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These highlights do not include all the information needed to use DOCETAXEL INJECTION safely and effectively. See full prescribing information for DOCETAXEL INJECTION. DOCETAXEL injection, for intravenous use Initial U.S. Approval: 1996 | Docetaxel [Dr. Reddy's Laboratories Inc.] | BioPortfolio

12:47 EST 27th January 2019 | BioPortfolio

Note: While we endeavour to keep our records up-to-date one should not rely on these details being accurate without first consulting a professional. Click here to read our full medical disclaimer.

ONE-VIAL FORMULATION

WARNING: TOXIC DEATHS, HEPATOTOXICITY, NEUTROPENIA, HYPERSENSITIVITY REACTIONS, and FLUID RETENTION 

The incidence of treatment-related mortality associated with docetaxel injection therapy is increased in patients with abnormal liver function, in patients receiving higher doses, and in patients with non-small cell lung carcinoma and a history of prior treatment with platinum-based chemotherapy who receive docetaxel injection as a single agent at a dose of 100 mg/m [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].

Docetaxel injection should not be given to patients with bilirubin > upper limit of normal (ULN), or to patients with AST and/or ALT >1.5 x ULN concomitant with alkaline phosphatase >2.5 x ULN.  Patients  with  elevations  of  bilirubin  or abnormalities  of  transaminase concurrent with alkaline phosphatase are at increased risk for the development of grade 4 neutropenia, febrile neutropenia, infections, severe thrombocytopenia, severe stomatitis, severe skin toxicity, and toxic death. Patients with isolated elevations of transaminase >1.5 x ULN also had a higher rate of febrile neutropenia grade 4 but did not have an increased incidence of toxic death. Bilirubin, AST or ALT, and alkaline phosphatase values should be obtained prior to each cycle of docetaxel injection therapy [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]

Docetaxel injection therapy should not be given to patients with neutrophil counts of <1500 cells/mm . In order to monitor the occurrence of neutropenia, which may be severe and result in infection, frequent blood cell counts should be performed on all patients receiving docetaxel injection [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].

Severe hypersensitivity reactions characterized by generalized rash/erythema, hypotension and/or bronchospasm, or very rarely fatal anaphylaxis, have been reported in patients who received a 3-day dexamethasone premedication. Hypersensitivity reactions require immediate discontinuation of the docetaxel infusion and administration of appropriate therapy [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.5 )]. Docetaxel injection must not be given to patients who have a history of severe hypersensitivity reactions to docetaxel injection or to other drugs formulated with polysorbate 80 [see Contraindications ( 4 )].

Severe fluid retention occurred in 6.5% (6/92) of patients despite use of a 3-day dexamethasone premedication regimen. It was characterized by one or more of the following events: poorly tolerated peripheral edema, generalized edema, pleural effusion requiring urgent drainage, dyspnea at rest, cardiac tamponade, or pronounced abdominal distention (due to ascites) [see Warnings and Pr ecau tions ( 5.6 )].

Docetaxel injection is indicated for the treatment of patients with locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer after failure of prior chemotherapy. 

Docetaxel injection in combination with doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide is indicated for the adjuvant treatment of patients with operable node-positive breast cancer.

Docetaxel injection as a single agent is indicated for the treatment of patients with locally advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer after failure of prior platinum-based chemotherapy. 

Docetaxel injection in combination with cisplatin is indicated for the treatment of patients with unresectable, locally advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer who have not previously received chemotherapy for this condition.

Docetaxel injection in combination with prednisone is indicated for the treatment of patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer.

Docetaxel injection in combination with cisplatin and fluorouracil is indicated for the treatment of patients with advanced gastric adenocarcinoma, including adenocarcinoma of the gastroesophageal junction, who have not received prior chemotherapy for advanced disease.

Docetaxel injection in combination with cisplatin and fluorouracil is indicated for the induction treatment of patients with locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN).

For all indications, toxicities may warrant dosage adjustments [see Dosage and Administration (2.7)].

Administer in a facility equipped to manage possible complications (e.g. anaphylaxis).

Patients must receive premedication with antiemetics, and appropriate hydration (prior to and after cisplatin administration). Prophylaxis for neutropenic infections should be administered. All patients treated on the docetaxel injection containing arms of the TAX323 and TAX324 studies received prophylactic antibiotics.

Induction Chemotherapy Followed by Radiotherapy (TAX323)

For the induction treatment of locally advanced inoperable SCCHN, the recommended dose of docetaxel injection is 75 mg/m as a 1 hour intravenous infusion followed by cisplatin 75 mg/m2 intravenously over 1 hour, on day one, followed by fluorouracil as a continuous intravenous infusion at 750 mg/m2 per day for five days. This regimen is administered every 3 weeks for 4 cycles. Following chemotherapy, patients should receive radiotherapy. [see Dosage and Administration (2.7)].

Induction Chemotherapy Followed by Chemoradiotherapy (TAX324)

For the induction treatment of patients with locally advanced (unresectable, low surgical cure, or organ preservation) SCCHN, the recommended dose of docetaxel injection is 75 mg/m as a 1 hour intravenous infusion on day 1, followed by cisplatin 100 mg/m administered as a 30-minute to 3 hour infusion, followed by fluorouracil 1000 mg/m/day as a continuous infusion from day 1 to day 4. This regimen is administered every 3 weeks for 3 cycles. Following chemotherapy, patients should receive chemoradiotherapy [see Dosage and Administration (2.7)].

All patients should be premedicated with oral corticosteroids (see below for prostate cancer) such as dexamethasone 16 mg per day (e.g., 8 mg twice daily) for 3 days starting 1 day prior to docetaxel injection administration in order to reduce the incidence and severity of fluid retention as well as the severity of hypersensitivity reactions [see Boxed Warning, Warnings and Precautions (5.5)]. 

For hormone-refractory metastatic prostate cancer, given the concurrent use of prednisone, the recommended premedication regimen is oral dexamethasone 8 mg, at 12 hours, 3 hours, and 1 hour before the docetaxel infusion [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)].

Breast Cancer

Patients who are dosed initially at 100 mg/m  and who experience either febrile neutropenia, neutrophils <500 cells/mm  for more than 1 week, or severe or cumulative cutaneous reactions during docetaxel injection therapy should have the dosage adjusted from 100 mg/m  to 75 mg/m. If the patient continues to experience these reactions, the dosage should either be decreased from 75 mg/m  to 55 mg/m  or the treatment should be discontinued. Conversely, patients who are dosed initially at 60 mg/m  and who do not experience febrile neutropenia,  neutrophils <500 cells/mm  for more than 1 week, severe or cumulative cutaneous reactions, or severe peripheral neuropathy during docetaxel injection therapy  may tolerate higher doses. Patients who develop ≥ grade 3 peripheral neuropathy should have docetaxel injection treatment discontinued entirely. 

Combination Therapy with Docetaxel Injection in the Adjuvant Treatment of Breast Cancer

Docetaxel injection in combination with doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide should be administered when the neutrophil count is ≥1,500 cells/mm. Patients who experience febrile neutropenia should receive G-CSF in all subsequent cycles.  Patients who continue to experience this reaction should remain on G-CSF and have their docetaxel injection dose reduced to 60 mg/m². Patients who experience grade 3 or 4 stomatitis should have their docetaxel injection dose decreased to 60 mg/m². Patients who experience severe or cumulative cutaneous reactions or moderate neurosensory signs and/or symptoms during docetaxel injection therapy should have their dosage of docetaxel injection reduced from 75 mg/m to 60 mg/m².  If the patient continues to experience these reactions at 60 mg/m², treatment should be discontinued. 

Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

Monotherapy with Docetaxel Injection for NSCLC treatment after failure of prior platinum-based chemotherapy

Patients who are dosed initially at 75 mg/m  and who experience either febrile neutropenia, neutrophils <500 cells/mm  for more than one week, severe or cumulative cutaneous reactions, or other grade 3/4 non-hematological toxicities during docetaxel injection treatment should have treatment withheld until resolution of the toxicity and then resumed at 55 mg/m. Patients who develop ≥ grade 3 peripheral neuropathy should have docetaxel injection treatment discontinued entirely.

Combination therapy with Docetaxel Injection for chemotherapy-naive NSCLC

For patients who are dosed initially at docetaxel injection 75 mg/m in combination with cisplatin, and whose nadir of platelet count during the previous course of therapy is <25,000 cells/mm, in patients who experience febrile neutropenia, and in patients with serious non-hematologic toxicities, the docetaxel injection dosage in subsequent cycles should be reduced to 65 mg/m. In patients who require a further dose reduction, a dose of 50 mg/m is recommended. For cisplatin dosage adjustments, see manufacturers’ prescribing information. 

Prostate Cancer

Combination therapy with docetaxel injection for metastaticcastration-resistant prostate cancer

Docetaxel injection should be administered when the neutrophil count is ≥1,500 cells/mm.  Patients who experience either febrile neutropenia, neutrophils <500 cells/mm for more than one week, severe or cumulative cutaneous reactions or moderate neurosensory signs and/or symptoms during  docetaxel injection  therapy  should  have  the  dosage  of  docetaxel injection  reduced  from  75 mg/m to 60 mg/m². If the patient continues to experience these reactions at 60 mg/m², the treatment should be discontinued.

Gastric or Head and Neck Cancer

Docetaxel injection in combination with cisplatin and fluorouracil in gastric cancer or head and neck cancer

Patients treated with docetaxel injection in combination with cisplatin and fluorouracil must receive antiemetics andappropriate hydration according to current institutional guidelines. In both studies, G-CSF was recommended during thesecond and/or subsequent cycles in case of febrile neutropenia, or documented infection with neutropenia, or neutropenialasting more than 7 days. If an episode of febrile neutropenia, prolonged neutropenia or neutropenic infection occurs despiteG-CSF use, the docetaxel injection dose should be reduced from 75 mg/m to 60 mg/m2. If subsequent episodes of complicatedneutropenia occur the docetaxel injection dose should be reduced from 60 mg/m to 45 mg/m. In case of grade 4thrombocytopenia the docetaxel injection dose should be reduced from 75 mg/m to 60 mg/m. Patients retreated withsubsequent cycles of docetaxel injection until neutrophils recover to a level >1,500 cells/mm and platelets recover to a level>100,000 cells/mm. Discontinue treatment if these toxicities persist  [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].

Recommended dose modifications for toxicities in patients treated with docetaxel injection in combination with cisplatin and fluorouracil are shown in Table 1.

Table 1 : Recommended Dose Modifications for Toxicities in Patients Treated with Docetaxel Injection in Combination with Cisplatin and Fluorouracil 

Liver dysfunction:

In case of AST/ALT >2.5 to ≤ 5 x ULN and AP ≤ 2.5 x ULN, or AST/ALT >1.5 to ≤ 5 x ULN and AP >2.5 to ≤5 x ULN, docetaxelinjection should be reduced by 20%.

In case of AST/ALT >5 x ULN and/or AP >5 x ULN docetaxel injection should be stopped.

The dose modifications for cisplatin and fluorouracil in the gastric cancer study are provided below.

Cisplatin dose modifications and delays

Peripheral neuropathy: A neurological examination should be performed before entry into the study, and then at least every 2 cycles and at the end of treatment. In the case of neurological signs or symptoms, more frequent examinations should be performed and the following dose modifications can be made according to NCIC-CTC grade:

• Grade 2: Reduce cisplatin dose by 20%.

• Grade 3: Discontinue treatment.

Ototoxicity: In the case of grade 3 toxicity, discontinue treatment.

Nephrotoxicity: In the event of a rise in serum creatinine ≥grade 2 (>1.5 x normal value) despite adequate rehydration, CrCl should be determined before each subsequent cycle and the following dose reductions should be considered (see Table 2). 

For other cisplatin dosage adjustments, also refer to the manufacturers’ prescribing information.

Table 2 – Dose Reductions for Evaluation of Creatinine Clearance

CrCl = Creatinine clearance 

Fluorouracil dose modifications and treatment delays

For diarrhea and stomatitis, see Table 1.In the event of grade 2 or greater plantar-palmar toxicity, fluorouracil should be stopped until recovery. The fluorouracil dosage should be reduced by 20%. 

For other greater than grade 3 toxicities, except alopecia and anemia, chemotherapy should be delayed (for a maximum of 2 weeks from the planned date of infusion) until resolution to grade ≤1 and then recommenced, if medically appropriate. 

For other fluorouracil dosage adjustments, also refer to the manufacturers’ prescribing information. 

Combination Therapy with Strong CYP3A4 inhibitors:

Avoid   using    concomitant   strong   CYP3A4   inhibitors    (e.g., ketoconazole, itraconazole, clarithromycin, atazanavir, indinavir, nefazodone, nelfinavir, ritonavir, saquinavir, telithromycin and voriconazole).  There are no clinical data with a dose adjustment in patients receiving strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. Based on extrapolation from a pharmacokinetic study with ketoconazole in 7 patients, consider a 50% docetaxel dose reduction if patients require coadministration of a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor.  [see Drug Interactions (7 )], Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

Toxicity Dosage adjustment
Diarrhea grade 3 First episode: reduce fluorouracil dose by 20%.Second episode: then reduce docetaxel injection dose by 20%.
Diarrhea grade 4 First episode: reduce docetaxel injection and fluorouracil doses by 20%. Second episode: discontinue treatment.
Stomatitis/mucositisgrade 3 First episode: reduce fluorouracil dose by 20%. Second episode: stop fluorouracil only, at all subsequent cycles. Third episode: reduce docetaxel injection dose by 20%.
Stomatitis/mucositisgrade 4 First episode: stop fluorouracil only, at all subsequent cycles. Second episode: reduce docetaxel injection dose by 20%.
Creatinine clearance result before next cycle Cisplatin dose next cycle  
CrCl ≥60 mL/min  Full dose of cisplatin was given.  CrCl was to be repeated before each treatment cycle.
CrCl between 40 and 59 mL/min   Dose of cisplatin was reduced by 50% at subsequent cycle.  If CrCl was >60 mL/min at end of cycle, full cisplatin dose was reinstituted at the next cycle.
 If no recovery was observed, then cisplatin was omitted from the next treatment cycle.
CrCl <40 mL/min      Dose of cisplatin was omitted in that treatment cycle only.
 If CrCl was still <40 mL/min at the end of cycle, cisplatin was discontinued.
 If CrCl was >40 and <60 mL/min at end of cycle, a 50% cisplatin dose was given at the next cycle.
 If CrCl was >60 mL/min at end of cycle, full cisplatin dose was given at next cycle.

Docetaxel injection is a cytotoxic anticancer drug and, as with other potentially toxic compounds, caution should be exercised when handling and preparing docetaxel injection solutions. The use of gloves is recommended. Please refer to [see How Supplied / Storage and Handling (16.3)]. 

If  docetaxel injection,  initial  diluted  solution,  or  final  dilution  for  infusion should come into contact with the skin, immediately and thoroughly wash with soap and water. If  docetaxel injection   initial  diluted  solution,  or  final  dilution  for  infusion should come into contact with mucosa, immediately and thoroughly wash with water.

Contact of the docetaxel injection, with plasticized PVC equipment or devices used to prepare solutions for infusion is not recommended. In order to minimize patient exposure to the plasticizer DEHP (di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate), which may be leached from PVC infusion bags or sets, the  final docetaxel injection dilution for infusion should be stored in bottles (glass, polypropylene) or plastic bags (polypropylene, polyolefin) and administered through polyethylene-lined administration sets.

One-vial Docetaxel Injection USP

Docetaxel injection, requires NO prior dilution with a diluent and is ready to add to the infusion solution. Please follow the preparation instructions provided below.

DO NOT use the two-vial formulation (Injection and diluent) with the one-vial formulation.  

One-vial Docetaxel Injection USP

Docetaxel Injection , (20 mg/mL) requires NO prior dilution with a diluent and is ready to add to the infusion solution. Use only a 21 gauge needle to withdraw docetaxel injection from the vial because larger bore needles (e.g., 18 and 19 gauge) may result in stopper coring and rubber particulates.  

1. Docetaxel vials should be stored between 2°C and 25°C (36°F and 77°F). If the vials are stored under refrigeration, allow the appropriate number of vials of docetaxel injection, vials to stand at room temperature for approximately 5 minutes before use.  

2. Using only a 21 gauge needle, aseptically withdraw the required amount of docetaxel injection, (20 mg docetaxel/mL) with a calibrated syringe and inject via a single injection (one shot) into a 250 mL infusion bag or bottle of either 0.9% Sodium Chloride solution or 5% Dextrose solution to produce a final concentration of 0.3 mg/mL to 0.74 mg/mL. If a dose greater than 200 mg of docetaxel is required, use a larger volume of the infusion vehicle so that a concentration of 0.74 mg/mL docetaxel is not exceeded.  

3. Thoroughly mix the infusion by gentle manual rotation.  

4. As with all parenteral products, docetaxel should be inspected visually for particulate matter or discoloration prior to administration whenever the solution and container permit. If the docetaxel dilution for intravenous infusion is not clear or appears to have precipitation, it should be discarded.

5. Docetaxel infusion solution is supersaturated, therefore may crystallize over time. If crystals appear, the solution must no longer be used and shall be discarded.

The docetaxel dilution for infusion should be administered intravenously as a 1-hour infusion under ambient room temperature (below 25°C) and lighting conditions.

Docetaxel injection final dilution for infusion, if stored at 20°-25°C (68°-77°F); is stable for 6 hours. Docetaxel injection final dilution for infusion (in either 0.9% Sodium Chloride solution  or  5%  Dextrose  solution)  should  be  used  within  6  hours  (including  the  1 hour intravenous administration).

In addition, physical and chemical in-use stability of the infusion solution prepared as recommended has been demonstrated in non-PVC bags up to 48 hours when stored between 2°C and 8°C (36 and 46°F).

One-vial Docetaxel Injection USP  

Docetaxel 20 mg/mL

Docetaxel Injection USP, 20 mg/1 mL: 20 mg docetaxel and 3 mg citric acid anhydrous in 1 mL 50/50 (v/v) ratio polysorbate 80/dehydrated alcohol. 

Docetaxel 80 mg/4 mL

Docetaxel Injection USP, 80 mg/4 mL: 80 mg docetaxel and 12 mg citric acid anhydrous in 4 mL   50/50 (v/v) ratio polysorbate 80/dehydrated alcohol. 

Docetaxel injection is contraindicated in patients with:

Breast Cancer

Docetaxel injection administered at 100 mg/m was associated with deaths considered possibly or probably related to treatment in 2% (19/965) of metastatic breast cancer patients, both previously treated and untreated, with normal baseline liver function and in 11.5% (7/61) of patients with various tumor types who had abnormal baseline liver function (AST and/or ALT >1.5 times ULN together with AP >2.5 times ULN). Among patients dosed at 60 mg/m, mortality related to treatment occurred in 0.6% (3/481) of patients with normal liver function, and in 3 of 7 patients with abnormal liver function. Approximately half of these deaths occurred during the first cycle. Sepsis accounted for the majority of the deaths. 

Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

Docetaxel injection administered at a dose of 100 mg/m in patients with locally advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer who had a history of prior platinum-based chemotherapy was associated  with  increased  treatment-related  mortality  (14%  and  5%  in  two  randomized, controlled studies). There were 2.8% treatment-related deaths among the 176 patients treated at the 75 mg/m dose in the randomized trials. Among patients who experienced treatment-related mortality at the 75 mg/m2 dose level, 3 of 5 patients had an ECOG PS of 2 at study entry [see Dosage and Administration (2.2), Clinical Studies (14)].

Patients with combined abnormalities of transaminases and alkaline phosphatase should not be treated  with  docetaxel injection  [see  Boxed  Warning,  Use  in  Specific  Populations  (8.6),  Clinical studies (14)].

Perform frequent peripheral blood cell counts on all patients receiving docetaxel injection.   Patients should not be retreated with subsequent cycles of docetaxel injection until neutrophils recover to a level >1500 cells/mm and platelets recover to a level > 100,000 cells/mm.

A  25%  reduction  in  the  dose  of  docetaxel injection  is  recommended  during  subsequent  cycles following severe neutropenia (<500 cells/mm) lasting 7 days or more, febrile neutropenia, or a grade 4 infection in a docetaxel injection cycle [see Dosage and Administration (2.7)].

Neutropenia (<2000 neutrophils/mm) occurs in virtually all patients given 60 mg/m  to 100 mg/m  of docetaxel injection and grade 4 neutropenia (<500 cells/mm) occurs in 85% of patients given 100 mg/m and 75% of patients given 60 mg/m. Frequent monitoring of blood counts is, therefore, essential so that dose can be adjusted. docetaxel injection should not be administered to patients with neutrophils <1500 cells/mm.

Febrile neutropenia occurred in about 12% of patients given 100 mg/m but was very uncommon in patients given 60 mg/m. Hematologic responses, febrile reactions and infections, and rates of septic death for different regimens are dose related [see Adverse Reactions (6.1), Clinical Studies (14)].

Three breast cancer patients with severe liver impairment (bilirubin >1.7 times ULN) developed fatal gastrointestinal bleeding associated with severe drug-induced thrombocytopenia. In gastric cancer patients treated with docetaxel in combination with cisplatin and fluorouracil (TCF), febrile neutropenia and/or neutropenic infection occurred in 12% of patients receiving G-CSF compared to 28% who did not. Patients receiving TCF should be closely monitored during the first and subsequent cycles for febrile neutropenia and neutropenic infection [see Dosage and Administration (2.7), Adverse Reactions (6)].

Enterocolitis and Neutropenic Colitis Enterocolitis and neutropenic colitis (typhlitis) have occurred in patients treated with docetaxel injection alone and in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents, despite the co-administration of G-CSF. Caution is recommended for patients with neutropenia, particularly at risk for developing gastrointestinal complications. Enterocolitis and neutropenic enterocolitis may develop at any time, and could lead to death as early as the first day of symptom onset. Monitor patients closely from onset of any symptoms of gastrointestinal toxicity. Inform patients to contact their healthcare provider with new, or worsening symptoms of gastrointestinal toxicity [see Dosage and Administration (2), Warnings and Precautions (5.3), Adverse Reactions (6.2)].

Patients should be observed closely for hypersensitivity reactions, especially during the first and second infusions. Severe hypersensitivity reactions characterized by generalized rash/erythema, hypotension  and/or  bronchospasm,  or  very  rarely  fatal  anaphylaxis,  have  been  reported  in patients premedicated with 3 days of corticosteroids. Severe hypersensitivity reactions require immediate discontinuation of the docetaxel infusion and aggressive therapy. Patients with a history of severe hypersensitivity reactions should not be rechallenged with docetaxel injection.

Patients who have previously experienced a hypersensitivity reaction to paclitaxel may develop a hypersensitivity reaction to docetaxel that may include severe or fatal reactions such as anaphylaxis. Monitor patients with a previous history of hypersensitivity to paclitaxel closely during initiation of docetaxel injection therapy.Hypersensitivity reactions may occur within a few minutes following initiation of a docetaxel infusion. If minor reactions such as flushing or localized skin reactions occur, interruption of therapy is not required. All patients should be premedicated with an oral corticosteroid prior to the initiation of the infusion of docetaxel injection [see Dosage and Administration (2.6)].

Severe fluid retention has been reported following docetaxel injection therapy. Patients should be premedicated with oral corticosteroids prior to each docetaxel injection administration to reduce the incidence and severity of fluid retention [see Dosage and Administration (2.6)]. Patients with pre-existing effusions should be closely monitored from the first dose for the possible exacerbation of the effusions.

When fluid retention occurs, peripheral edema usually starts in the lower extremities and may become generalized with a median weight gain of 2 kg. 

Among 92 breast cancer patients premedicated with 3-day corticosteroids, moderate fluid retention occurred in 27.2% and severe fluid retention in 6.5%. The median cumulative dose to onset of moderate or severe fluid retention was 819 mg/m. Nine of 92 patients (9.8%) of patients discontinued treatment due to fluid retention: 4 patients discontinued with severe fluid retention; the remaining 5 had mild or moderate fluid retention. The median cumulative dose to treatment discontinuation due to fluid retention was 1021 mg/m. Fluid retention was completely, but  sometimes  slowly,  reversible  with a median of 16 weeks  from  the  last  infusion of docetaxel injection to resolution (range: 0 to 42+ weeks). Patients developing peripheral edema may be treated with standard measures, e.g., salt restriction, oral diuretic(s).

Treatment-related acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or myelodysplasia has occurred in patients given anthracyclines and/or cyclophosphamide, including use in adjuvant therapy for breast cancer.  In the adjuvant breast cancer trial (TAX316) AML occurred in 3 of 744 patients who received docetaxel injection, doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide (TAC) and in 1 of 736 patients who received fluorouracil, doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide [see Clinical Studies (14.2)].  In TAC- treated patients, the risk of delayed myelodysplasia or myeloid leukemia requires hematological follow-up.

Localized erythema of the extremities with edema followed by desquamation has been observed. In case of severe skin toxicity, an adjustment in dosage is recommended [see Dosage and Administration (2.7)]. The  discontinuation  rate  due  to  skin  toxicity  was  1.6%  (15/965)  for metastatic breast cancer patients. Among 92 breast cancer patients premedicated with 3-day corticosteroids, there were no cases of severe skin toxicity reported and no patient discontinued docetaxel injection due to skin toxicity.

Severe neurosensory symptoms (e.g. paresthesia, dysesthesia, pain) were observed in 5.5% (53/965) of metastatic breast cancer patients, and resulted in treatment discontinuation in 6.1%. When these symptoms occur, dosage must be adjusted. If symptoms persist, treatment should be discontinued [see Dosage and Administration (2.7)]. Patients who experienced neurotoxicity in clinical trials and for whom follow-up information on the complete resolution of the event was available had spontaneous reversal of symptoms with a median of 9 weeks from onset (range: 0 to 106 weeks). Severe peripheral motor neuropathy mainly manifested as distal extremity weakness occurred in 4.4% (42/965).

Cystoid macular edema (CME) has been reported in patients treated with docetaxel. Patients with impaired vision should undergo a prompt and comprehensive ophthalmologic examination. If CME is diagnosed, docetaxel treatment should be discontinued and appropriate treatment initiated. Alternative non-taxane cancer treatment should be considered.

Severe asthenia has been reported in 14.9% (144/965) of metastatic breast cancer patients but has led to treatment discontinuation in only 1.8%. Symptoms of fatigue and weakness may last a few days up to several weeks and may be associated with deterioration of performance status in patients with progressive disease.

Cases of intoxication have been reported with some formulations of docetaxel due to the alcohol content. The alcohol content in a dose of docetaxel injection may affect the central nervous system and should be taken into account for patients in whom alcohol intake should be avoided or minimized. Consideration should be given to the alcohol content in docetaxel injection on the ability to drive or use machines immediately after the infusion. Each administration of docetaxel injection at 100 mg/m delivers 2 g/m of ethanol. For a patient with a BSA of 2 m, this would deliver 4 grams of ethanol [see Description (11) ]. Other docetaxel products may have a different amount of alcohol.

Docetaxel injection can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Docetaxel caused embryofetal toxicities including intrauterine mortality when administered to pregnant rats and rabbits during the period of organogenesis. Embryofetal effects in animals occurred at doses as low as 1/50 and 1/300 the recommended human dose on a body surface area basis.

There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women using docetaxel injection. If docetaxel injection is used during pregnancy, or if the patient becomes pregnant while receiving this drug, the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus. Women of childbearing potential should be advised to avoid becoming pregnant during therapy with docetaxel injection [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1)].

The most serious adverse reactions from docetaxel injection are:

•  Toxic Deaths [see Boxed Warning, Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]

•  Hepatic Impairment [see Boxed Warning, Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]

•  Hematologic Effects [see Boxed Warning, Warnings and Precautions (5.3)]

•  Enterocolitis and Neutropenic Colitis [see Boxed Warning, Warnings and Precautions (5.4)]

•  Hypersensitivity Reactions [see Boxed Warning, Warnings and Precautions (5.5)] 

• Fluid Retension [ see Boxed Warning , see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)]

• Acute Myeloid Leukemia [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)]

• Cutaneous Reactions [see Warnings and Precautions (5.8)]

• Neurologic Reactions  [see Warnings and Precautions (5.9)]

• Eye Disorders [see Warnings and Precautions (5.10)]

• Asthenia [see Warnings and Precautions (5.11)]

• Alcohol Content [ see Warnings and Precations (5.12)]

The most common adverse reactions across all docetaxel injection indications are infections, neutropenia, anemia, febrile neutropenia, hypersensitivity, thrombocytopenia, neuropathy, dysgeusia, dyspnea, constipation, anorexia, nail disorders, fluid retention, asthenia, pain, nausea, diarrhea, vomiting, mucositis, alopecia, skin reactions, and myalgia.  Incidence varies depending on the indication.

Adverse reactions are described according to indication.  Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice. 

Responding patients may not experience an improvement in performance status on therapy and may experience worsening. The relationship between changes in performance status, response to therapy, and treatment-related side effects has not been established. 

Breast Cancer

Monotherapy with Docetaxel Injection for locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer after failure of prior chemotherapy

Docetaxel injection 100 mg/m: Adverse drug reactions occurring in at least 5% of patients are compared for three populations who received docetaxel injection administered at 100 mg/m  as a 1-hour infusion every 3 weeks: 2045 patients with various tumor types and normal baseline liver function tests; the subset of 965 patients with locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer, both previously treated and untreated with chemotherapy, who had normal baseline liver function tests; and an additional 61 patients with various tumor types who had abnormal liver function tests at baseline. These reactions were described using COSTART terms and were considered possibly or probably related to docetaxel injection. At least 95% of these patients did not receive hematopoietic support. The safety profile is generally similar in patients receiving docetaxel injection for the treatment of breast cancer and in patients with other tumor types. (See Table 3).

Table 3 : Summary of Adverse Reactions in Patients Receiving Docetaxel Injection at 100 mg/m  

*Normal Baseline LFTs: Transaminases ≤1.5 times ULN or alkaline phosphatase ≤2.5 times ULN or isolated elevations of transaminases or alkaline phosphatase up to 5 times ULN

**Elevated Baseline LFTs: AST and/or ALT >1.5 times ULN concurrent with alkaline phosphatase >2.5 times ULN

***Febrile Neutropenia: ANC grade 4 with fever >38°C with intravenous antibiotics and/or hospitalization 

Hematologic Reactions

Reversible marrow suppression was the major dose-limiting toxicity of docetaxel injection [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)]. The median time to nadir was 7 days, while the median duration of severe neutropenia (<500 cells/mm) was 7 days. Among 2045 patients with solid tumors and normal baseline LFTs, severe neutropenia occurred in 75.4% and lasted for more than 7 days in 2.9% of cycles. 

Febrile neutropenia (<500 cells/mm with fever >38°C with intravenous antibiotics and/or hospitalization) occurred in 11% of patients with solid tumors, in 12.3% of patients with metastatic breast cancer, and in 9.8% of 92 breast cancer patients premedicated with 3 day corticosteroids.

Severe infectious episodes occurred in 6.1% of patients with solid tumors, in 6.4% of patients with metastatic breast cancer, and in 5.4% of 92 breast cancer patients premedicated with 3-day corticosteroids.

Thrombocytopenia (<100,000 cells/mm) associated with fatal gastrointestinal hemorrhage has been reported.

Hypersensitivity Reactions

Severe hypersensitivity reactions have been reported [see Boxed Warning, Warnings and Precautions (5.5)]. Minor events, including flushing, rash with or without pruritus, chest tightness, back pain, dyspnea, drug fever, or chills, have been reported and resolved after discontinuing the infusion and instituting appropriate therapy. 

Fluid Retention.

Fluid  retention  can  occur  with  the  use  of  docetaxel injection  [see  Boxed  Warning, Dosage  and Administration (2.6), Warnings and Precautions (5.6)]. 

Cutaneous Reactions

Severe skin toxicity is discussed elsewhere in the label [see Warnings and Precautions (5.8)]. Reversible cutaneous reactions characterized by a rash including localized eruptions, mainly on the feet and/or hands, but also on the arms, face, or thorax, usually associated with pruritus, have been observed.  Eruptions generally occurred within 1 week after docetaxel injection infusion, recovered before the next infusion, and were not disabling.

Severe nail disorders were characterized by hypo- or hyperpigmentation, and occasionally by onycholysis (in 0.8% of patients with solid tumors) and pain. 

Neurologic Reactions

Neurologic reactions are discussed elsewhere in the label [see Warnings and Precautions (5.9)] 

Gastrointestinal Reactions

Nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea were generally mild to moderate. Severe reactions occurred in 3­ % to 5% of patients with solid tumors and to a similar extent among metastatic breast cancer patients. The incidence of severe reactions was 1% or less for the 92 breast cancer patients premedicated with 3-day corticosteroids. Severe stomatitis occurred in 5.5% of patients with solid tumors, in 7.4% of patients with metastatic breast cancer, and in 1.1% of the 92 breast cancer patients premedicated with 3-day corticosteroids. 

Cardiovascular Reactions

Hypotension occurred in 2.8% of patients with solid tumors; 1.2% required treatment. Clinically meaningful events such as heart failure, sinus tachycardia, atrial flutter, dysrhythmia, unstable angina, pulmonary edema, and hypertension occurred rarely. Seven of 86 (8.1%) of metastatic breast cancer patients receiving docetaxel injection 100 mg/m  in a randomized trial and who had serial left ventricular ejection fractions assessed developed deterioration of LVEF by ≥10% associated with a drop below the institutional lower limit of normal. 

Infusion Site Reactions

Infusion site reactions were generally mild and consisted of hyperpigmentation, inflammation, redness or dryness of the skin, phlebitis, extravasation, or swelling of the vein. 

Hepatic Reactions

In patients with normal LFTs at baseline, bilirubin values greater than the ULN occurred in 8.9% of patients. Increases in AST or ALT >1.5 times the ULN, or alkaline phosphatase >2.5 times ULN, were observed in 18.9% and 7.3% of patients, respectively. While on docetaxel injection, increases in AST and/or ALT >1.5 times ULN concomitant with alkaline phosphatase >2.5 times ULN occurred in 4.3% of patients with normal LFTs at baseline. Whether these changes were related to the drug or underlying disease has not been established. 

Hematologic and Other Toxicity: Relation to dose and baseline liver chemistry abnormalities

Hematologic and other toxicity is increased at higher doses and in patients with elevated baseline liver function tests (LFTs). In the following tables, adverse drug reactions are compared for three populations: 730 patients with normal LFTs given docetaxel injection at 100 mg/m in the randomized and  single  arm  studies  of  metastatic  breast  cancer  after  failure  of  previous  chemotherapy; 18 patients in these studies who had abnormal baseline LFTs (defined as AST and/or ALT >1.5 times ULN concurrent with alkaline phosphatase >2.5 times ULN); and 174 patients in Japanese studies given docetaxel injection at 60 mg/m who had normal LFTs (see Tables 4 and 5).

Table 4 : Hematologic Adverse Reactions in Breast Cancer Patients Previously Treated with Chemotherapy Treated at Docetaxel Injection 100 mg/m with Normal or Elevated Liver Function Tests or 60 mg/m with Normal Liver Function Tests

*    Normal Baseline LFTs: Transaminases £1.5 times ULN or alkaline phosphatase ≤2.5 times ULN or isolated elevations of transaminases or alkaline phosphatase up to 5 times ULN

** Elevated Baseline LFTs: AST and/or ALT >1.5 times ULN concurrent with alkaline phosphatase >2.5 times ULN

***Incidence of infection requiring hospitalization and/or intravenous antibiotics was 8.5% (n=62) among the 730 patients with normal LFTs at baseline; 7 patients had concurrent grade 3 neutropenia, and 46 patients had grade 4 neutropenia.

****Febrile Neutropenia: For 100 mg/m, ANC grade 4 and fever >38°C with intravenous antibiotics and/or hospitalization; for 60 mg/m, ANC grade 3/4 and fever >38.1°C

Table 5 : Non-Hematologic Adverse Reactions in Breast Cancer Patients Previously Treated with Chemotherapy Treated at Docetaxel Injection 100 mg/m with Normal or Elevated Liver Function Tests or 60 mg/m with Normal Liver Function Tests

*Normal Baseline LFTs: Transaminases ≤1.5 times ULN or alkaline phosphatase ≤ 2.5 times ULN or isolated elevations of transaminases or alkaline phosphatase up to 5 times ULN

** Elevated Baseline Liver Function: AST and/or ALT >1.5 times ULN concurrent with alkaline phosphatase >2.5 times ULN

***Fluid Retention includes (by COSTART): edema (peripheral, localized, generalized, lymphedema, pulmonary edema, and edema otherwise not specified) and effusion (pleural, pericardial, and ascites); no premedication given with the 60 mg/m dose

NA = not available

In the three-arm monotherapy trial, TAX313, whichcompared docetaxel injection 60 mg/m, 75 mg/m and 100mg/m in advanced breast cancer, grade 3/4 or severe adversereactions occurred in 49% of patients treated with docetaxelinjection 60 mg/m2 compared to 55.3% and 65.9% treated with75 mg/m2 and 100 mg/m respectively. Discontinuation due toadverse reactions was reported in 5.3% of patients treated with60 mg/m versus 6.9% and 16.5% for patients treated at 75 and100 mg/m respectively. Deaths within 30 days of last treatmentoccurred in 4% of patients treated with 60 mg/m2 compared to5.3% and 1.6% for patients treated at 75 mg/m and 100 mg/m2respectively.

The following adverse reactions were associated with increasingdocetaxel doses: fluid retention (26%, 38%, and 46% at60 mg/m, 75 mg/m, and 100 mg/m respectively),thrombocytopenia (7%, 11% and 12% respectively),neutropenia (92%, 94%, and 97% respectively), febrileneutropenia (5%, 7%, and 14% respectively), treatment-relatedgrade 3/4 infection (2%, 3%, and 7% respectively) and anemia(87%, 94%, and 97% respectively).

Combination therapy with Docetaxel Injection in the adjuvant treatment of breast cancer

The following table presents treatment emergent adverse reactions observed in 744 patients, who were treated with docetaxel injection 75 mg/m² every 3 weeks in combination with doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide (see Table 6).

Table 6: Clinically Important Treatment Emergent Adverse Reactions Regardless of Causal Relationship in Patients Receiving Docetaxel Injection in Combination with Doxorubicin and Cyclophosphamide (TAX316)

* COSTART term and grading system for events related to treatment. 

Of the 744 patients treated with TAC, 36.3% experienced severe treatment emergent adverse reactions compared to 26.6% of the 736 patients treated with FAC.Dose reductions due to hematologic toxicity occurred in 1% of cycles in the TAC arm versus 0.1% of cycles in the FAC arm. Six percent of patients treated with TAC discontinued treatment due to adverse reactions, compared to 1.1% treated with FAC; fever in the absence of infection and allergy being the most common reasons for withdrawal among TAC-treated patients. Two patients died in each arm within 30 days of their last study treatment; 1 death per arm was attributed to study drugs. 

Fever and Infection

Fever in the traetment period, fever in the absence of infection was seen in 46.5% of TAC-treated patients and in 17.1% of FAC-treated patients. Grade 3/4 fever in the absence of infection was seen in 1.3% and 0% of TAC- and FAC-treated patients respectively.Infection was seen in 39.4% of TAC-treated patients compared to 36.3% of FAC-treated patients. Grade 3/4 infection was seen in 3.9% and 2.2% of TAC-treated and FAC-treated patients respectively. There were no septic deaths in either treatment arm during the treatment period.

Gastrointestinal Reactions

In addition to gastrointestinal reactions reflected in the table above, 7 patients in the TAC arm were reported to have colitis/enteritis/large intestine perforation vs. one patient in the FAC arm. Five of the 7 TAC-treated patients required treatment discontinuation; no deaths due to these events occurred during the treatment period.

Cardiovascular Reactions

More cardiovascular reactions were reported in the TAC arm versus the FAC arm during the treatment period: arrhythmias,all grades (6.2% vs 4.9%), and hypotension, all grades (1.9% vs 0.8%). Twenty-six (26) patients (3.5%) in the TAC arm and 17patients (2.3%) in the FAC arm developed CHF during the study period. All except one patient in each arm were diagnosedwith CHF during the follow-up period. Two (2) patients in TAC arm and 4 patients in FAC arm died due to CHF. The risk of CHF was higher in the TAC arm in the first year, and then was similar in both treatment arms.

Adverse reactions during the follow-up period (median follow up time of 8 years)

In study TAX316, the most common adverse reactions thatstarted during the treatment period and persisted into thefollow-up period in TAC and FAC patients are described below(median follow-up time of 8 years).

Nervous System Disorders

In study TAX316, peripheral sensory neuropathy started during the treatment period and persisted into the follow-up period in 84 patients (11.3%) in TAC arm and 15 patients (2%) in FAC arm. At the end of the follow-up period (median follow-up timeof 8 years), peripheral sensory neuropathy was observed to beongoing in 10 patients (1.3%) in TAC arm, and in 2 patients(0.3%) in FAC arm.

Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders In study TAX316, alopecia persisting into the follow-up period after the end of chemotherapy was reported in 687 of 744 TAC patients (92.3%) and 645 of 736 FAC patients (87.6%).At the end of the follow-up period (actual median follow-up time of 8 years), alopecia was observed to be ongoing in 29 TAC patients (3.9%) and 16 FAC patients (2.2%).

Reproductive System and Breast Disorders

In study TAX316, amenorrhea that started during the treatment period and persisted into the follow-up period after the end of chemotherapy was reported in 202 of 744 TAC patients (27.2%)and 125 of 736 FAC patients (17.0%). Amenorrhea was observed to be ongoing at the end of the follow-up period(median follow-up time of 8 years) in 121 of 744 TAC patients(16.3%) and 86 FAC patients (11.7%).

General Disorders and Administration Site Conditions

In study TAX316, peripheral edema that started during the treatment period and persisted into the follow-up period afterthe end of chemotherapy was observed in 119 of 744 TAC patients (16.0%) and 23 of 736 FAC patients (3.1%).

At the end of the follow-up period (actual median follow-uptime of 8 years), peripheral edema was ongoing in 19 TACpatients (2.6%) and 4 FAC patients (0.5%).In study TAX316, lymphedema that started during the treatmentperiod and persisted into the follow-up period after the end ofchemotherapy was reported in 11 of 744 TAC patients (1.5%)and 1 of 736 FAC patients (0.1%).

At the end of the follow-up period (actual median follow-up time of 8 years), lymphedemawas observed to be ongoing in 6 TAC patients (0.8%) and 1 FAC patient (0.1%).In study TAX316, asthenia that started during the treatmentperiod and persisted into the follow-up period after the end ofchemotherapy was reported in 236 of 744 TAC patients (31.7%)and 180 of 736 FAC patients (24.5%). At the end of the followupperiod (actual median follow-up time of 8 years), astheniawas observed to be ongoing in 29 TAC patients (3.9%) and 16 FAC patients (2.2%).

Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML)/Myelodysplastic Syndrome

AML occurred in the adjuvant breast cancer trial (TAX316). The cumulative risk of developing treatment-related AML at median follow-up time of 8 years in TAX316 was 0.4% for TAC-treated patients and 0.1% for FAC-treated patients. One TAC patient (0.1%) and 1 FAC patient (0.1%) died due to AML during the follow-up period (median follow-up time of 8 years). Myelodysplastic syndrome occurred in 2 of 744 (0.3%) patients who received TAC and in 1 of 736 (0.1%) patients who received FAC. AML occurs at a higher frequency when these agents are given in combination with radiation therapy.

Lung Cancer

Monotherapy with Docetaxel Injection for unresectable, locally advanced or metastatic NSCLC previously treated with platinum-based chemotherapy

Docetaxel injection 75 mg/m: Treatment emergent adverse drug reactions are shown in Table 7. Included  in  this table are safety  data  for  a  total  of  176  patients  with non-small  cell  lung carcinoma and a history of prior treatment with platinum-based chemotherapy who were treated in  two  randomized, controlled trials. These reactions were described using NCI Common Toxicity Criteria regardless of relationship to study treatment, except for the hematologic toxicities or where otherwise noted. 

Table 7 : Treatment Emergent Adverse Reactions Regardless of Relationship to Treatment in Patients Receiving Docetaxel Injection as Monotherapy for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Previously Treated with Platinum-Based Chemotherapy*

*Normal Baseline LFTs: Transaminases ≤1.5 times ULN or alkaline phosphatase ≤ 2.5 times ULN or isolated elevations of transaminases or alkaline phosphatase up to 5 times ULN

**Febrile Neutropenia: ANC grade 4 with fever >38°C with intravenous antibiotics and/or hospitalization

***COSTART term and grading system

†Not Applicable;

†† Not Done

Combination therapy with Docetaxel Injection in chemotherapy-naive advanced unresectable or metastatic NSCLC

Table 8 presents safety data from two arms of an open label, randomized controlled trial (TAX326) that enrolled patients with unresectable stage IIIB or IV non-small cell lung cancer and no history of prior chemotherapy. Adverse reactions were described using the NCI Common Toxicity Criteria except where otherwise noted.

Table 8 : Adverse Reactions Regardless of Relationship to Treatment in Chemotherapy- Naïve Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients Receiving Docetaxel Injection in Combination with Cisplatin

Deaths within 30 days of last study treatment occurred in 31 patients (7.6%) in the docetaxel+cisplatin arm and 37 patients (9.3%) in the vinorelbine+cisplatin arm.

Deaths within 30 days of last study treatment attributed to study drug occurred in 9 patients (2.2%) in the docetaxel+cisplatin arm and 8 patients (2%) in the vinorelbine+cisplatin arm.

The second comparison in the study, vinorelbine+cisplatin versus docetaxel injection+carboplatin (which  did  not  demonstrate  a  superior  survival  associated  with  docetaxel injection,  [see  Clinical Studies (14.3)] demonstrated a higher incidence of thrombocytopenia, diarrhea, fluid retention, hypersensitivity reactions, skin toxicity, alopecia and nail changes on the docetaxel injection+carboplatin arm, while a higher incidence of anemia, neurosensory toxicity, nausea, vomiting, anorexia and asthenia was observed on the vinorelbine+cisplatin arm. 

Prostate Cancer

Combination therapy with Docetaxel Injection in patients with prostate cancer

The following data are based on the experience of 332 patients, who were treated with docetaxel injection 75 mg/m² every 3 weeks in combination with prednisone 5 mg orally twice daily (see Table 9). 

Table 9: Clinically Important Treatment Emergent Adverse Reactions (Regardless of Relationship) in Patients with Prostate Cancer who Received Docetaxel Injection in Combination with Prednisone (TAX327)

Gastric Cancer

Combination therapy with docetaxel injection in gastric adenocarcinoma

Data in the following table are based on the experience of 221 patients with advanced gastric adenocarcinoma and no history of prior chemotherapy for advanced disease, who were treated with docetaxel injection 75 mg/m in combination with cisplatin and fluorouracil (see Table 10).

Table 10 : Clinically Important Treatment Emergent Adverse Reactions Regardless of Relationship to Treatment in the Gastric Cancer Study

Clinically important treatment emergent adverse reactions were determined based upon frequency,severity, and clinical impact of the adverse reaction.

*Related to treatment

Head and Neck Cancer

Combination therapy with docetaxel injection in head and neck cancer

Table 11 summarizes the safety data obtained from patients that received induction chemotherapy with docetaxel injection 75 mg/m in combination with cisplatin and fluorouracil followed by radiotherapy (TAX323; 174 patients) or chemoradiotherapy (TAX324; 251 patients). The treatment regimens are described in Section 14.6.

 Table 11 : Clinically Important Treatment Emergent Adverse Reactions (Regardless of Relationship) in Patients with SCCHN Receiving Induction Chemotherapy with Docetaxel Injection in Combination with Cisplatin and Fluorouracil Followed by Radiotherapy (TAX323) or Chemoradiotherapy (TAX324)

Clinically important treatment emergent adverse reactions based upon frequency, severity, and clinical impact.

*Febrile neutropenia: grade ≥2 fever concomitant with grade 4 neutropenia requiring intravenous antibiotics and/or hospitalization.

**Related to treatment.

*** Includes superficial and deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism

Adverse Reaction All Tumor TypesNormal LFTs* n=2045% All Tumor TypesElevated LFTs** n=61% Breast CancerNormal LFTs* n=965%
Hematologic
Neutropenia
  <2000 cells/mm3 96 96 99
  <500 cells/mm3 75 88 86
Leukopenia
  <4000 cells/mm3 96 98 99
  <1000 cells/mm3 32 47 44
Thrombocytopenia
  <100,000 cells/mm3 8 25 9
Anemia
  <11 g/dL 90 92 94
  <8 g/dL 9 31 8
Febrile Neutropenia*** 11 26 12
Septic Death 2 5 1
Non-Septic Death 1 7 1
Infections
  Any 22 33 22
  Severe 6 16 6
Fever in Absence of Infection
  Any 31 41 35
  Severe 2 8 2
Hypersensitivity Reactions
Regardless of Premedication
  Any 21 20 18
  Severe 4 10 3
With 3-day Premedication n=92 n=3 n=92
  Any 15 33 15
  Severe 2 0 2
Fluid Retention
Regardless of Premedication
  Any 47 39 60
  Severe 7 8 9
With 3-day Premedication n=92 n=3 n=92
  Any 64 67 64
  Severe 7 33 7
Neurosensory
  Any 49 34 58
  Severe 4 0 6
Cutaneous
  Any 48 54 47
  Severe 5 10 5
Nail Changes
  Any 31 23 41
  Severe 3 5 4
Gastrointestinal
Nausea 39 38 42
Vomiting 22 23 23
Diarrhea 39 33 43
  Severe 5 5 6
Stomatitis
  Any 42 49 52
  Severe 6 13 7
Alopecia 76 62 74
Asthenia
  Any 62 53 66
  Severe 13 25 15
Myalgia
  Any 19 16 21
  Severe 2 2 2
Arthralgia 9 7 8
Infusion Site Reactions 4 3 4
Docetaxel Injection 100 mg/m2 Docetaxel Injection 60 mg/m2
Normal LFTs* Elevated LFTs*** Normal LFTs*
Adverse Reaction n=730 n=18 n=174
% % %
Neutropenia
  Any         <2000 cells/mm3 98 100 95
  Grade 4   <500 cells/mm3 84 94 75
Thrombocytopenia
  Any        <100,000 cells/mm3 11 44 14
  Grade 4  <20,000 cells/mm3 1 17 1
Anemia   <11 g/dL 95 94 65
Infection‡
  Any 23 39 1
  Grade 3 and 4 7 33 0
Febrile Neutropenia§
  By Patient 12 33 0
  By Course 2 9 0
Septic Death 2 6 1
Non-Septic Death 1 11 0
Docetaxel Injection
100 mg/m2
Docetaxel Injection 60 mg/m2
Normal LFTs* Elevated LFTs** Normal LFTs*
Adverse Reaction n=730 n=18 n=174
% % %
Acute Hypersensitivity   Reaction Regardless of Premedication
    Any 13 6 1
    Severe 1 0 0
Fluid Retention‡   Regardless of Premedication
    Any 56 61 13
    Severe 8 17 0
Neurosensory
    Any 57 50 20
    Severe 6 0 0
Myalgia 23 33 3
Cutaneous
    Any 45 61 31
    Severe 5 17 0
Asthenia
    Any 65 44 66
    Severe 17 22 0
Diarrhea
    Any 42 28 NA
    Severe 6 11
Stomatitis
    Any 53 67 19
    Severe 8 39 1
Docetaxel Injection 75 mg/m2+ Doxorubicin 50 mg/m2+ Cyclophosphamide 500 mg/m2 (TAC)n=744% Fluorouracil 500 mg/m2+Doxorubicin 50 mg/m2+ Cyclophosphamide 500 mg/m2 (FAC)n=736%
Adverse Reaction Any Grade 3/4 Any Grade 3/4
Anemia 92 4 72 2
Neutropenia 71 66 82 49
Fever in absence of infection 47 1 17 0
Infection 39 4 36 2
Thrombocytopenia 39 2 28 1
Febrile neutropenia 25 N/A 3 N/A
Neutropenic infection 12 N/A 6 N/A
Hypersensitivity reactions 13 1 4 0
Lymphedema 4 0 1 0
Fluid Retention* 35 1 15 0
Peripheral edema 27 0 7 0
Weight gain 13 0 9 0
Neuropathy sensory 26 0 10 0
Neuro-cortical 5 1 6 1
Neuropathy motor 4 0 2 0
Neuro-cerebellar 2 0 2 0
Syncope 2 1 1 0
Alopecia 98 N/A 97 N/A
Skin toxicity 27 1 18 0
Nail disorders 19 0 14 0
Nausea 81 5 88 10
Stomatitis 69 7 53 2
Vomiting 45 4 59 7
Diarrhea 35 4 28 2
Constipation 34 1 32 1
Taste perversion 28 1 15 0
Anorexia 22 2 18 1
Abdominal Pain 11 1 5 0
Amenorrhea 62 N/A 52 N/A
Cough 14 0 10 0
Cardiac dysrhythmias 8 0 6 0
Vasodilatation 27 1 21 1
Hypotension 2 0 1 0
Phlebitis 1 0 1 0
Asthenia 81 11 71 6
Myalgia 27 1 10 0
Arthralgia 19 1 9 0
Lacrimation disorder 11 0 7 0
Conjunctivitis 5 0 7 0
Reaction Docetaxel Injection
75 mg/m2
n=176 %
Best Supportive Care
n=49 %
Vinorelbine/Ifosfamiden=119 %
Neutropenia
  Any 84 14 83
  Grade 3/4 65 12 57
Leukopenia
  Any 84 6 89
  Grade 3/4 49 0 43
Thrombocytopenia
  Any 8 0 8
  Grade 3/4 3 0 2
Anemia
  Any 91 55 91
  Grade 3/4 9 12 14
Febrile Neutropenia† 6 NA‡ 1
Infection
  Any 34 29 30
  Grade 3/4 10 6 9
Treatment Related Mortality 3 NA‡ 3
Hypersensitivity Reactions
  Any 6 0 1
  Grade 3/4 3 0 0
Fluid Retention
  Any 34 ND§ 23
  Severe 3 3
Neurosensory
  Any 23 14 29
  Grade 3/4 2 6 5
Neuromotor
  Any 16 8 10
  Grade 3/4 5 6 3
Skin
  Any 20 6 17
  Grade 3/4 1 2 1
Gastrointestinal
  Nausea
    Any 34 31 31
    Grade 3/4 5 4 8
  Vomiting
    Any 22 27 22
    Grade 3/4 3 2 6
  Diarrhea
    Any 23 6 12
    Grade 3/4 3 0 4
Alopecia 56 35 50
Asthenia
  Any 53 57 54
  Severe¶ 18 39 23
Stomatitis
  Any 26 6 8
  Grade 3/4 2 0 1
Pulmonary
  Any 41 49 45
  Grade 3/4 21 29 19
Nail Disorder
  Any 11 0 2
  Severe¶ 1 0 0
Myalgia
  Any 6 0 3
  Severe¶ 0 0 0
Arthralgia
  Any 3 2 2
  Severe¶ 0 0 1
Taste Perversion
  Any 6 0 0
  Severe¶ 1 0 0
Adverse Reaction Docetaxel Injection 75 mg/m2 + Cisplatin
75 mg/m2 n=406%
Vinorelbine 25 mg/m2 + Cisplatin 100 mg/m2 n=396%
* Replaces NCI term "Allergy"
** COSTART term and grading system
Neutropenia
  Any 91 90
  Grade 3/4 74 78
Febrile Neutropenia 5 5
Thrombocytopenia
  Any 15 15
  Grade 3/4 3 4
Anemia
  Any 89 94
  Grade 3/4 7 25
Infection
  Any 35 37
  Grade 3/4 8 8
Fever in absence of infection
  Any 33 29
  Grade 3/4 < 1 1
Hypersensitivity Reaction*
  Any 12 4
  Grade 3/4 3 < 1
Fluid Retention†
  Any 54 42
  All severe or life-threatening events 2 2
Pleural effusion
  Any 23 22
  All severe or life-threatening events 2 2
Peripheral edema
  Any 34 18
  All severe or life-threatening events <1 <1
Weight gain
  Any 15 9
  All severe or life-threatening events <1 <1
Neurosensory
  Any 47 42
  Grade 3/4 4 4
Neuromotor
  Any 19 17
  Grade 3/4 3 6
Skin
  Any 16 14
  Grade 3/4 <1 1
Nausea
  Any 72 76
  Grade 3/4 10 17
Vomiting
  Any 55 61
  Grade 3/4 8 16
Diarrhea
  Any 47 25
  Grade 3/4 7 3
Anorexia†
  Any 42 40
  All severe or life-threatening events 5 5
Stomatitis
  Any 24 21
  Grade 3/4 2 1
Alopecia
  Any 75 42
  Grade 3 <1 0
Asthenia†
  Any 74 75
  All severe or life-threatening events 12 14
Nail Disorder†
  Any 14 <1
  All severe events <1 0
Myalgia†
  Any 18 12
  All severe events <1 <1
Docetaxel Injection 75 mg/m2 every 3 weeks + prednisone 5 mg twice dailyn=332 % Mitoxantrone 12 mg/m2 every 3 weeks + prednisone 5 mg twice dailyn=335 %
Adverse Reaction Any Grade 3/4 Any Grade 3/4
* Related to treatment
Anemia 67 5 58 2
Neutropenia 41 32 48 22
Thrombocytopenia 3 1 8 1
Febrile neutropenia 3 N/A 2 N/A
Infection 32 6 20 4
Epistaxis 6 0 2 0
Allergic Reactions 8 1 1 0
Fluid Retention* 24 1 5 0
Weight Gain* 8 0 3 0
Peripheral Edema* 18 0 2 0
Neuropathy Sensory 30 2 7 0
Neuropathy Motor 7 2 3 1
Rash/Desquamation 6 0 3 1
Alopecia 65 N/A 13 N/A
Nail Changes 30 0 8 0
Nausea 41 3 36 2
Diarrhea 32 2 10 1
Stomatitis/Pharyngitis 20 1 8 0
Taste Disturbance 18 0 7 0
Vomiting 17 2 14 2
Anorexia 17 1 14 0
Cough 12 0 8 0
Dyspnea 15 3 9 1
Cardiac left ventricular function 10 0 22 1
Fatigue 53 5 35 5
Myalgia 15 0 13 1
Tearing 10 1 2 0
Arthralgia 8 1 5 1
Docetaxel Injection 75 mg/m2 +cisplatin 75 mg/m2 +fluorouracil 750 mg/m2
n=221
Cisplatin 100 mg/m2 +fluorouracil 1000 mg/m2
n=224
Adverse Reaction Any % Grade 3/4% Any % Grade 3/4 %
Clinically important treatment emergent adverse reactions were determined based upon frequency, severity, and clinical impact of the adverse reaction.
Anemia 97 18 93 26
Neutropenia 96 82 83 57
Fever in the absence of infection 36 2 23 1
Thrombocytopenia 26 8 39 14
Infection 29 16 23 10
Febrile neutropenia 16 N/A 5 N/A
Neutropenic infection 16 N/A 10 N/A
Allergic reactions 10 2 6 0
Fluid retention * 15 0 4 0
Edema* 13 0 3 0
Lethargy 63 21 58 18
Neurosensory 38 8 25 3
Neuromotor 9 3 8 3
Dizziness 16 5 8 2
Alopecia 67 5 41 1
Rash/itch 12 1 9 0
Nail changes 8 0 0 0
Skin desquamation 2 0 0 0
Nausea 73 16 76 19
Vomiting 67 15 73 19
Anorexia 51 13 54 12
Stomatitis 59 21 61 27
Diarrhea 78 20 50 8
Constipation 25 2 34 3
Esophagitis/dysphagia/odynophagia 16 2 14 5
Gastrointestinal pain/cramping 11 2 7 3
Cardiac dysrhythmias 5 2 2 1
Myocardial ischemia 1 0 3 2
Tearing 8 0 2 0
Altered hearing 6 0 13 2
TAX323 (n=355) TAX324 (n=494)
Docetaxel Injection arm (n=174) Comparator arm (n=181) Docetaxel Injection arm (n=251) Comparator arm (n=243)
  Adverse Reaction
(by Body System)
Any % Grade 3/4 % Any % Grade 3/4 % Any % Grade 3/4 % Any % Grade 3/4 %
Neutropenia 93 76 87 53 95 84 84 56
Anemia 89 9 88 14 90 12 86 10
Thrombocytopenia 24 5 47 18 28 4 31 11
Infection 27 9 26 8 23 6 28 5
Febrile neutropenia* 5 N/A 2 N/A 12 N/A 7 N/A
Neutropenic infection 14 N/A 8 N/A 12 N/A 8 N/A
Cancer pain 21 5 16 3 17 9 20 11
Lethargy 41 3 38 3 61 5 56 10
Fever in the absence of infection  32  1  37  0  30  4  28  3
Myalgia 10 1 7 0 7 0 7 2
Weight loss 21 1 27 1 14 2 14 2
Allergy 6 0 3 0 2 0 0 0
Fluid retention** 20 0 14 1 13 1 7 2
Edema only 13 0 7 0 12 1 6 1
Weight gain only 6 0 6 0 0 0 1 0
Dizziness 2 0 5 1 16 4 15 2
Neurosensory 18 1 11 1 14 1 14 0
Altered hearing 6 0 10 3 13 1 19 3
Neuromotor 2 1 4 1 9 0 10 2
Alopecia 81 11 43 0 68 4 44 1
Rash/itch 12 0 6 0 20 0 16 1
Dry skin 6 0 2 0 5 0 3 0
Desquamation 4 1 6 0 2 0 5 0
Nausea 47 1 51 7 77 14 80 14
Stomatitis 43 4 47 11 66 21 68 27
Vomiting 26 1 39 5 56 8 63 10
Diarrhea 33 3 24 4 48 7 40 3
Constipation 17 1 16 1 27 1 38 1
Anorexia 16 1 25 3 40 12 34 12
Esophagitis/dysphagia/ Odynophagia  13  1  18  3  25  13  26  10
Taste, sense of smell altered 10 0 5 0 20 0 17 1
Gastrointestinal pain/cramping  8  1  9  1  15  5  10  2
Heartburn 6 0 6 0 13 2 13 1
Gastrointestinal bleeding 4 2 0 0 5 1 2 1
Cardiac dysrhythmia 2 2 2 1 6 3 5 3
Venous*** 3 2 6 2 4 2 5 4
Ischemia myocardial 2 2 1 0 2 1 1 1
Tearing 2 0 1 0 2 0 2 0
Conjunctivitis 1 0 1 0 1 0 0.4 0

The following adverse reactions have been identified from clinical trials and/or postmarketing surveillance.  Because they are reported from a population of unknown size, precise estimates of frequency cannot be made. 

Body as a whole: diffuse pain, chest pain, radiation recall phenomenon, injection site recall reaction (recurrence of skin reaction at a site of previous extravasation following administration of docetaxel at a different site) at the site of previous extravasation.

Cardiovascular: atrial fibrillation, deep vein thrombosis, ECG abnormalities, thrombophlebitis, pulmonary embolism, syncope, tachycardia, myocardial infarction, Ventricular arrhythmia including ventricular tachycardia has been reported in patients treated with docetaxel in combination regimens including doxorubicin, 5-fluorouracil and/or cyclophosphamide, and may be associated with fatal outcome.

Cutaneous: very rare cases of cutaneous lupus erythematosus and rare cases of bullous eruptions such as erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, and Scleroderma-like changes usually preceded by peripheral lymphedema. In some cases multiple factors  may  have  contributed  to  the  development  of  these  effects.  Severe  hand  and  foot syndrome has been reported.  Cases of permanent alopecia have been reported.

Gastrointestinal: enterocolitis, including colitis, ischemic colitis, and neutropenic enterocolitis, has been reported with a potential fatal outcome. Abdominal pain, anorexia, constipation, duodenal ulcer, esophagitis, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, gastrointestinal perforation, intestinal obstruction, ileus, and dehydration as a consequence to gastrointestinal events have been reported.

Hematologic: bleeding episodes. Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), often in association with sepsis or multiorgan failure, has been reported. Cases of acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome have been reported in association with docetaxel injection when used in combination with other chemotherapy agents and/or radiotherapy. 

Hypersensitivity: rare cases of anaphylactic shock have been reported. Very rarely these cases resulted in a fatal outcome in patients who received premedication. Hypersensitivity reactions with potential fatal outcome have been reported with docetaxel in patients who previously experienced hypersensitivity reactions to paclitaxel.

Hepatic: rare cases of hepatitis, sometimes fatal primarily in patients with pre-existing liver disorders, have been reported. 

Neurologic: confusion, rare cases of seizures or transient loss of consciousness have been observed, sometimes appearing during the infusion of the drug. 

Ophthalmologic: conjunctivitis, lacrimation or lacrimation with or without conjunctivitis. Excessive tearing which may be attributable to lacrimal duct obstruction has been reported. Rare cases of transient visual disturbances (flashes, flashing lights, scotomata) typically occurring during drug infusion and in association with hypersensitivity reactions have been reported. These were reversible upon discontinuation of the infusion. Cases of cystoid macular edema (CME) have been reported in patients treated with docetaxel.

Hearing: rare cases of ototoxicity, hearing disorders and/or hearing loss have been reported, including cases associated with other ototoxic drugs. 

Respiratory: dyspnea, acute pulmonary edema, acute respiratory distress syndrome/pneumonitis, interstitial lung disease, interstitial pneumonia, respiratory failure, and pulmonary fibrosis have rarely been reported and may be associated with fatal outcome. Rare cases of radiation pneumonitis have been reported in patients receiving concomitant radiotherapy.

Renal: renal insufficiency and renal failure have been reported, the majority of these cases were associated with concomitant nephrotoxic drugs. 

Metabolism and nutrition disorders: electrolyte imbalance, including cases of hyponatremia, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, and hypocalcemia has been reported.

Docetaxel is a CYP3A4 substrate. In vitro studies have shown that the metabolism of docetaxel may be modified by the concomitant administration of compounds that induce, inhibit, or are metabolized by cytochrome P450 3A4. In vivo studies showed that the exposure of docetaxel increased 2.2-fold when it was coadministered with ketoconazole, a potent inhibitor of CYP3A4. Protease inhibitors, particularly ritonavir, may increase the exposure of docetaxel.  Concomitant use of docetaxel injection and drugs that inhibit CYP3A4 may increase exposure to docetaxel and should be avoided. In patients receiving treatment with docetaxel injection, close monitoring for toxicity and a docetaxel injection dose reduction could be considered if systemic administration of a potent CYP3A4 inhibitor cannot be avoided [see Dosage and Administration (2.7)], and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

Pregnancy Category D [see ‘Warnings and Precautions’ section ]

Based on its mechanism of action and findings in animals, docetaxel injection can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. If docetaxel injection is used during pregnancy, or if the patient  becomes  pregnant  while receiving  this drug, the patient should be apprised  of  the potential hazard to the fetus. Women of childbearing potential should be advised to avoid becoming pregnant during therapy with docetaxel injection. [ see Warning and Precautions (5.13)]

Docetaxel injection can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Studies in both rats and rabbits at doses ≥0.3 and 0.03 mg/kg/day, respectively (about 1/50 and 1/300 the daily maximum recommended human dose on a mg/m  basis), administered during the period of organogenesis, have shown that docetaxel injection is embryotoxic and fetotoxic (characterized by intrauterine mortality, increased resorption, reduced fetal weight, and fetal ossification delay).The doses indicated above also caused maternal toxicity. [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.13)]

It is not known whether docetaxel is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, and because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from docetaxel injection, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother. 

The alcohol content of docetaxel injection should be taken into account when given to pediatric patients [see Warnings and Precautions (5.12)].

The efficacy of docetaxel injection in pediatric patients as monotherapy or in combination has not been established. The overall safety profile of docetaxel injection in pediatric patients receiving monotherapy or TCF was consistent with the known safety profile in adults. Docetaxel injection has been studied in a total of 289 pediatric patients: 239 in 2 trials with monotherapy and 50 in combination treatment with cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil (TCF). 

Docetaxel Injection Monotherapy

Docetaxel injection monotherapy was evaluated in a dose-finding phase 1 trial in 61 pediatric patients (median age 12.5 years, range 1 to 22 years) with a variety of refractory solid tumors. The recommended dose was 125 mg/m as a 1-hour intravenous infusion every 21 days. The primary dose limiting toxicity was neutropenia.

The recommended dose for docetaxel injection monotherapy was evaluated in a phase 2 single-arm trial in 178 pediatric patients (median age 12 years, range 1 to 26 years) with a variety of recurrent/refractory solid tumors.Efficacy was not established with tumor response rates ranging from one complete response (CR) (0.6%) in a patient with undifferentiated sarcoma to four partial responses (2.2%) seen in one patient each with Ewing Sarcoma, neuroblastoma, osteosarcoma, and squamous cell carcinoma. 

Docetaxel Injection in Combination

Docetaxel injection was studied in combination with cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil (TCF) versus cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil (CF) for the induction treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in pediatric patients prior to chemoradiation consolidation. Seventy-five patients (median age 16 years, range 9 to 21 years) were randomized (2:1) to docetaxel injection (75 mg/m²) in combination with cisplatin (75 mg/m²) and 5-fluorouracil (750 mg/m²) (TCF) or to cisplatin (80 mg/m²) and 5-fluorouracil (1000 mg/m²/day) (CF). The primary endpoint was the CR rate following induction treatment of NPC. One patient out of 50 in the TCF group (2%) had a complete response while none of the 25 patients in the CF group had a complete response. 

Pharmacokinetics

Pharmacokinetic parameters for docetaxel were determined in 2pediatric solid tumor trials. Following docetaxel administrationat 55 mg/m2 to 235 mg/m2 in a 1-hour intravenous infusionevery 3 weeks in 25 patients aged 1 to 20 years (median 11years), docetaxel clearance was 17.3±10.9 L/h/m2.

Docetaxel was administered in combination with cisplatin and5-fluorouracil (TCF), at dose levels of 75 mg/m2 in a 1-hourintravenous infusion day 1 in 28 patients aged 10 to 21 years(median 16 years, 17 patients were older than 16). Docetaxelclearance was 17.9±8.75 L/h/m, corresponding to an AUC of4.20±2.57 mcg.h/mL.

In summary, the body surface area adjusted clearance ofdocetaxel monotherapy and TCF combination in childrenwere comparable to those in adults [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy in elderly patients.

Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

In a study conducted in chemotherapy-naive patients with NSCLC (TAX326), 148 patients (36%) in the docetaxel injection+cisplatin group were 65 years of age or greater. There were 128 patients (32%) in the vinorelbine+cisplatin group 65 years of age or greater. In the docetaxel injection+cisplatin group, patients less than 65 years of age had a median survival of 10.3 months (95% CI: 9.1 months, 11.8 months) and patients 65 years or older had a median survival of 12.1 months (95% CI: 9.3 months, 14 months). In patients 65 years of age or greater treated with docetaxel injection+cisplatin, diarrhea (55%), peripheral edema (39%) and stomatitis (28%) were observed more frequently than in the vinorelbine+cisplatin group (diarrhea 24%, peripheral edema 20%, stomatitis 20%). Patients treated with docetaxel injection+cisplatin who were 65 years of age or greater were more likely to experience diarrhea (55%), infections (42%),peripheral edema (39%) and stomatitis (28%) compared to patients less than the age of 65 administered the same treatment (43%, 31%, 31% and 21%, respectively).

When docetaxel injection was combined with carboplatin for the treatment of chemotherapy-naive, advanced non-small cell lung carcinoma, patients 65 years of age or greater (28%) experienced higher frequency of infection compared to similar patients treated with docetaxel injection+cisplatin, and a higher frequency of diarrhea, infection and peripheral edema than elderly patients treated with vinorelbine+cisplatin.

Prostate Cancer

Of the 333 patients treated with docetaxel injection every three weeks plus prednisone in the prostate cancer study (TAX327), 209 patients were 65 years of age or greater and 68 patients were older than 75 years. In patients treated with docetaxel injection every three weeks, the following treatment emergent adverse reactions occurred at rates ≥10% higher in patients 65 years of age or greater compared to younger patients: anemia (71% vs. 59%), infection (37% vs. 24%), nail changes (34% vs. 23%), anorexia (21% vs. 10%), weight loss (15% vs. 5%) respectively.

Breast Cancer

In the adjuvant breast cancer trial (TAX316), docetaxel injection in combination with doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide was administered to 744 patients of whom 48 (6%) were 65 years of age or greater. The number of elderly patients who received this regimen was not sufficient to determine whether there were differences in safety and efficacy between elderly and younger patients. 

Gastric Cancer

Among the 221 patients treated with docetaxel injection in combination with cisplatin and fluorouracil in the gastric cancer study, 54 were 65 years of age or older and 2 patients were older than 75 years.In this study, the number of patients who were 65 years of age or older was insufficient to determine whether they respond differently from younger patients.  However, the incidence of serious adverse reactions was higher in the elderly patients compared to younger patients. The  incidence of the following adverse reactions (all grades, regardless of relationship): lethargy, stomatitis, diarrhea, dizziness, edema, febrile neutropenia/neutropenic infection occurred at rates ≥10% higher in patients who were 65 years of age or older compared to younger patients.  Elderly patients treated with TCF should be closely monitored. 

Head and Neck Cancer

Among the 174 and 251 patients who received the induction treatment with docetaxel injection in combination with cisplatin and fluorouracil (TPF) for SCCHN in the TAX323 and TAX324 studies, 18 (10%) and 32 (13%) of the patients were 65 years of age or older, respectively. 

These clinical studies of docetaxel injection in combination with cisplatin and fluorouracil in patients with SCCHN did not include sufficient numbers of patients aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger patients.  Other reported clinical experience with this treatment regimen has not identified differences in responses between elderly and younger patients.

Patients with bilirubin >ULN should not receive docetaxel injection. Also, patients with AST and/or ALT >1.5 x ULN concomitant with alkaline phosphatase >2.5 x ULN should not receive docetaxel injection [see Boxed Warning, Warnings and Precautions (5.2) Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

The alcohol content of docetaxel injection should be taken into account when given to patients with hepatic impairment [see Warnings and Precautions (5.12)].

There is no known antidote for docetaxel injection overdosage. In case of overdosage, the patient should be kept in a specialized unit where vital functions can be closely monitored. Anticipated complications of overdosage include: bone marrow suppression, peripheral neurotoxicity, and mucositis. Patients should receive therapeutic G-CSF as soon as possible after discovery of overdose. Other appropriate symptomatic measures should be taken, as needed.

In two reports of overdose, one patient received 150 mg/m and the other received 200 mg/m as 1-hour infusions. Both patients experienced severe neutropenia, mild asthenia, cutaneous reactions, and mild paresthesia, and recovered without incident.

In mice, lethality was observed following single intravenous doses that were ≥ 154 mg/kg (about 4.5 times the human dose of 100 mg/m on a mg/m basis); neurotoxicity associated with paralysis, non-extension of hind limbs, and myelin degeneration was observed in mice at 48 mg/kg (about 1.5 times the human dose of 100 mg/m basis). In male and female rats, lethality was observed at a dose of 20 mg/kg (comparable to the human dose of 100 mg/m on a mg/m basis) and was associated with abnormal mitosis and necrosis of multiple organs. 

Docetaxel is an antineoplastic agent belonging to the taxoid family. It is prepared by semisynthesis beginning with a precursor extracted from the renewable needle biomass of yew plants. The chemical name for docetaxel is (2R,3S)-N-carboxy-3-phenylisoserine,N-tert-butyl ester, 13-ester with 5β-20-epoxy-1,2α,4,7β,10β,13α-hexahydroxytax-11-en-9-one 4-acetate 2-benzoate. Docetaxel has the following structural formula:

Docetaxel USP is a white to almost-white crystalline powder with molecular formula of CHNO and a molecular weight of 808. It is freely soluble in anhydrous ethanol, soluble in methylene chloride and methanol, practically insoluble in water.

One-vial Docetaxel Injection USP

Docetaxel injection USP is a sterile, non-pyrogenic, pale yellow to brownish-yellow solution at 20 mg/mL concentration. 

Each mL contains 20 mg docetaxel (anhydrous) 3 mg citric acid anhydrous in 0.54 grams polysorbate 80 and 0.395 grams dehydrated alcohol solution. The pH of the formulation is 3 to 4.5. 

Docetaxel injection USP is available in single-dose vials containing 20 mg (1 mL) ,or 80 mg (4 mL) or docetaxel (anhydrous). 

Docetaxel injection USP requires NO prior dilution with a diluent and is ready to add to the infusion solution.

Docetaxel is an antineoplastic agent that acts by disrupting the microtubular network in cells that is essential for mitotic and interphase cellular functions. Docetaxel binds to free tubulin and promotes the assembly of tubulin into stable microtubules while simultaneously inhibiting their disassembly. This leads to the production of microtubule bundles without normal function and to the stabilization of microtubules, which results in the inhibition of mitosis in cells. Docetaxel’s binding to microtubules does not alter the number of protofilaments in the bound microtubules, a feature which differs from most spindle poisons currently in clinical use.

Absorption:

The pharmacokinetics of docetaxel has been evaluated in cancer patients after administration of 20 mg/m to 115 mg/m in phase 1 studies. The area under the curve (AUC) was dose proportional following doses of 70 mg/m to 115 mg/m with infusion times of 1 to 2 hours. Docetaxel’s pharmacokinetic profile is consistent with a three-compartment pharmacokinetic model, with half-lives for the α,  β, and γ phases of 4 min, 36 min, and 11.1 hr, respectively. Mean total body clearance was 21 L/h/m. 

Distribution:

The initial rapid decline represents distribution to the peripheral compartments and the late (terminal) phase is due, in part, to a relatively slow efflux of docetaxel from the peripheral compartment. Mean steady state volume of distribution was 113 L. In vitro studies showed that docetaxel is about 94% protein bound, mainly to α-acid glycoprotein, albumin, and lipoproteins. In three cancer patients, the in vitro binding to plasma proteins was found to be approximately 97%. Dexamethasone does not affect the protein binding of docetaxel. 

Metabolism:

In vitro drug interaction studies revealed that docetaxel is metabolized by the CYP3A4 isoenzyme, and its metabolism may be modified by the concomitant administration of compounds that induce, inhibit, or are metabolized by cytochrome P450 3A4 [see Drug Interactions (7)]. 

Elimination:

A study of C-docetaxel was conducted in three cancer patients. Docetaxel was eliminated in both the urine and feces following oxidative metabolism of the tert-butyl ester group, but fecal excretion was the main elimination route. Within 7 days, urinary and fecal excretion accounted for approximately 6% and 75% of the administered radioactivity, respectively. About 80% of the radioactivity recovered in feces is excreted during the first 48 hours as 1 major and 3 minor metabolites with very small amounts (less than 8%) of unchanged drug.

Specific Populations:

Effect of Age:

A population pharmacokinetic analysis was carried out after docetaxel injection treatment of 535 patients dosed at 100 mg/m. Pharmacokinetic parameters estimated by this analysis were very close to those estimated from phase 1 studies. The pharmacokinetics of docetaxel was not influenced by age.

Effect of Gender:

The population pharmacokinetics analysis described above also indicated that gender did not influence the pharmacokinetics of docetaxel. 

Hepatic Impairment:

The population pharmacokinetic analysis described above indicated that in patients with clinical chemistry data suggestive of mild to moderate liver impairment (AST and/or ALT >1.5 times ULN concomitant with alkaline phosphatase >2.5 times ULN), total body clearance was lowered by an average of 27%, resulting in a 38% increase in systemic exposure (AUC). This average, however, includes a substantial range and there is, at present, no measurement that would allow recommendation for dose adjustment in such patients. Patients with combined abnormalities of transaminase and alkaline phosphatase should not be treated with docetaxel injection. Patients with severe hepatic impairment have not been studied.[see Warnings and Precautions (5.2) and Use in Specific Populations (8.6)].

 Effect of Race:

Mean total body clearance for Japanese patients dosed at the range of 10 mg/m to 90 mg/m was similar to that of European/American populations dosed at 100 mg/m, suggesting no significant difference in the elimination of docetaxel in the two populations. 

Drug Interaction Studies:

Effect of Ketoconazole:

The effect of ketoconazole (a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor) on the pharmacokinetics of docetaxel was investigated in 7 cancer patients. Patients were randomized to receive either docetaxel (100 mg/m² intravenous) alone or docetaxel (10 mg/m² intravenous) in combination with ketoconazole (200 mg orally once daily for 3 days) in a crossover design with a 3-week washout period. The results of this study indicated that the mean dose-normalized AUC of docetaxel was increased 2.2-fold and its clearance was reduced by 49% when docetaxel was coadministration with ketoconazole [see Dosage and Administration (2.7) and Drug-Drug Interactions (7)].

Effect of Combination Therapies:

Dexamethasone: Docetaxel total body clearance was not modified by pretreatment with dexamethasone. 

Cisplatin: Clearance of docetaxel in combination therapy with cisplatin was similar to that previously observed following monotherapy with docetaxel. The pharmacokinetic profile of cisplatin in combination therapy with docetaxel was similar to that observed with cisplatin alone. 

Cisplatin and Fluorouracil: The combined administration of docetaxel, cisplatin and fluorouracil in 12 patients with solid tumors had no influence on the pharmacokinetics of each individual drug. 

Prednisone: A population pharmacokinetic analysis of plasma data from 40 patients with metastatic castration-resistant hormone-refractory metastatic prostate cancer indicated that docetaxel systemic clearance in combination with prednisone is similar to that observed following administration of docetaxel alone.

Cyclophosphamide and Doxorubicin: A study was conducted in 30 patients with advanced breast cancer to determine the potential for drug-drug-interactions between docetaxel (75 mg/m²), doxorubicin (50 mg/m²), and cyclophosphamide (500 mg/m²) when administered in combination. The coadministration of docetaxel had no effect on the pharmacokinetics of doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide when the three drugs were given in combination compared to coadministration of doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide only. In addition, doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide had no effect on docetaxel plasma clearance when the three drugs were given in combination compared to historical data for docetaxel monotherapy.

Carcinogenicity studies with docetaxel have not been performed. 

Docetaxel was clastogenic in the in vitro chromosome aberration test in CHO-K1 cells and in the in vivo micronucleus test in mice administered doses of 0.39 to 1.56 mg/kg (about 1/60 to 1/15 the recommended human dose on a mg/m basis). Docetaxel was not mutagenic in the Ames test or the CHO/HGPRT gene mutation assays.

Docetaxel did not reduce fertility in rats when administered in multiple intravenous doses of up to 0.3 mg/kg (about 1/50th the recommended human dose on a mg/m basis), but decreased testicular weights were reported.  This  correlates  with  findings  of  a  10-cycle  toxicity  study (dosing  once  every  21 days  for  6  months)  in  rats  and  dogs  in  which  testicular  atrophy  or degeneration was observed at intravenous doses of 5 mg/kg in rats and 0.375 mg/kg in dogs (about 1/3rd  and 1/15th  the recommended human dose on a mg/m  basis, respectively). An increased frequency of dosing in rats produced similar effects at lower dose levels. 

The efficacy and safety of docetaxel injection have been evaluated in locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer after failure of previous chemotherapy (alkylating agent-containing regimens or anthracycline-containing regimens).

Randomized Trials

Randomized Trials In one randomized trial, patients with a history of prior treatment with an anthracycline containing regimen were assigned to treatment with docetaxel injection (100 mg/m every 3 weeks) or the combination of mitomycin (12 mg/m every 6 weeks) and vinblastine (6 mg/m every 3 weeks). Two hundred three patients were randomized to docetaxel injection and 189 to the comparator arm. Most patients had received prior chemotherapy for metastatic disease; only 27 patients on the docetaxel injection arm and 33 patients on the comparator arm entered the study following relapse after adjuvant therapy. Three-quarters of patients had measurable, visceral metastases. The primary endpoint was time to progression. The following table summarizes the study results. (See Table 12).

Table 12: Efficacy of Docetaxel Injection in the Treatment of Breast Cancer Patients Previously Treated with an Anthracycline-Containing Regimen (Intent-to-Treat Analysis)

*For the risk ratio, a value less than 1 favors docetaxel.

In a second randomized trial, patients previously treated with an alkylating-containing regimen were assigned to treatment with docetaxel injection (100 mg/m) or doxorubicin (75 mg/m) every 3 weeks. One hundred sixty-one patients were randomized to docetaxel injection and 165 patients to doxorubicin. Approximately one-half of patients had received prior chemotherapy for metastatic disease, and one-half entered the study following relapse after adjuvant therapy. Three-quarters of patients had measurable, visceral metastases.The primary endpoint was time to progression.

The study results are summarized below. (See Table 13).

Table 13: Efficacy of Docetaxel Injection in the Treatment of Breast Cancer Patients Previously Treated with an Alkylating-Containing Regimen (Intent-to-Treat Analysis)

*For the risk ratio, a value less than 1 favors docetaxel.

In another multicenter open-label, randomized trial (TAX313), in the treatment of patients with advanced  breast  cancer  who  progressed  or  relapsed  after  one  prior  chemotherapy  regimen, 527 patients were randomized to receive docetaxel injection monotherapy 60 mg/m   (n=151), 75 mg/m  (n=188) or 100 mg/m  (n=188). In this trial, 94% of patients had metastatic disease and 79% had received prior anthracycline therapy. Response rate was the primary endpoint. Response rates increased with docetaxel injection dose: 19.9% for the 60 mg/m  group compared to 22.3% for the 75 mg/m and 29.8% for the 100 mg/m group; pair-wise comparison between the 60 mg/m and 100 mg/m groups was statistically significant (p=0.037).

Single Arm Studies

Docetaxel injection at a dose of 100 mg/m was studied in six single arm studies involving a total of 309 patients with metastatic breast cancer in whom previous chemotherapy had failed. Among these, 190 patients had anthracycline-resistant breast cancer, defined as progression during an anthracycline-containing chemotherapy regimen for metastatic disease, or relapse during an anthracycline-containing adjuvant regimen. In anthracycline-resistant patients, the overall response rate was 37.9% (72/190; 95%

C.I. 31 to 44.8) and the complete response rate was 2.1%. 

Docetaxel injection was also studied in three single arm Japanese studies at a dose of 60 mg/m, in 174 patients who had received prior chemotherapy for locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer. Among 26 patients whose best response to an anthracycline had been progression, the response rate was 34.6% (95% C.I. 17.2 to 55.7), similar to the response rate in single arm studies of 100 mg/m. 

Efficacy Parameter Docetaxel (n=203) Mitomycin/ Vinblastine (n=189) p-value
Median Survival 11.4 months 8.7 months    p=0.01Log Rank
Risk Ratio*, Mortality
(Docetaxel: Control) 95% CI (Risk Ratio)
 0.73 
0.58 to 0.93
Median Time to Progression 4.3 months 2.5 months  p=0.01
Log Rank
Risk Ratio*, Progression(Docetaxel: Control)   0.75
95% CI (Risk Ratio) 0.61 to 0.94  
Overall Response Rate Complete Response Rate 28.1%
3.4%
9.5%
1.6%
p<0.0001
Chi Square
Efficacy Parameter Docetaxel
(n=161)
Doxorubicin
(n=165)
p-value
Median Survival 14.7 months 14.3 months    p=0.39 Log Rank
Risk Ratio*, Mortality
(Docetaxel: Control) 95% CI (Risk Ratio)
  0.89 0.68 to 1.16
Median Time to
Progression
  6.5 months   5.3 months    p=0.45 Log Rank
Risk Ratio*, Progression
(Docetaxel: Control) 95% CI (Risk Ratio)
  0.93 0.71 to 1.16
Overall Response Rate
Complete ResponseRate
45.3% 6.8% 29.7% 4.2% p=0.004 Chi Square

A multicenter, open-label, randomized trial (TAX316) evaluated the efficacy and safety of docetaxel injection for the adjuvant treatment of patients with axillary-node-positive breast cancer and no evidence of distant metastatic disease.  After stratification according to the number of positive lymph nodes (1 to 3, 4+), 1491 patients were randomized to receive either docetaxel injection 75 mg/m administered 1-hour after doxorubicin 50 mg/m and cyclophosphamide 500 mg/m (TAC arm), or  doxorubicin  50  mg/m    followed  by  fluorouracil  500  mg/m and  cyclosphosphamide 500 mg/m   (FAC  arm).  Both  regimens  were  administered  every  3  weeks  for  6  cycles. Docetaxel injection was administered as a 1-hour infusion; all other drugs were given as intravenous bolus on day 1. In both arms, after the last cycle of chemotherapy, patients with positive estrogen and/or progesterone receptors received tamoxifen 20 mg daily for up to 5 years. Adjuvant radiation therapy was prescribed according to guidelines in place at participating institutions and was given to 69% of patients who received TAC and 72% of patients who received FAC.

Results from a second interim analysis (median follow-up 55 months) are as follows: In study TAX316, the docetaxel-containing combination regimen TAC showed significantly longer disease-free survival (DFS) than FAC (hazard ratio=0.74; 2-sided 95% CI=0.60, 0.92, stratified log rank p=0.0047). The primary endpoint, disease-free survival, included local and distant recurrences, contralateral breast cancer and deaths from any cause.  The overall reduction in risk of relapse was 25.7% for TAC-treated patients. (See Figure 1).

At the time of this interim analysis, based on 219 deaths, overall survival was longer for TAC than FAC (hazard ratio=0.69, 2 sided 95% CI=0.53, 0.90). (See Figure 2).  There will be further analysis at the time survival data mature.

Figure 1 : TAX316 Disease Free Survival K-M curve

Figure 2 : TAX316 Overall Survival K-M Curve

The following table describes the results of subgroup analyses for DFS and OS (See Table 14). 

Table 14: Subset Analyses-Adjuvant Breast Cancer Study

*a hazard ratio of less than 1 indicates that TAC is associated with a longer disease free survival or overall survival compared to FAC.

Disease Free Survival Overall Survival
Patient subset Number of patients Hazard ratio * 95% CI Hazard ratio* 95% CI
No. of positive nodes
Overall 744 0.74 (0.60, 0.92) 0.69 (0.53, 0.90)
1 to 3 467 0.64 (0.47, 0.87) 0.45 (0.29, 0.70)
4+ 277 0.84 (0.63, 1.12) 0.93 (0.66, 1.32)
Receptor status
Positive 566 0.76 (0.59, 0.98) 0.69 (0.48, 0.99)
Negative 178 0.68 (0.48, 0.97) 0.66 (0.44, 0.98)

The efficacy and safety of docetaxel injection has been evaluated in patients with unresectable, locally advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer whose disease has failed prior platinum-based chemotherapy or in patients who are chemotherapy-naïve.

Monotherapy with Docetaxel Injection for NSCLC Previously Treated with Platinum-Based Chemotherapy

Two  randomized,  controlled  trials  established  that  a  docetaxel injection  dose  of  75  mg/m  was tolerable and yielded a favorable outcome in patients previously treated with platinum-based chemotherapy (see below). Docetaxel injection at a dose of 100 mg/m, however, was associated with unacceptable  hematologic  toxicity,  infections,  and  treatment-related  mortality  and  this  dose should  not  be  used  [see  Boxed  Warning,  Dosage  and  Administration  (2.7),  Warnings  and Precautions (5.3)].

One trial (TAX317), randomized patients with locally advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer, a history of prior platinum-based chemotherapy, no history of taxane exposure, and an ECOG performance status ≤2 to docetaxel injection or best supportive care. The primary endpoint of the study was survival. Patients were initially randomized to docetaxel injection 100 mg/m or best supportive care, but early toxic deaths at this dose led to a dose reduction to docetaxel injection 75 mg/m.  A  total  of  104  patients  were  randomized  in  this  amended  study  to  either docetaxel injection 75 mg/m or best supportive care.

In a second randomized trial (TAX320), 373 patients with locally advanced or metastatic non- small cell lung cancer, a history of prior platinum-based chemotherapy, and an ECOG performance status ≤2 were randomized to docetaxel injection 75 mg/m, docetaxel injection 100 mg/m and a  treatment  in  which  the  investigator  chose  either  vinorelbine  30  mg/m   days  1,  8,  and 15 repeated every 3 weeks or ifosfamide 2 g/m days 1 to 3 repeated every 3 weeks. Forty percent of the patients in this study had a history of prior paclitaxel exposure. The primary endpoint was survival in both trials. The efficacy data for the docetaxel injection 75 mg/m arm and the comparator arms are summarized in Table 15 and Figures 3 and 4 showing the survival curves for the two studies.

Table 15 : Efficacy of Docetaxel Injection in the Treatment of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients Previously Treated with a Platinum-Based Chemotherapy Regimen (Intent-to-Treat Analysis)

* Vinorelbine/Ifosfamide

** p ≤ 0.05;

uncorrected for multiple comparisons;

a value less than 1.00 favors docetaxel.

Only one of the two trials (TAX317) showed a clear effect on survival, the primary endpoint; that trial also showed an increased rate of survival to one year. In the second study (TAX320) the rate of survival at one year favored docetaxel injection 75 mg/m. 

Figure 3 : TAX317 Survival K-M Curves - Docetaxel Injection 75 mg/m Versus Best Supportive Care

Figure 4 : TAX320 Survival K-M Curves - Docetaxel Injection 75 mg/m Versus Vinorelbine or Ifosfamide Control

Patients  treated  with  docetaxel injection at a dose of 75 mg/m experienced  no  deterioration  in performance status and body weight relative to the comparator arms used in these trials.

Combination Therapy with Docetaxel Injection for Chemotherapy-Naive NSCLC

In  a  randomized  controlled  trial  (TAX326),  1218  patients  with  unresectable  stage  IIIB  or IV NSCLC and no prior chemotherapy were randomized to receive one of three treatments: Docetaxel injection 75 mg/m as a 1 hour infusion immediately followed by cisplatin 75 mg/m over 30 to 60 minutes every 3 weeks; vinorelbine 25 mg/m administered over 6 to 10 minutes on days 1, 8, 15, 22 followed by cisplatin 100 mg/m administered on day 1 of cycles repeated every 4 weeks; or a combination of docetaxel injection and carboplatin.

The primary efficacy endpoint was overall survival. Treatment with docetaxel injection+cisplatin did not result in a statistically significantly superior survival compared to vinorelbine+cisplatin (see table below). The 95% confidence interval of the hazard ratio (adjusted for interim analysis and multiple comparisons) shows that the addition of docetaxel injection to cisplatin results in an outcome ranging from a 6% inferior to a 26% superior survival compared to the addition of vinorelbine to cisplatin. The results of a further statistical analysis showed that at least (the lower bound of the 95% confidence  interval)  62%  of  the  known  survival  effect  of  vinorelbine  when  added  to cisplatin (about a 2-month increase in median survival; Wozniak et al. JCO, 1998) was maintained. The efficacy data for the docetaxel injection+cisplatin arm and the comparator arm are summarized in Table 16.

Table 16:Survival Analysis of Docetaxel Injection in Combination Therapy for Chemotherapy- Naïve NSCLC

From the superiority test (stratified log rank) comparing docetaxel injection+cisplatin to vinorelbine+cisplatin

Hazard ratio of  docetaxel injection+cisplatin versus vinorelbine+cisplatin. A hazard ratio of less than 1 indicates  that docetaxel injection+cisplatin is associated with a longer survival.

cAdjusted for interim analysis and multiple comparisons.

The second comparison in the same three-arm study, vinorelbine+cisplatin versus docetaxel injection+carboplatin, did not demonstrate superior survival associated with the docetaxel injection arm (Kaplan-Meier estimate of median survival was 9.1 months for docetaxel injection+carboplatin compared to 10 months on the vinorelbine+cisplatin arm) and the docetaxel injection+carboplatin arm did not demonstrate preservation of at least 50% of the survival effect of vinorelbine added to cisplatin. Secondary endpoints evaluated in the trial included objective response and time to progression. There was no statistically significant difference between docetaxel injection+cisplatin and vinorelbine+cisplatin with respect to objective response and time to progression (see Table 17).

Table 17: Response and TTP Analysis of Docetaxel Injection in Combination Therapy for Chemotherapy-Naïve NSCLC

a Adjusted for multiple comparisons.

b Kaplan-Meier estimates.

TAX317 TAX320
Docetaxe l
75 mg/m2
n=55
Best Supportive Care
n=49
Docetaxe l
75 mg/m2 n=125
Control (V/I *)
n=123
Overall Survival
Log-rank Test p=0.01 p=0.13
Risk Ratio †, Mortality
(Docetaxel: Control) 0.56 0.82
95% CI (Risk Ratio) (0.35, 0.88) (0.63, 1.06)
Median Survival 7.5 months** 4.6 months 5.7 months 5.6 months
95% CI (5.5, 12.8) (3.7, 6.1) (5.1, 7.1) (4.4, 7.9)
% 1-year Survival 37%**† 12% 30%**† 20%
95% CI (24, 50) (2, 23) (22, 39) (13, 27)
Time to Progression 12.3 weeks** 7 weeks 8.3 weeks 7.6 weeks
95% CI (9, 18.3) (6, 9.3) (7, 11.7) (6.7, 10.1)
Response Rate 5.5% Not Applicable 5.7% 0.8%
95% CI (1.1, 15.1) (2.3, 11.3) (0, 4.5)
Comparison Docetaxel Injection+Cisplatin
n=408
Vinorelbine+Cisplatin
n=405
Kaplan-Meier 10.9 months 10 months
p-valuea 0.122
Estimated Hazard Ratiob 0.88
Adjusted 95% CIc (0.74, 1.06)
Endpoint Docetaxel Injection
+Cisplatin
Vinorelbine+Cisplatin p-value
Objective Response Rate (95% CI)a 31.6%
(26.5%, 36.8%)
24.4%
(19.8%, 29.2%)
Not Significant
Median Time to Progressionb (95% CI)a  21.4 weeks
(19.3, 24.6)
 22.1 weeks
(18.1, 25.6)
  Not Significant

The safety and efficacy of docetaxel injection in combination with prednisone in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer were evaluated in a randomized multicenter active control trial. A total of 1006 patients with Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) ≥ 60 were randomized to the following treatment groups:

All 3 regimens were administered in combination with prednisone 5 mg twice daily, continuously.

In the docetaxel injection every three week arm, a statistically significant overall survival advantage was demonstrated compared to mitoxantrone.  In the docetaxel injection weekly arm, no overall survival advantage was demonstrated compared to the mitoxantrone control arm. Efficacy results for the docetaxel injection every 3 week arm versus the control arm are summarized in Table 18 and Figure 5.

Table 18 : Efficacy of Docetaxel Injection in the Treatment of Patients with Metastatic Castration - Resistant Prostate Cancer (Intent-to-Treat Analysis)

*Stratified log rank test. Threshold for statistical significance = 0.0175 because of 3 arms. 

Figure 5 : TAX327 Survival K-M Curves

  Docetaxel Injection+
Prednisone
every 3 weeks
Mitoxantrone+ Prednisone
every 3 weeks
Number of patients
Median survival (months)
95% CI Hazard ratio
95% CIp-value*
335
18.9 (17 to 21.2)
0.761 (0.619 to 0.936)
0.0094
337
16.5 (14.4 to 18.6)
--
--
--

A multicenter, open-label, randomized trial was conducted to evaluate the safety and efficacy of docetaxel injection for the treatment of patients with advanced gastric adenocarcinoma, including adenocarcinoma of the gastroesophageal junction, who had not received prior chemotherapy for advanced disease.  A total of 445 patients with KPS >70 were treated with either docetaxel injection (T) (75 mg/m on day 1) in combination with cisplatin (C) (75 mg/m on day 1) and fluorouracil (F)  (750  mg/m   per  day  for  5  days)  or  cisplatin  (100  mg/m   on  day  1)  and  fluorouracil (1000 mg/m per day for 5 days).  The length of a treatment cycle was 3 weeks for the TCF arm and 4 weeks for the CF arm. The demographic characteristics were balanced between the two treatment arms. The median age was 55 years, 71% were male, 71% were Caucasian, 24% were 65 years of age or older, 19% had a prior curative surgery and 12% had palliative surgery. The median number of cycles administered per patient was 6 (with a range of 1 to 16) for the TCF arm compared to 4 (with a range of 1 to 12) for the CF arm. Time to progression (TTP) was the primary endpoint and was defined as time from randomization to disease progression or death from any cause within 12 weeks of the last evaluable tumor assessment or within 12 weeks of the first infusion of study drugs for patients with no evaluable tumor assessment after randomization. The hazard ratio (HR) for TTP was 1.47 (CF/TCF, 95% CI: 1.19 to 1.83) with a significantly longer TTP (p=0.0004) in the TCF arm. Approximately 75% of patients had died at the time of this analysis. Overall survival was significantly longer (p=0.0201) in the TCF arm with a HR of 1.29 (95% CI: 1.04 to 1.61). Efficacy results are summarized in Table 19 and Figures 6 and 7.

Table 19 : Efficacy of Docetaxel Injection in the Treatment of Patients with Gastric Adenocarcinoma

*Unstratified log-rank test

†For the hazard ratio (TCF/CF), values less than 1 favor the docetaxel injection arm.

Subgroup analyses were consistent with the overall results across age, gender and race.

Figure 6; Gastric Cancer Study (TAX325) Time to Progression K-M Curve

Figure 7 : Gastric Cancer Study (TAX325) Survival K-M Curve

Endpoint TCF
n=221
CF
n=224
Median TTP (months)
(95%CI)
Hazard ratio†
(95%CI)
*p-value
5.6
(4.86 to 5.91)
3.7
(3.45 to 4.47)
0.68
(0.55 to 0.84)
0.0004
Median survival (months)
(95%CI) Hazard ratio†
(95%CI)
*p-value
9.2
(8.38 to 10.58)
8.6

(7.16 to 9.46)
0.77
(0.62 to 0.96)
0.0201
Overall Response Rate (CR+PR) (%)
p-value
36.7 25.4
0.0106

Induction Chemotherapy Followed by Radiotherapy (TAX323)

The safety and efficacy of docetaxel injection in the induction treatment of patients with squamous cell carcinoma  of  the  head  and  neck  (SCCHN)  was  evaluated  in  a  multicenter,  open-label, randomized  trial  (TAX323). In this study, 358 patients with inoperable locally advanced SCCHN, and WHO performance status 0 or 1, were randomized to one of two treatment arms. Patients on the docetaxel injection arm received docetaxel injection (T) 75 mg/m followed by cisplatin (P) 75 mg/m on Day 1, followed by fluorouracil (F) 750 mg/m per day as a continuous infusion on Days 1 to 5. The cycles were repeated every three weeks for 4 cycles. 

Patients whose disease did not progress received radiotherapy (RT) according to institutional guidelines (TPF/RT).  Patients on the comparator arm received cisplatin (P) 100 mg/m on Day 1, followed by fluorouracil (F) 1000 mg/m/day as a continuous infusion on Days 1 to 5. The cycles were repeated every three weeks for 4 cycles.Patients whose  disease  did  not  progress  received  RT  according  to institutional  guidelines  (PF/RT). At the end of chemotherapy, with a minimal interval of 4 weeks and a maximal interval of 7 weeks, patients whose disease did not progress received radiotherapy (RT) according to institutional guidelines.  Locoregional therapy with radiation was delivered either with a conventional fraction regimen (1.8 Gy to 2 Gy once a day, 5 days per week for a total dose of 66 to 70 Gy) or with an accelerated/hyperfractionated regimen (twice a day, with a minimum interfraction interval of 6 hours, 5 days per week, for a total dose of 70 to 74 Gy, respectively). Surgical resection was allowed following chemotherapy, before or after radiotherapy.

The primary endpoint in this study, progression-free survival (PFS), was significantly longer in the TPF arm compared to the PF arm, p=0.0077 (median PFS: 11.4 vs. 8.3 months respectively) with an overall median follow up time of 33.7 months.  Median overall survival with a median follow-up of 51.2 months was also significantly longer in favor of the TPF arm compared to the PF arm (median OS: 18.6 vs. 14.2 months respectively). Efficacy results are presented in Table 20 and Figures 8 and 9.

Table 20 : Efficacy of Docetaxel Injection in the Induction Treatment of Patients with Inoperable Locally Advanced SCCHN (Intent-to-Treat Analysis)

A Hazard ratio of less than 1 favors docetaxel injection+Cisplatin+Fluorouracil

* Stratified log-rank test based on primary tumor site

** Stratified log-rank test, not adjusted for multiple comparisons

*** Chi square test, not adjusted for multiple comparisons 

Figure 8 : TAX323 Progression-Free Survival K-M Curve

Figure 9 : TAX323 Overall Survival K-M Curve

Induction Chemotherapy Followed by Chemoradiotherapy (TAX324)

The safety and efficacy of docetaxel injection in the induction treatment of patients with locally advanced (unresectable, low surgical cure, or organ preservation) SCCHN was evaluated in a randomized, multicenter open-label trial (TAX324). In this study, 501 patients, with locally advanced SCCHN, and a WHO performance status of 0 or 1, were randomized to one of two treatment arms. Patients  on  the  docetaxel injection  arm received  docetaxel injection  (T)  75 mg/m²  by intravenous infusion on day 1 followed by cisplatin (P) 100 mg/m² administered as a 30-minute to three-hour intravenous infusion, followed by the continuous intravenous infusion of fluorouracil (F) 1000 mg/m²/day from day 1 to day 4.  The cycles were repeated every 3 weeks for 3 cycles.  Patients on the comparator arm received cisplatin (P) 100 mg/m² as a 30 minute to three-hour intravenous infusion on day 1 followed by the continuous intravenous infusion of fluorouracil (F) 1000 mg/m²/day from day 1 to day 5. The cycles were repeated every 3 weeks for 3 cycles.

All patients in both treatment arms who did not have progressive disease were to receive 7 weeks of chemoradiotherapy (CRT) following induction chemotherapy 3 to 8 weeks after the start of the last cycle.   During radiotherapy, carboplatin (AUC 1.5) was given weekly as a one-hour intravenous infusion for a maximum of 7 doses.   

Radiation was delivered with megavoltage equipment using once daily fractionation (2 Gy per day, 5 days per week for 7 weeks for a total dose of 70 to 72 Gy).  Surgery on the primary site of disease and/or neck could be considered at anytime following completion of CRT.

The primary efficacy endpoint, overall survival (OS), was significantly longer (log-rank test, p=0.0058) with the docetaxel injection-containing regimen compared to PF [median OS: 70.6 versus 30.1 months respectively, hazard ratio (HR)=0.70, 95% confidence interval (CI)= 0.54 to 0.90]. Overall survival results are presented in Table 21 and Figure 10.

Table 21: Efficacy of Docetaxel Injection in the Induction Treatment of Patients with Locally Advanced SCCHN (Intent-to-Treat Analysis)

A Hazard ratio of less than 1 favors docetaxel injection+cisplatin+fluorouracil

* un-adjusted log-rank test

NE - not estimable

Figure 10 :TAX324 Overall Survival K-M Curve

ENDPOINT Docetaxel injection+
Cisplatin+ Fluorouracil
n=177
 Cisplatin+ Fluorouracil
n=181
Median progression free survival (months)
(95%CI)
Adjusted Hazard ratio
(95%CI)
*p-value
11.4
(10.1 to 14)
8.3
(7.4 to 9.1)
0.71
(0.56 to 0.91)
0.0077
Median survival (months)
(95%CI)
Hazard ratio
(95%CI)
**p-value
18.6
(15.7 to 24)
14.2
(11.5 to 18.7)
0.71
(0.56 to 0.90)
0.0055
Best overall response (CR + PR) to
chemotherapy (%)
(95%CI)
***p-value
 67.8 (60.4 to 74.6)  53.6 (46 to 61)
0.006
Best overall response (CR + PR) to study
treatment [chemotherapy +/- radiotherapy]
(%) (95%CI)
***p-value
 72.3 (65.1 to 78.8)  58.6 (51 to 65.8)
0.006
  ENDPOINT Docetaxel Injection
+ Cisplatin+ Fluorouracil
n=255
Cisplatin+ Fluorouracil
n=246
Median overall survival (months)
(95% CI)
70.6
(49-NE)
30.1 (20.9 to 51.5)
Hazard ratio:
(95% CI)
*p-value
0.70 (0.54 to 0.90)
0.0058

http://www.osha.gov/SLTC/hazardousdrugs/index.html

One-vial Formulation Docetaxel Injection USP  

Docetaxel Injection USP (20 mg/mL) requires NO prior dilution with a diluent and is ready to add to the infusion solution. 

Docetaxel injection USP is supplied in a single-dose vial as a sterile, pyrogen-free, non-aqueous, solution.

 

Docetaxel injection USP 20 mg/mL (NDC 43598-258-11) 

Docetaxel injection USP 20 mg/1 mL: 20 mg docetaxel and 3 mg citric acid anhydrous in 1 mL in 50/50 (v/v) ratio polysorbate 80/dehydrated alcohol. One single-dose vial in blister in one carton.

Docetaxel injection USP 80 mg/4 mL (NDC 43598-259-40) 

Docetaxel injection USP 80mg/4 mL: 80 mg docetaxel and 12 mg citric acid anhydrous in 4 mL in 50/50 (v/v) ratio polysorbate 80/dehydrated alcohol. One single-dose vial in blister in one carton. 

Store between 2°C and 25°C (36°F and 77°F). Retain in the original package to protect from light. Freezing does not adversely affect the product.

Procedures for proper handling and disposal of anticancer drugs should be considered. Several guidelines on this subject have been published [see References (15)].

Advise the patient to read the FDA-approved patient labeling (Patient Information).

Bone Marrow Suppression
Explain the significance of routine blood cell counts. Thus, it is important that periodic assessment of their blood count be performed to detect the development of neutropenia, thrombocytopenia and/ or anemia [see Contraindications (4) and Warnings and Precautions (5.3)]. Instruct patients to monitor their temperature frequently and immediately report any occurrence of fever.  

Gastrointestinal Events, Eye Disorders
Explain to patients that side effects such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, excessive tearing and/or vision disturbances are associated with docetaxel administration [see Adverse Reactions (6)]. Tell patients to immediately report abdominal pain or tenderness, and/or diarrhea, with or without fever [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)], any vision changes [see Warnings and Precautions (5.10)].
 
Hypersensitivity Reactions
Obtain detailed allergy information from the patient prior to docetaxel injection administration. Instruct patients to immediately report signs of a hypersensitivity reaction. Ask patients whether they have previously received paclitaxel therapy, and if they have experienced a hypersensitivity reaction to paclitaxel [see Contraindications (4) and Warnings and Precautions ( 5.5)].
Fluid Retention
Tell patients to watch for signs of fluid retention such as peripheral edema in the lower extremities, weight gain and dyspnea and instruct patients to immediately report them [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)].

Myalgia, Cutaneous Reactions, Neurologic Reactions, Local Site Reactions, Fatigue, Alopecia
Instruct patients to report myalgia [see Adverse Reactions (6)], cutaneous reactions [see Warnings and Precautions (5.8)], neurologic reactions [see Warnings and Precautions (5.9)], or infusion site reactions [see Adverse Reactions (6)]. Explain to patients that side effects such as fatigue and hair loss (cases of permanent hair loss have been reported) are associated with docetaxel administration [see Adverse Reactions (6)].  

Cardiac disorders
Tell patients to report any irregular and/or rapid heartbeat, severe shortness of breath, dizziness, and/or fainting [see Adverse Reactions (6)].  

Importance of Corticosteroids
Explain the significance of oral corticosteroids such as dexamethasone administration to the patient to help facilitate compliance. Instruct patients to report if they were not compliant with oral corticosteroid regimen [see Dosage and Administration (2.6)].
 
Alcohol Content in Docetaxel Injection
Explain to patients the possible effects of the alcohol content in docetaxel injection, including possible effects on the central nervous system [see Warnings and Precautions (5.12)].

Ability to Drive or Operate Machines
Explain to patients that docetaxel injection may impair their ability to drive or operate machines due to its side effects [see Adverse Reactions (6)] or due to the alcohol content of docetaxel injection [see Warnings and Precautions (5.12)]. Advise them not to drive or use machines if they experience these side effects during treatment.  

Drug Interactions
Inform patients about the risk of drug interactions and the importance of providing a list of prescription and non-prescription drugs to their healthcare provider [see Drug Interactions (7)].  
Embryo-Fetal Toxicity
Docetaxel injection may cause fetal harm. Advise patients to avoid becoming pregnant while receiving this drug. Advise female patients of childbearing potential to use effective contraceptives during treatment [see Warnings and Precautions (5.13) and Use in Specific Populations (8.1)].

Patient Information

Docetaxel injection USP

for Intravenous use

Read this Patient Information before you receive your first treatment with docetaxel injection and each time before you are treated. There may be new information. This information does not take the place of talking with your healthcare provider about your medical condition or your treatment.

What is the most important information I should know about docetaxel injection?

Docetaxel injection can cause serious side effects, including death.

Tell your healthcare provider right away if you have any of these signs of a severe allergic reaction:

What is docetaxel injection?

Docetaxel injection is a prescription anti-cancer medicine used to treat certain people with: 

It is not known if docetaxel injection is effective in children.

Do not receive docetaxel injection if you:

See “What is the most important information I should know about docetaxel injection?” for the signs and symptoms of a severe allergic reaction.

See the end of this Patient Information for a complete list of the ingredients in docetaxel injection.

Before you receive docetaxel injection, tell your healthcare provider about all of your medical conditions, including if you:

Tell your healthcare provider about all the medicines you take, including prescription and over-the-counter medicines, vitamins, and herbal supplements. Docetaxel injection may affect the way other medicines work, and other medicines may affect the way docetaxel injection works.

Know the medicines you take. Keep a list of them to show your healthcare provider and pharmacist when you get a new medicine.

How will I receive docetaxel injection?

What are the possible side effects of docetaxel injection?

Docetaxel injection may cause serious side effects including death.

You may experience side effects of this medicine that may impair your ability to drive, use tools, or operate machines. If this happens, do not drive or use any tools or machines before discussing with your healthcare provider.

The most common side effects of docetaxel injection include:

Tell your healthcare provider if you have a fast or irregular heartbeat, severe shortness of breath, dizziness or fainting during your infusion. If any of these events occurs after your infusion, get medical help right away.

These are not all the possible side effects of docetaxel injection. For more information, ask your healthcare provider or pharmacist.

Call your healthcare provider for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

General information about the safe and effective use of docetaxel injection. Medicines are sometimes prescribed for purposes other than those listed in this Patient Information. You can ask your pharmacist or healthcare provider for information about docetaxel injection that is written for health professionals.For more information, call 1-888-375-3784 

What are the ingredients in Docetaxel Injection? Active ingredient: docetaxelInactive ingredients include: dehydrated alcohol, citric acid and polysorbate 80 

 

This Patient Information has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

Revised: 1018

20 mg/mL Vial

20 mg/mL-Vial Carton

80 mg/4 mL (20 mg/mL) - Vial

80 mg/4 mL (20 mg/mL) - Vial Carton

Manufacturer

Dr. Reddy's Laboratories Inc.

Active Ingredients

Source

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Docetaxel anhydrous [cipla usa inc.]

These highlights do not include all the information needed to use DOCETAXEL INJECTION safely and effectively. See full prescribing information for DOCETAXEL INJECTION.DOCETAXEL injection, for intraven...

Clinical Trials [1155 Associated Clinical Trials listed on BioPortfolio]

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A Phase 2 Study in Patients With Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Using New Agents With and Without Docetaxel.

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Phase II Study of Perioperative S-1 Plus Docetaxel in Patients With Localized Advanced Gastric Cancer

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A Study to Test Radium-223 With Docetaxel in Patients With Prostate Cancer

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Preparation, characterization and in vitro activity of a docetaxel-albumin conjugate.

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A sensitive, high-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed and validated, for determination of docetaxel from docetaxel-entrapped core-crosslinked polymeric micelles (CriPec®) in human...

Effects of prednisone on docetaxel pharmacokinetics in men with metastatic prostate cancer: A randomized drug-drug interaction study.

Docetaxel has been approved for the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer in combination with prednisone. Since prednisone is known to induce the cytochrome P450 iso-enzyme CYP3A4, which is the main...

Targeting the androgen receptor (AR) with AR degradation enhancer ASC-J9 led to increase docetaxel sensitivity via suppressing the p21 expression.

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Phase II randomized study of radiotherapy and three-year androgen deprivation with or without concurrent weekly docetaxel in high-risk localized prostate cancer patients.

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