increases in body weight were higher in the risperidonegroups than the placebo group, but not dose related (1.9 kg in the risperidone 0.5 to 2.5 mg group, 1.44 kg in the risperidone3 to 6 mg group, and 0.65 kg in the placebo group). A similar trend was observed in the mean change from baseline in body mass index. 

When treating pediatric patients with risperidone for any indication, weight gain should be assessed against that expected with normal growth. [See also Adverse Reactions (6.7)] 

Somnolence 

Somnolence was frequently observed in placebo-controlled clinical trials of pediatric patients with autistic disorder. Most cases were mild or moderate in severity. These events were most often of early onset with peak incidence occurring during the first two weeks of treatment, and transient with a median duration of 16 days. Somnolence was the most commonly observed adverse event in the clinical trial of bipolar disorder in children and adolescents, as well as in the schizophrenia trials in adolescents. As was seen in the autistic disorder trials, these events were most often of early onset and transient in duration. [See also Adverse Reactions (6.1 , 6.2 , 6.3)] Patients experiencing persistent somnolence may benefit from a change in dosing regimen [see Dosage and Administration (2.1 , 2.2 , 2.3)]. 

Hyperprolactinemia, Growth, and Sexual Maturation 

Risperidone has been shown to elevate prolactin levels in children and adolescents as well as in adults [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)]. In double-blind, placebo-controlled studies of up to 8 weeks duration in children and adolescents (aged 5 to 17 years) with autistic disorder or psychiatric disorders other than autistic disorder, schizophrenia, or bipolar mania, 49% of patients who received risperidonehad elevated prolactin levels compared to 2% of patients who received placebo. Similarly, in placebo-controlled trials in children and adolescents (aged 10 to 17 years) with bipolar disorder, or adolescents (aged 13 to 17 years) with schizophrenia, 82 to 87% of patients who received risperidonehad elevated levels of prolactin compared to 3 to 7% of patients on placebo. Increases were dose-dependent and generally greater in females than in males across indications. 

In clinical trials in 1885 children and adolescents, galactorrhea was reported in 0.8% of risperidone-treated patients and gynecomastia was reported in 2.3% of risperidone-treated patients. 

Juvenile dogs were treated for 40 weeks with oral risperidone doses of 0.31, 1.25, or 5 mg/kg/day. Decreased bone length and density were seen, with a no-effect dose of  0.31 mg/kg/day. This dose produced plasma levels (AUC) of risperidone plus its active metabolite paliperidone (9-hydroxy-risperidone) which were similar to those in children and adolescents receiving the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of 6 mg/day. In addition, a delay in sexual maturation was seen at all doses in both males and females. The above effects showed little or no reversibility in females after a 12 week drug-free recovery period.  

In a study in which juvenile rats were treated with oral risperidone from days 12 to 50 of age, a reversible impairment of performance in a test of learning and memory was seen, in females only, with a no-effect dose of 0.63 mg/kg/day. This dose produced plasma levels (AUC) of risperidone plus paliperidone about half those observed in humans at the MRHD. No other consistent effects on neurobehavioral or reproductive development were seen up to the highest testable dose (1.25 mg/kg/day). This dose produced plasma levels (AUC) of risperidone plus paliperidone which were about two thirds of those observed in humans at the MRHD. 

The long-term effects of risperidone on growth and sexual maturation have not been fully evaluated in children and adolescents.

Clinical studies of risperidone in the treatment of schizophrenia did not include sufficient numbers of patients aged 65 and over to determine whether or not they respond differently than younger patients. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between elderly and younger patients. In general, a lower starting dose is recommended for an elderly patient, reflecting a decreased pharmacokinetic clearance in the elderly, as well as a greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy [see Clinical Pharmacology ( 12.3 ) and Dosage and Administration ( 2.4 , 2.5 )]. While elderly patients exhibit a greater tendency to orthostatic hypotension, its risk in the elderly may be minimized by limiting the initial dose to 0.5 mg twice daily followed by careful titration [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)]. Monitoring of orthostatic vital signs should be considered in patients for whom this is of concern.

This drug is substantially excreted by the kidneys, and the risk of toxic reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function [see Dosage and Administration (2.4)].

Concomitant use with Furosemide in Elderly Patients with Dementia-Related Psychosis

In two of four placebo-controlled trials in elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis, a higher incidence of mortality was observed in patients treated with furosemide plus risperidone when compared to patients treated with risperidone alone or with placebo plus furosemide. No pathological mechanism has been identified to explain this finding, and no consistent pattern for cause of death was observed. An increase of mortality in elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis was seen with the use of risperidone regardless of concomitant use with furosemide. Risperidone is not approved for the treatment of patients with dementia-related psychosis. [See Boxed Warning and Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]

Risperidone has not been systematically studied in animals or humans for its potential for abuse. While the clinical trials did not reveal any tendency for any drug-seeking behavior, these observations were not systematic and it is not possible to predict on the basis of this limited experience the extent to which a CNS-active drug will be misused, diverted, and/or abused once marketed. Consequently, patients should be evaluated carefully for a history of drug abuse, and such patients should be observed closely for signs of risperidone misuse or abuse (e.g., development of tolerance, increases in dose, drug-seeking behavior).

In case of acute overdosage, establish and maintain an airway and ensure adequate oxygenation and ventilation. Gastric lavage (after intubation, if patient is unconscious) and administration of activated charcoal together with a laxative should be considered.

The possibility of obtundation, seizures, or dystonic reaction of the head and neck following overdose may create a risk of aspiration with induced emesis. Cardiovascular monitoring should commence immediately and should include continuous electrocardiographic monitoring to detect possible arrhythmias. If antiarrhythmic therapy is administered, disopyramide, procainamide, and quinidine carry a theoretical hazard of QT-prolonging effects that might be additive to those of risperidone. Similarly, it is reasonable to expect that the alpha-blocking properties of bretylium might be additive to those of risperidone, resulting in problematic hypotension.

There is no specific antidote to risperidone. Therefore, appropriate supportive measures should be instituted. The possibility of multiple drug involvement should be considered. Hypotension and circulatory collapse should be treated with appropriate measures, such as intravenous fluids and/or sympathomimetic agents (epinephrine and dopamine should not be used, since beta stimulation may worsen hypotension in the setting of risperidone-induced alpha blockade). In cases of severe extrapyramidal symptoms, anticholinergic medication should be administered. Close medical supervision and monitoring should continue until the patient recovers.

The mechanism of action of risperidone, as with other drugs used to treat schizophrenia, is unknown. However, it has been proposed that the drug's therapeutic activity in schizophrenia is mediated through a combination of dopamine Type 2 (D) and serotonin Type 2 (5HT) receptor antagonism.

 

Food does not affect either the rate or extent of absorption of risperidone. Thus, risperidone can be given with or without meals.

Risperidone is rapidly distributed. The volume of distribution is 1 to 2 L/kg. In plasma, risperidone is bound to albumin and α-acid glycoprotein. The plasma protein binding of risperidone is 90%, and that of its major metabolite, 9-hydroxyrisperidone, is 77%. Neither risperidone nor 9-hydroxyrisperidone displaces each other from plasma binding sites. High therapeutic concentrations of sulfamethazine (100 mcg/mL), warfarin (10 mcg/mL), and carbamazepine (10 mcg/mL) caused only a slight increase in the free fraction of risperidone at 10 ng/mL and 9-hydroxyrisperidone at 50 ng/mL, changes of unknown clinical significance.

While the pharmacokinetics of risperidone in subjects with liver disease were comparable to those in young healthy subjects, the mean free fraction of risperidone in plasma was increased by about 35% because of the diminished concentration of both albumin and α-acid glycoprotein. Risperidone doses should be reduced in patients with liver disease [see Dosage and Administration (2.4) and Warnings and Precautions (5.17)].

In healthy elderly subjects, renal clearance of both risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone was decreased, and elimination half-lives were prolonged compared to young healthy subjects. Dosing should be modified accordingly in the elderly patients [see Dosage and Administration (2.4)].

The pharmacokinetics of risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone in children were similar to those in adults after correcting for the difference in body weight.

Carcinogenicity studies were conducted in Swiss albino mice and Wistar rats. Risperidone was administered in the diet at doses of 0.63 mg/kg, 2.5 mg/kg, and 10 mg/kg for 18 months to mice and for 25 months to rats. These doses are equivalent to 2.4, 9.4, and 37.5 times the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) for schizophrenia (16 mg/day) on a mg/kg basis or 0.2, 0.75, and 3 times the MRHD (mice) or 0.4, 1.5, and 6 times the MRHD (rats) on a mg/m basis. A maximum tolerated dose was not achieved in male mice. There were statistically significant increases in pituitary gland adenomas, endocrine pancreas adenomas, and mammary gland adenocarcinomas. The following table summarizes the multiples of the human dose on a mg/m (mg/kg) basis at which these tumors occurred.

Multiples of Maximum
 Human Dose in mg/m2
(mg/kg)
 Tumor Type   Species        Sex       Lowest 
 Effect  Level 
Highest No-
  Effect Level   
 Pituitary adenomas
mouse
female
0.75 (9.4)
0.2 (2.4)
 Endocrine pancreas adenomas
rat
male
1.5 (9.4)
0.4 (2.4)
 Mammary gland adenocarcinomas
mouse
female
0.2 (2.4)
none
rat
female
0.4 (2.4)
none
rat
male
6 (37.5)
1.5 (9.4)
 Mammary gland neoplasm, Total
rat
male
1.5 (9.4)
0.4 (2.4)

No evidence of mutagenic potential for risperidone was found in the Ames reverse mutation test, mouse lymphoma assay, in vitro rat hepatocyte DNA-repair assay, in vivo micronucleus test in mice, the sex-linked recessive lethal test in Drosophila, or the chromosomal aberration test in human lymphocytes or Chinese hamster cells.

Risperidone (0.16 to 5 mg/kg) was shown to impair mating, but not fertility, in Wistar rats in three reproductive studies (two Segment I and a multigenerational study) at doses 0.1 to 3 times the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) on a mg/m basis. The effect appeared to be in females, since impaired mating behavior was not noted in the Segment I study in which males only were treated. In a subchronic study in Beagle dogs in which risperidone was administered at doses of 0.31 to 5 mg/kg, sperm motility and concentration were decreased at doses 0.6 to 10 times the MRHD on a mg/m basis. Dose-related decreases were also noted in serum testosterone at the same doses. Serum testosterone and sperm parameters partially recovered, but remained decreased after treatment was discontinued. No no-effect doses were noted in either rat or dog.

Adults

Short-Term Efficacy

The efficacy of risperidone in the treatment of schizophrenia was established in four short-term (4- to 8-week) controlled trials of psychotic inpatients who met DSM-III-R criteria for schizophrenia.

Several instruments were used for assessing psychiatric signs and symptoms in these studies, among them the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), a multi-item inventory of general psychopathology traditionally used to evaluate the effects of drug treatment in schizophrenia. The BPRS psychosis cluster (conceptual disorganization, hallucinatory behavior, suspiciousness, and unusual thought content) is considered a particularly useful subset for assessing actively psychotic schizophrenic patients. A second traditional assessment, the Clinical Global Impression (CGI), reflects the impression of a skilled observer, fully familiar with the manifestations of schizophrenia, about the overall clinical state of the patient. In addition, the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the Scale for Assessing Negative Symptoms (SANS) were employed.

The results of the trials follow: 

(1)      In a 6-week, placebo-controlled trial (n=160) involving titration of risperidone in doses up to 10 mg/day (twice-daily schedule), risperidone was generally superior to placebo on the BPRS total score, on the BPRS psychosis cluster, and marginally superior to placebo on the SANS. 

(2)      In an 8-week, placebo-controlled trial (n=513) involving 4 fixed doses of risperidone (2 mg/day, 6 mg/day, 10 mg/day, and 16 mg/day, on a twice-daily schedule), all 4 risperidone groups were generally superior to placebo on the BPRS total score, BPRS psychosis cluster, and CGI severity score; the 3 highest risperidone dose groups were generally superior to placebo on the PANSS negative subscale. The most consistently positive responses on all measures were seen for the 6 mg dose group, and there was no suggestion of increased benefit from larger doses. 

(3)      In an 8-week, dose comparison trial (n=1356) involving 5 fixed doses of risperidone (1 mg/day, 4 mg/day, 8 mg/day, 12 mg/day, and 16 mg/day, on a twice-daily schedule), the four highest risperidone dose groups were generally superior to the 1 mg risperidonedose group on BPRS total score, BPRS psychosis cluster, and CGI severity score. None of the dose groups were superior to the 1 mg group on the PANSS negative subscale. The most consistently positive responses were seen for the 4 mg dose group. 

(4)      In a 4-week, placebo-controlled dose comparison trial (n=246) involving 2 fixed doses of risperidone (4 and 8 mg/day on a once-daily schedule), both risperidone dose groups were generally superior to placebo on several PANSS measures, including a response measure (>20% reduction in PANSS total score), PANSS total score, and the BPRS psychosis cluster (derived from PANSS). The results were generally stronger for the 8 mg than for the 4 mg dose group. 

Long-Term Efficacy 

In a longer-term trial, 365 adult outpatients predominantly meeting DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia and who had been clinically stable for at least 4 weeks on an antipsychotic medication were randomized to risperidone (2 to 8 mg/day) or to an active comparator, for 1 to 2 years of observation for relapse. Patients receiving risperidone experienced a significantly longer time to relapse over this time period compared to those receiving the active comparator. 

Pediatrics 

The efficacy of risperidone in the treatment of schizophrenia in adolescents aged 13 to 17 years was demonstrated in two short-term (6 and 8 weeks), double-blind controlled trials. All patients met DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia and were experiencing an acute episode at time of enrollment. In the first trial (study #1), patients were randomized into one of three treatment groups: risperidone 1 to 3 mg/day (n = 55, mean modal dose = 2.6 mg), risperidone 4 to 6 mg/day (n = 51, mean modal dose = 5.3 mg), or placebo (n = 54). In the second trial (study #2), patients were randomized to either risperidone 0.15 to 0.6 mg/day (n = 132, mean modal dose = 0.5 mg) or risperidone 1.5 to 6 mg/day (n = 125, mean modal dose = 4 mg). In all cases, study medication was initiated at 0.5 mg/day (with the exception of the 0.15 to 0.6 mg/day group in study #2, where the initial dose was 0.05 mg/day) and titrated to the target dosage range by approximately Day 7. Subsequently, dosage was increased to the maximum tolerated dose within the target dose range by Day 14. The primary efficacy variable in all studies was the mean change from baseline in total PANSS score. 

Results of the studies demonstrated efficacy of risperidone in all dose groups from 1 to 6 mg/day compared to placebo, as measured by significant reduction of total PANSS score. The efficacy on the primary parameter in the 1 to 3 mg/day group was comparable to the 4 to 6 mg/day group in study #1, and similar to the efficacy demonstrated in the 1.5 to 6 mg/day group in study #2. In study #2, the efficacy in the 1.5 to 6 mg/day group was statistically significantly greater than that in the 0.15 to 0.6 mg/day group. Doses higher than 3 mg/day did not reveal any trend towards greater efficacy. 

Adults 

The efficacy of risperidone in the treatment of acute manic or mixed episodes was established in two short-term (3-week) placebo-controlled trials in patients who met the DSM-IV criteria for Bipolar I Disorder with manic or mixed episodes. These trials included patients with or without psychotic features. 

The primary rating instrument used for assessing manic symptoms in these trials was the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS), an 11-item clinician-rated scale traditionally used to assess the degree of manic symptomatology (irritability, disruptive/aggressive behavior, sleep, elevated mood, speech, increased activity, sexual interest, language/thought disorder, thought content, appearance, and insight) in a range from 0 (no manic features) to 60 (maximum score). The primary outcome in these trials was change from baseline in the YMRS total score. The results of the trials follow: 

(1)      In one 3-week placebo-controlled trial (n=246), limited to patients with manic episodes, which involved a dose range of risperidone 1 to 6 mg/day, once daily, starting at 3 mg/day (mean modal dose was 4.1 mg/day), risperidone was superior to placebo in the reduction of YMRS total score. 

(2)      In another 3-week placebo-controlled trial (n=286), which involved a dose range of 1 to 6 mg/day, once daily, starting at 3 mg/day (mean modal dose was 5.6 mg/day), risperidone was superior to placebo in the reduction of YMRS total score 

Pediatrics 

The efficacy of risperidone in the treatment of mania in children or adolescents with Bipolar I disorder was demonstrated in a 3-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial including patients ranging in ages from 10 to 17 years who were experiencing a manic or mixed episode of bipolar I disorder. Patients were randomized into one of three treatment groups: risperidone 0.5 to 2.5 mg/day (n = 50, mean modal dose = 1.9 mg), risperidone 3 to 6 mg/day (n = 61, mean modal dose = 4.7 mg), or placebo (n = 58). In all cases, study medication was initiated at 0.5 mg/day and titrated to the target dosage range by Day 7, with further increases in dosage to the maximum tolerated dose within the targeted dose range by Day 10. The primary rating instrument used for assessing efficacy in this study was the mean change from baseline in the total YMRS score. 

The efficacy of risperidone with concomitant lithium or valproate in the treatment of acute manic or mixed episodes was established in one controlled trial in adult patients who met the DSM-IV criteria for Bipolar I Disorder. This trial included patients with or without psychotic features and with or without a rapid-cycling course. 

(1)     In this 3-week placebo-controlled combination trial, 148 in- or outpatients on lithium or valproate therapy with inadequately controlled manic or mixed symptoms were randomized to receive risperidone, placebo, or an active comparator, in combination with their original therapy. Risperidone, in a dose range of 1 to 6 mg/day, once daily, starting at 2 mg/day (mean modal dose of 3.8 mg/day), combined with lithium or valproate (in a therapeutic range of 0.6 mEq/L to 1.4 mEq/L or 50 mcg/mL to 120 mcg/mL, respectively) was superior to lithium or valproate alone in the reduction of YMRS total score. 

(2)     In a second 3-week placebo-controlled combination trial, 142 in- or outpatients on lithium, valproate, or carbamazepine therapy with inadequately controlled manic or mixed symptoms were randomized to receive risperidone or placebo, in combination with their original therapy. Risperidone, in a dose range of 1 to 6 mg/day, once daily, starting at 2 mg/day (mean modal dose of 3.7 mg/day), combined with lithium, valproate, or carbamazepine (in therapeutic ranges of 0.6 mEq/L to 1.4 mEq/L for lithium, 50 mcg/mL to 125 mcg/mL for valproate, or 4 to 12 mcg/mL for carbamazepine, respectively) was not superior to lithium, valproate, or carbamazepine alone in the reduction of YMRS total score. A possible explanation for the failure of this trial was induction of risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone clearance by carbamazepine, leading to subtherapeutic levels of risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone.

Short-Term Efficacy 

The efficacy of risperidonein the treatment of irritability associated with autistic disorder was established in two 8-week, placebo-controlled trials in children and adolescents (aged 5 to 16 years) who met the DSM-IV criteria for autistic disorder. Over 90% of these subjects were under 12 years of age and most weighed over 20 kg (16 to 104.3 kg). 

Efficacy was evaluated using two assessment scales: the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC) and the Clinical Global Impression - Change (CGI-C) scale. The primary outcome measure in both trials was the change from baseline to endpoint in the Irritability subscale of the ABC (ABC-I). The ABC-I subscale measured the emotional and behavioral symptoms of autism, including aggression towards others, deliberate self-injuriousness, temper tantrums, and quickly changing moods. The CGI-C rating at endpoint was a co-primary outcome measure in one of the studies. 

The results of these trials are as follows: 

(1)     In one of the 8-week, placebo-controlled trials, children and adolescents with autistic disorder (n=101), aged 5 to 16 years, received twice daily doses of placebo or risperidone0.5 to 3.5 mg/day on a weight-adjusted basis. Risperidone, starting at 0.25 mg/day or 0.5 mg/day depending on baseline weight (< 20 kg and ≥ 20 kg, respectively) and titrated to clinical response (mean modal dose of 1.9 mg/day, equivalent to 0.06 mg/kg/day), significantly improved scores on the ABC-I subscale and on the CGI-C scale compared with placebo. 

(2)     In the other 8-week, placebo-controlled trial in children with autistic disorder (n=55), aged 5 to 12 years, risperidone 0.02 to 0.06 mg/kg/day given once or twice daily, starting at 0.01 mg/kg/day and titrated to clinical response (mean modal dose of 0.05 mg/kg/day, equivalent to 1.4 mg/day), significantly improved scores on the ABC-I subscale compared with placebo. 

Long-Term Efficacy 

Following completion of the first 8-week double-blind study, 63 patients entered an open-label study extension where they were treated with risperidonefor 4 or 6 months (depending on whether they received risperidone or placebo in the double-blind study). During this open-label treatment period, patients were maintained on a mean modal dose of risperidoneof 1.8 to 2.1 mg/day (equivalent to 0.05 to 0.07 mg/kg/day). 

Physicians are advised to discuss the following issues with patients for whom they prescribe risperidone:

Patients should be advised of the risk of orthostatic hypotension, especially during the period of initial dose titration [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)].

Since risperidone has the potential to impair judgment, thinking, or motor skills, patients should be cautioned about operating hazardous machinery, including automobiles, until they are reasonably certain that risperidone therapy does not affect them adversely [see Warnings and Precautions (5.9)].

Patients should be advised to notify their physician if they become pregnant or intend to become pregnant during therapy [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1)].

Patients should be advised to inform their physicians if they are taking, or plan to take, any prescription or over-the-counter drugs, since there is a potential for interactions [see Drug Interactions (7)].

Manufacturer

Aurolife Pharma LLC

Active Ingredients

Source

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