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These highlights do not include all the information needed to use PREMPRO/PREMPHASE safely and effectively. See full prescribing information for PREMPRO/PREMPHASE. PREMPRO (conjugated estrogens/medroxyprogesterone acetate tablets) PREMPHASE (conjugated es | Prempro [Avera McKennan Hospital] | BioPortfolio

13:07 EST 27th January 2019 | BioPortfolio

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Estrogen Plus Progestin Therapy

Cardiovascular Disorders and Probable Dementia

Estrogen plus progestin therapy should not be used for the prevention of cardiovascular disease or dementia [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1, 5.3), and Clinical Studies (14.6, 14.7)].

The Women's Health Initiative (WHI) estrogen plus progestin substudy reported an increased risk of deep vein thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism (PE), stroke and myocardial infarction (MI) in postmenopausal women (50 to 79 years of age) during 5.6 years of treatment with daily oral conjugated estrogen (CE) [0.625 mg] combined with medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) [2.5 mg], relative to placebo [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1), and Clinical Studies (14.6)].

The WHI Memory Study (WHIMS) estrogen plus progestin ancillary study of the WHI reported an increased risk of developing probable dementia in postmenopausal women 65 years of age or older during 4 years of treatment with daily CE (0.625 mg) combined with MPA (2.5 mg), relative to placebo. It is unknown whether this finding applies to younger postmenopausal women [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3), Use in Specific Populations (8.5), and Clinical Studies (14.7)].

Breast Cancer

The WHI estrogen plus progestin substudy also demonstrated an increased risk of invasive breast cancer [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2), and Clinical Studies (14.6)].

In the absence of comparable data, these risks should be assumed to be similar for other doses of CE and MPA and other combinations and dosage forms of estrogens and progestins.

Estrogens with or without progestins should be prescribed at the lowest effective doses and for the shortest duration consistent with treatment goals and risks for the individual woman.

Estrogen-Alone Therapy

Endometrial Cancer

There is an increased risk of endometrial cancer in a woman with a uterus who uses unopposed estrogens. Adding a progestin to estrogen therapy has been shown to reduce the risk of endometrial hyperplasia, which may be a precursor to endometrial cancer. Adequate diagnostic measures, including directed or random endometrial sampling when indicated, should be undertaken to rule out malignancy in postmenopausal women with undiagnosed persistent or recurring abnormal genital bleeding [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].

Cardiovascular Disorders and Probable Dementia

Estrogen-alone therapy should not be used for the prevention of cardiovascular disease or dementia [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1, 5.3), and Clinical Studies (14.6, 14.7)].

The WHI estrogen-alone substudy reported increased risks of stroke and DVT in postmenopausal women (50 to 79 years of age) during 7.1 years of treatment with daily oral CE (0.625 mg)-alone, relative to placebo [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1), and Clinical Studies (14.6)].

The WHIMS estrogen-alone ancillary study of WHI reported an increased risk of developing probable dementia in postmenopausal women 65 years of age or older during 5.2 years of treatment with daily CE (0.625 mg)-alone, relative to placebo. It is unknown whether this finding applies to younger postmenopausal women [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3), Use in Specific Populations (8.5), and Clinical Studies (14.7)].

In the absence of comparable data, these risks should be assumed to be similar for other doses of CE and other dosage forms of estrogens.

Estrogens with or without progestins should be prescribed at the lowest effective doses and for the shortest duration consistent with treatment goals and risks for the individual woman.

Use of estrogen-alone, or in combination with a progestin, should be with the lowest effective dose and for the shortest duration consistent with treatment goals and risks for the individual woman. Postmenopausal women should be re-evaluated periodically as clinically appropriate to determine if treatment is still necessary.

PREMPRO therapy consists of a single tablet to be taken orally once daily.

PREMPHASE therapy consists of two separate tablets: one maroon 0.625 mg Premarin [conjugated estrogens (CE)] tablet taken daily on days 1 through 14 and one light-blue tablet containing 0.625 mg CE and 5 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) taken on days 15 through 28.

PREMPRO therapy consists of a single tablet to be taken orally once daily.

PREMPHASE therapy consists of two separate tablets: one maroon 0.625 mg CE tablet taken daily on days 1 through 14 and one light-blue tablet containing 0.625 mg CE and 5 mg MPA taken on days 15 through 28.

When prescribing solely for the treatment of moderate to severe vulvar and vaginal atrophy, topical vaginal products should be considered.

PREMPRO therapy consists of a single tablet to be taken orally once daily.

PREMPHASE therapy consists of two separate tablets: one maroon 0.625 mg CE tablet taken daily on days 1 through 14 and one light-blue tablet containing 0.625 mg CE and 5 mg of MPA taken on days 15 through 28.

When prescribing solely for the prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis, therapy should only be considered for women at significant risk of osteoporosis and non-estrogen medications should be carefully considered.

PREMPRO (conjugated estrogens/medroxyprogesterone acetate tablets)
Tablet Strength Tablet Shape/Color Imprint
0.3 mg CE plus 1.5 mg MPA oval / cream PREMPRO
0.3/1.5
0.45 mg CE plus 1.5 mg MPA oval / gold PREMPRO
0.45/1.5
0.625 mg CE plus 2.5 mg MPA oval / peach PREMPRO
0.625/2.5
0.625 mg CE plus 5 mg MPA oval / light blue PREMPRO
0.625/5
PREMPHASE (conjugated estrogens/medroxyprogesterone acetate tablets)
Tablet Strength Tablet Shape/Color Imprint
0.625 mg CE oval / maroon (14 tablets) PREMARIN
0.625
0.625 mg CE plus 5 mg MPA oval / light-blue (14 tablets) PREMPRO
0.625/5

PREMPRO or PREMPHASE therapy should not be used in women with any of the following conditions:

An increased risk of PE, DVT, stroke and MI has been reported with estrogen plus progestin therapy. An increased risk of stroke and DVT has been reported with estrogen-alone therapy. Should any of these occur or be suspected, estrogen with or without progestin therapy should be discontinued immediately.

Risk factors for arterial vascular disease (for example, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, tobacco use, hypercholesterolemia, and obesity) and/or venous thromboembolism (VTE) (for example, personal history or family history of VTE, obesity, and systemic lupus erythematosus) should be managed appropriately.

Stroke

In the WHI estrogen plus progestin substudy, a statistically significant increased risk of stroke was reported in women 50 to 79 years of age receiving daily CE (0.625 mg) plus MPA (2.5 mg) compared to women in the same age group receiving placebo (33 versus 25 per 10,000 women-years) [see Clinical Studies (14.6)]. The increase in risk was demonstrated after the first year and persisted. Should a stroke occur or be suspected, estrogen plus progestin therapy should be discontinued immediately.

In the WHI estrogen-alone substudy, a statistically significant increased risk of stroke was reported in women 50 to 79 years of age receiving daily CE (0.625 mg)-alone compared to women in the same age group receiving placebo (45 versus 33 per 10,000 women-years). The increase in risk was demonstrated in year 1 and persisted [see Clinical Studies (14.6)]. Should a stroke occur or be suspected, estrogen-alone therapy should be discontinued immediately.

Subgroup analyses of women 50 to 59 years of age suggest no increased risk of stroke for those women receiving CE (0.625 mg)-alone versus those receiving placebo (18 versus 21 per 10,000 women-years).

Coronary Heart Disease

In the WHI estrogen plus progestin substudy, there was a statistically non-significant increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) events (defined as nonfatal MI, silent MI, or CHD death) reported in women receiving daily CE (0.625 mg) plus MPA (2.5 mg) compared to women receiving placebo (41 versus 34 per 10,000 women-years). An increase in relative risk was demonstrated in year 1, and a trend toward decreasing relative risk was reported in years 2 through 5 [see Clinical Studies (14.6)].

In the WHI estrogen-alone substudy, no overall effect on CHD events was reported in women receiving estrogen-alone compared to placebo [see Clinical Studies (14.6)].

Subgroup analyses of women 50 to 59 years of age suggest a statistically non-significant reduction in CHD events (CE [0.625 mg]-alone compared to placebo) in women with less than 10 years since menopause (8 versus 16 per 10,000 women-years).

In postmenopausal women with documented heart disease (n = 2,763), average 66.7 years of age, in a controlled clinical trial of secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease (Heart and Estrogen/Progestin Replacement Study [HERS]), treatment with daily CE (0.625 mg) plus MPA (2.5 mg) demonstrated no cardiovascular benefit. During an average follow-up of 4.1 years, treatment with CE plus MPA did not reduce the overall rate of CHD events in postmenopausal women with established coronary heart disease. There were more CHD events in the CE plus MPA-treated group than in the placebo group in year 1, but not during subsequent years. Two thousand, three hundred and twenty-one (2,321) women from the original HERS trial agreed to participate in an open label extension of HERS, HERS II. Average follow-up in HERS II was an additional 2.7 years, for a total of 6.8 years overall. Rates of CHD events were comparable among women in the CE plus MPA group and the placebo group in HERS, HERS II, and overall.

Venous Thromboembolism

In the WHI estrogen plus progestin substudy, a statistically significant 2-fold greater rate of VTE (DVT and PE) was reported in women receiving daily CE (0.625 mg) plus MPA (2.5 mg) compared to women receiving placebo (35 versus 17 per 10,000 women-years). Statistically significant increases in risk for both DVT (26 versus 13 per 10,000 women-years) and PE (18 versus 8 per 10,000 women-years) were also demonstrated. The increase in VTE risk was demonstrated during the first year and persisted [see Clinical Studies (14.6)]. Should a VTE occur or be suspected, estrogen plus progestin therapy should be discontinued immediately.

In the WHI estrogen-alone substudy, the risk of VTE was increased for women receiving daily CE (0.625 mg)-alone compared to placebo (30 versus 22 per 10,000 women-years), although only the increased risk of DVT reached statistical significance (23 versus 15 per 10,000 women-years). The increase in VTE risk was demonstrated during the first 2 years [see Clinical Studies (14.6)]. Should a VTE occur or be suspected, estrogen-alone therapy should be discontinued immediately.

If feasible, estrogens should be discontinued at least 4 to 6 weeks before surgery of the type associated with an increased risk of thromboembolism, or during periods of prolonged immobilization.

Breast Cancer

The most important randomized clinical trial providing information about breast cancer in estrogen plus progestin users is the WHI substudy of daily CE (0.625 mg) plus MPA (2.5 mg). After a mean follow-up of 5.6 years, the estrogen plus progestin substudy reported an increased risk of invasive breast cancer in women who took daily CE plus MPA. In this substudy, prior use of estrogen-alone or estrogen plus progestin therapy was reported by 26 percent of the women. The relative risk of invasive breast cancer was 1.24, and the absolute risk was 41 versus 33 cases per 10,000 women-years, for CE plus MPA compared with placebo. Among women who reported prior use of hormone therapy, the relative risk of invasive breast cancer was 1.86, and the absolute risk was 46 versus 25 cases per 10,000 women-years, for CE plus MPA compared with placebo. Among women who reported no prior use of hormone therapy, the relative risk of invasive breast cancer was 1.09, and the absolute risk was 40 versus 36 cases per 10,000 women-years, for CE plus MPA compared with placebo. In the same substudy, invasive breast cancers were larger, were more likely to be node positive, and were diagnosed at a more advanced stage in the CE (0.625 mg) plus MPA (2.5 mg) group compared with the placebo group. Metastatic disease was rare, with no apparent difference between the two groups. Other prognostic factors, such as histologic subtype, grade and hormone receptor status did not differ between the groups [see Clinical Studies (14.6)].

The most important randomized clinical trial providing information about breast cancer in estrogen-alone users is the WHI substudy of daily CE (0.625 mg)-alone. In the WHI estrogen-alone substudy, after an average follow-up of 7.1 years, daily CE (0.625 mg)-alone was not associated with an increased risk of invasive breast cancer [relative risk (RR) 0.80] [see Clinical Studies (14.6)].

Consistent with the WHI clinical trials, observational studies have also reported an increased risk of breast cancer for estrogen plus progestin therapy, and a smaller increased risk for estrogen-alone therapy, after several years of use. The risk increased with duration of use, and appeared to return to baseline over about 5 years after stopping treatment (only the observational studies have substantial data on risk after stopping). Observational studies also suggest that the risk of breast cancer was greater, and became apparent earlier, with estrogen plus progestin therapy as compared to estrogen-alone therapy. However, these studies have not found significant variation in the risk of breast cancer among different estrogen plus progestin combinations, doses, or routes of administration.

The use of estrogen-alone and estrogen plus progestin has been reported to result in an increase in abnormal mammograms requiring further evaluation.

All women should receive yearly breast examinations by a healthcare provider and perform monthly breast self-examinations. In addition, mammography examinations should be scheduled based on patient age, risk factors, and prior mammogram results.

Endometrial Cancer

Endometrial hyperplasia (a possible precursor of endometrial cancer) has been reported to occur at a rate of approximately 1 percent or less with PREMPRO or PREMPHASE.

An increased risk of endometrial cancer has been reported with the use of unopposed estrogen therapy in a woman with a uterus. The reported endometrial cancer risk among unopposed estrogen users is about 2 to 12 times greater than in non-users, and appears dependent on duration of treatment and on estrogen dose. Most studies show no significant increased risk associated with use of estrogens for less than 1 year. The greatest risk appears to be associated with prolonged use, with increased risks of 15- to 24-fold for 5 to 10 years or more, and this risk has been shown to persist for at least 8 to 15 years after estrogen therapy is discontinued.

Clinical surveillance of all women using estrogen-alone or estrogen plus progestin therapy is important. Adequate diagnostic measures, including directed or random endometrial sampling when indicated, should be undertaken to rule out malignancy in postmenopausal women with undiagnosed persistent or recurring abnormal genital bleeding.

There is no evidence that the use of natural estrogens results in a different endometrial risk profile than synthetic estrogens of equivalent estrogen dose. Adding a progestin to estrogen therapy in postmenopausal women has been shown to reduce the risk of endometrial hyperplasia, which may be a precursor to endometrial cancer.

Ovarian Cancer

The WHI estrogen plus progestin substudy reported a statistically non-significant increased risk of ovarian cancer. After an average follow-up of 5.6 years, the relative risk for ovarian cancer for CE plus MPA versus placebo was 1.58 (95 percent CI, 0.77–3.24). The absolute risk for CE plus MPA versus placebo was 4 versus 3 cases per 10,000 women-years. In some epidemiologic studies, the use of estrogen plus progestin and estrogen-only products, in particular for 5 or more years, has been associated with an increased risk of ovarian cancer. However, the duration of exposure associated with increased risk is not consistent across all epidemiologic studies, and some report no association.

In the WHIMS estrogen plus progestin ancillary study of WHI, a population of 4,532 postmenopausal women 65 to 79 years of age was randomized to daily CE (0.625 mg) plus MPA (2.5 mg) or placebo.

After an average follow-up of 4 years, 40 women in the CE plus MPA group and 21 women in the placebo group were diagnosed with probable dementia. The relative risk of probable dementia for CE plus MPA versus placebo was 2.05 (95 percent CI, 1.21–3.48). The absolute risk of probable dementia for CE plus MPA versus placebo was 45 versus 22 cases per 10,000 women-years [see Use in Specific Populations (8.5), and Clinical Studies (14.7)].

In the WHIMS estrogen-alone ancillary study of WHI, a population of 2,947 hysterectomized women 65 to 79 years of age was randomized to daily CE (0.625 mg)-alone or placebo.

After an average follow-up of 5.2 years, 28 women in the estrogen-alone group and 19 women in the placebo group were diagnosed with probable dementia. The relative risk of probable dementia for CE-alone versus placebo was 1.49 (95 percent CI, 0.83–2.66). The absolute risk of probable dementia for CE-alone versus placebo was 37 versus 25 cases per 10,000 women-years [see Use in Specific Populations (8.5), and Clinical Studies (14.7)].

When data from the two populations in the WHIMS estrogen-alone and estrogen plus progestin ancillary studies were pooled as planned in the WHIMS protocol, the reported overall relative risk for probable dementia was 1.76 (95 percent CI, 1.19–2.60). Since both ancillary studies were conducted in women 65 to 79 years of age, it is unknown whether these findings apply to younger postmenopausal women [see Use in Specific Populations (8.5), and Clinical Studies (14.7)].

A 2- to 4-fold increase in the risk of gallbladder disease requiring surgery in postmenopausal women receiving estrogens has been reported.

Estrogen administration may lead to severe hypercalcemia in women with breast cancer and bone metastases. If hypercalcemia occurs, use of the drug should be stopped and appropriate measures taken to reduce the serum calcium level.

Retinal vascular thrombosis has been reported in women receiving estrogens. Discontinue medication pending examination if there is sudden partial or complete loss of vision, or a sudden onset of proptosis, diplopia, or migraine. If examination reveals papilledema or retinal vascular lesions, estrogens should be permanently discontinued.

Studies of the addition of a progestin for 10 or more days of a cycle of estrogen administration or daily with estrogen in a continuous regimen, have reported a lowered incidence of endometrial hyperplasia than would be induced by estrogen treatment alone. Endometrial hyperplasia may be a precursor to endometrial cancer.

There are, however, possible risks that may be associated with the use of progestins with estrogens compared to estrogen-alone regimens. These include an increased risk of breast cancer.

In a small number of case reports, substantial increases in blood pressure have been attributed to idiosyncratic reactions to estrogens. In a large, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial, a generalized effect of estrogen therapy on blood pressure was not seen.

In women with pre-existing hypertriglyceridemia, estrogen therapy may be associated with elevations of plasma triglycerides leading to pancreatitis. Consider discontinuation of treatment if pancreatitis occurs.

Estrogens may be poorly metabolized in women with impaired liver function. For women with a history of cholestatic jaundice associated with past estrogen use or with pregnancy, caution should be exercised, and in the case of recurrence, medication should be discontinued.

Estrogen administration leads to increased thyroid-binding globulin (TBG) levels. Women with normal thyroid function can compensate for the increased TBG by making more thyroid hormone, thus maintaining free T and T serum concentrations in the normal range. Women dependent on thyroid hormone replacement therapy who are also receiving estrogens may require increased doses of their thyroid replacement therapy. These women should have their thyroid function monitored in order to maintain their free thyroid hormone levels in an acceptable range.

Estrogens plus progestins may cause some degree of fluid retention. Women with conditions that might be influenced by this factor, such as cardiac or renal dysfunction, warrant careful observation when estrogens plus progestins are prescribed.

Estrogen therapy should be used with caution in women with hypoparathyroidism as estrogen-induced hypocalcemia may occur.

A few cases of malignant transformation of residual endometrial implants have been reported in women treated post-hysterectomy with estrogen-alone therapy. For women known to have residual endometriosis post-hysterectomy, the addition of progestin should be considered.

Cases of anaphylaxis, which developed within minutes to hours after taking PREMPRO or PREMPHASE and require emergency medical management, have been reported in the postmarketing setting. Skin (hives, pruritis, swollen lips-tongue-face) and either respiratory tract (respiratory compromise) or gastrointestinal tract (abdominal pain, vomiting) involvement has been noted.

Angioedema involving the tongue, larynx, face, hands, and feet requiring medical intervention has occurred postmarketing in patients taking PREMPRO or PREMPHASE. If angioedema involves the tongue, glottis, or larynx, airway obstruction may occur. Patients who develop an anaphylactic reaction with or without angioedema after treatment with PREMPRO or PREMPHASE should not receive PREMPRO or PREMPHASE again.

Exogenous estrogens may exacerbate symptoms of angioedema in women with hereditary angioedema.

Estrogen therapy may cause an exacerbation of asthma, diabetes mellitus, epilepsy, migraine, porphyria, systemic lupus erythematosus, and hepatic hemangiomas and should be used with caution in women with these conditions.

Serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and estradiol levels have not been shown to be useful in the management of moderate to severe vasomotor symptoms and moderate to severe symptoms of vulvar and vaginal atrophy.

Accelerated prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, and platelet aggregation time; increased platelet count; increased factors II, VII antigen, VIII antigen, VIII coagulant activity, IX, X, XII, VII-X complex, II-VII-X complex, and beta-thromboglobulin; decreased levels of antifactor Xa and antithrombin III, decreased antithrombin III activity; increased levels of fibrinogen and fibrinogen activity; increased plasminogen antigen and activity.

Increased thyroid-binding globulin (TBG) leading to increased circulating total thyroid hormone, as measured by protein-bound iodine (PBI), T levels (by column or by radioimmunoassay), or T levels by radioimmunoassay. T resin uptake is decreased, reflecting the elevated TBG. Free T and free T concentrations are unaltered. Women on thyroid replacement therapy may require higher doses of thyroid hormone.

Other binding proteins may be elevated in serum, for example, corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), leading to increased total circulating corticosteroids and sex steroids, respectively. Free hormone concentrations, such as testosterone and estradiol, may be decreased. Other plasma proteins may be increased (angiotensinogen/renin substrate, alpha-1-antitrypsin, ceruloplasmin).

Increased plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and HDL cholesterol subfraction concentrations, reduced low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentrations, increased triglyceride levels.

Impaired glucose tolerance.

The following serious adverse reactions are discussed elsewhere in the labeling:

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trial of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.

In a 1-year clinical trial that included 678 postmenopausal women treated with PREMPRO and 351 postmenopausal women treated with PREMPHASE, the following adverse reactions occurred at a rate ≥ 1 percent, see Table 1.

In addition, phargyngitis and sinusitis were reported as two of the more frequent adverse events (>5 percent) in the PREMPRO clinical study. For pharyngitis, of the 121 events, six events were considered by the investigator causally related to study drug. For sinusitis, of the 73 events, one event was considered as casually related to study drug.

During the first year of a 2-year clinical trial with postmenopausal women between 40 and 65 years of age (88 percent Caucasian), 989 postmenopausal women received continuous regimens of PREMPRO, and 332 received placebo tablets. Table 2 summarizes adverse reactions that occurred at a rate ≥ 1 percent in at least 1 treatment group.

In addition, the following events were considered as related to the study drug with an incidence less than 1 percent, including accidental injury, infection, myalgia, cough increased, rhinitis, sinusitis, and upper respiratory infection.

TABLE 1: ALL TREATMENT RELATED ADVERSE REACTIONS AT A FREQUENCY ≥ 1 PERCENT
Body System PREMPRO
0.625 mg/2.5 mg
continuous
PREMPRO
0.625 mg/5 mg
continuous
PREMPHASE
0.625 mg/5 mg
sequential
  Adverse event (n = 340) (n = 338) (n = 351)
Body As A Whole
  Abdominal pain 35 (10%) 51 (15%) 58 (17%)
  Asthenia 13 (4%) 18 (5%) 21 (6%)
  Back pain 19 (6%) 16 (5%) 23 (7%)
  Chest pain 5 (1%) 4 (1%) 4 (1%)
  Flu syndrome 1 (<1%) 1 (<1%) 4 (1%)
  Generalized edema 12 (4%) 12 (4%) 8 (2%)
  Headache 64 (19%) 52 (15%) 66 (19%)
  Infection 2 (<1%) 4 (1)% 0
  Moniliasis 4 (1%) 3 (<1%) 4 (1%)
  Pain 12 (4%) 14 (4%) 15 (4%)
  Pelvic pain 11 (3%) 13 (4%) 16 (5%)
Cardiovascular System
  Hypertension 7 (2%) 7 (2%) 6 (2%)
  Migraine 6 (2%) 8 (2%) 7 (2%)
  Palpitation 2 (<1%) 3 (<1%) 4 (1%)
  Vasodilatation 2 (<1%) 7 (2%) 2 (<1%)
Digestive System
  Diarrhea 4 (1%) 3 (<1%) 7 (2%)
  Dyspepsia 5 (1%) 5 (1%) 7 (2%)
  Eructation 0 2 (<1%) 4 (1%)
  Flatulence 25 (7%) 27 (8%) 24 (7%)
  Increased appetite 1 (<1%) 5 (1%) 5 (1%)
  Nausea 26 (8%) 19 (6%) 26 (7%)
Metabolic and Nutritional
  Edema 5 (1%) 6 (2%) 3 (<1%)
  Glucose tolerance
  decreased
2 (<1%) 5 (1%) 4 (1%)
  Peripheral edema 11 (3%) 10 (3%) 11 (3%)
    Weight gain 9 (3%) 10 (3%) 11 (3%)
Musculoskeletal System
  Arthralgia 6 (2%) 2 (<1%) 7 (2%)
  Leg cramps 8 (2%) 11 (3%) 12 (3%)
Nervous System
  Depression 14 (4%) 26 (8%) 29 (8%)
  Dizziness 9 (3%) 8 (2%) 7 (2%)
  Emotional lability 5 (1%) 5 (1%) 6 (2%)
  Hypertonia 4 (1%) 4 (1%) 7 (2%)
  Insomnia 7 (2%) 6 (2%) 4 (1%)
  Nervousness 4 (1%) 9 (3%) 6 (2%)
Skin and Appendages
  Acne 1 (<1%) 5 (1%) 4 (1%)
  Alopecia 3 (<1%) 4 (1%) 0
  Dry skin 2 (<1%) 3 (<1%) 4 (1%)
  Pruritus 20 (6%) 18 (5%) 13 (4%)
  Rash 8 (2%) 6 (2%) 7 (2%)
  Sweating 2 (<1%) 4 (1%) 2 (<1%)
Urogenital System
  Breast engorgement 5 (1%) 5 (1%) 0
  Breast enlargement 14 (4%) 14 (4%) 14 (4%)
  Breast neoplasm 2 (<1%) 2 (<1%) 4 (1%)
  Breast pain 110 (32%) 123 (36%) 109 (31%)
  Cervix disorder 10 (3%) 6 (2%) 10 (3%)
  Dysmenorrhea 26 (8%) 18 (5%) 44 (13%)
  Leukorrhea 19 (6%) 13 (4%) 29 (8%)
  Menstrual disorder 7 (2%) 1 (<1%) 5 (1%)
  Menorrhagia 0 1 (<1%) 5 (1%)
  Metrorrhagia 13 (4%) 5 (1%) 7 (1%)
  Papanicolaou smear
  suspicious
5 (1%) 0 8 (2%)
  Urinary incontinence 4 (1%) 2 (<1%) 1 (<1%)
  Uterine spasm 7 (2%) 4 (1%) 7 (2%)
  Vaginal hemorrhage 5 (1%) 3 (<1%) 8 (2%)
  Vaginal moniliasis 5 (1%) 6 (2%) 7 (2%)
  Vaginitis 13 (4%) 13 (4%) 10 (3%)
TABLE 2: ALL TREATMENT RELATED ADVERSE REACTIONS AT A FREQUENCY OF ≥ 1 PERCENT


Body System
Adverse event
PREMPRO
0.625/2.5
continuous
(N=331)
PREMPRO
0.45/1.5
continuous
(N=331)
PREMPRO
0.3/1.5
continuous
(N=327)

PLACEBO
daily
(N=332)
Any adverse event 214 (65) 208 (63) 188 (57) 164 (49)
Body as a Whole
  Abdominal pain 38 (11) 33 (10) 24 (7) 21 (6)
  Asthenia 11 (3) 11 (3) 12 (4) 3 (1)
  Back pain 12 (4) 12 (4) 8 (2) 4 (1)
  Chest pain 4 (1) 2 (1) 1 (0) 2 (1)
  Generalized edema 7 (2) 5 (2) 6 (2) 8 (2)
  Headache 45 (14) 45 (14) 57 (17) 46 (14)
  Moniliasis 3 (1) 6 (2) 4 (1) 1 (0)
  Pain 9 (3) 10 (3) 17 (5) 14 (4)
  Pelvic pain 9 (3) 7 (2) 5 (2) 4 (1)
Cardiovascular System
  Hypertension 2 (1) 3 (1) 1 (0) 5 (2)
  Migraine 11 (3) 8 (2) 5 (2) 3 (1)
  Palpitation 1 (0) 1 (0) 2 (1) 4 (1)
  Vasodilatation 0 3 (1) 1 (0) 5 (2)
Digestive System
  Constipation 5 (2) 7 (2) 6 (2) 3 (1)
  Diarrhea 5 (2) 2 (1) 6 (2) 8 (2)
  Dyspepsia 10 (3) 9 (3) 6 (2) 14 (4)
  Flatulence 16 (5) 18 (5) 13 (4) 8 (2)
  Increased appetite 6 (2) 2 (1) 0 2 (1)
  Nausea 13 (4) 13 (4) 16 (5) 16 (5)
Metabolic and nutritional
  Peripheral edema 7 (2) 8 (2) 4 (1) 3 (1)
  Weight gain 9 (3) 8 (2) 6 (2) 14 (4)
Musculoskeletal System
  Arthralgia 2 (1) 3 (1) 3 (1) 5 (2)
  Leg cramps 13 (4) 7 (2) 10 (3) 4 (1)
Nervous System
  Anxiety 5 (2) 4 (1) 1 (0) 4 (1)
  Depression 23 (7) 11 (3) 11 (3) 17 (5)
  Dizziness 3 (1) 8 (2) 6 (2) 5 (2)
  Emotional lability 10 (3) 10 (3) 9 (3) 8 (2)
  Insomnia 8 (2) 7 (2) 9 (3) 14 (4)
  Nervousness 6 (2) 3 (1) 4 (1) 6 (2)
Skin and Appendages
  Acne 7 (2) 3 (1) 0 3 (1)
  Alopecia 1 (0) 6 (2) 4 (1) 2 (1)
  Pruritus 8 (2) 10 (3) 9 (3) 3 (1)
  Rash 0 6 (2) 4 (1) 2 (1)
  Skin discoloration 5 (2) 1 (0) 3 (1) 1 (0)
  Sweating 3 (1) 1 (0) 0 4 (1)
Urogenital System
  Breast disorder 7 (2) 6 (2) 5 (2) 6 (2)
  Breast enlargement 18 (5) 9 (3) 5 (2) 3 (1)
  Breast neoplasm 8 (2) 7 (2) 5 (2) 7 (2)
  Breast pain 87 (26) 66 (20) 41 (13) 26 (8)
  Cervix disorder 7 (2) 2 (1) 2 (1) 0
  Dysmenorrhea 14 (4) 18 (5) 9 (3) 2 (1)
  Hematuria 4 (1) 3 (1) 1 (0) 2 (1)
  Leukorrhea 7 (2) 14 (4) 9 (3) 6 (2)
  Metrorrhagia 7 (2) 14 (4) 4 (1) 1 (0)
  Urinary tract infection 0 1 (0) 1 (0) 4 (1)
  Uterine spasm 13 (4) 11 (3) 7 (2) 2 (1)
  Vaginal dryness 2 (1) 1 (0) 0 6 (2)
  Vaginal hemorrhage 18 (5) 14 (4) 7 (2) 0
  Vaginal moniliasis 13 (4) 11 (3) 8 (2) 5 (2)
  Vaginitis 6 (2) 8 (2) 7 (2) 1 (0)

The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of PREMPRO or PREMPHASE. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.

Genitourinary System

Abnormal uterine bleeding, dysmenorrhea or pelvic pain, increase in size of uterine leiomyomata, vaginitis, vaginal candidiasis, amenorrhea, changes in cervical secretion, ovarian cancer, endometrial hyperplasia, endometrial cancer.

Breasts

Tenderness, enlargement, pain, nipple discharge, galactorrhea, fibrocystic breast changes, breast cancer.

Cardiovascular

Deep and superficial venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, superficial thrombophlebitis, myocardial infarction, stroke, increase in blood pressure.

Gastrointestinal

Nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, bloating, cholestatic jaundice, increased incidence of gallbladder disease, pancreatitis, changes in appetite, ischemic colitis.

Skin

Chloasma or melasma that may persist when drug is discontinued, erythema multiforme, erythema nodosum, loss of scalp hair, hirsutism, pruritus, urticaria, rash, acne.

Eyes

Retinal vascular thrombosis, intolerance of contact lenses.

Central Nervous System

Headache, migraine, dizziness, mental depression, exacerbation of chorea, mood disturbances, anxiety, irritability, exacerbation of epilepsy, dementia, growth potentiation of benign meningioma.

Miscellaneous

Increase or decrease in weight, arthralgia, glucose intolerance, edema, changes in libido, exacerbation of asthma, increased triglycerides, hypersensitivity.

Additional postmarketing adverse reactions have been reported in patients receiving other forms of hormone therapy.

Data from a single-dose drug-drug interaction study involving conjugated estrogens and medroxyprogesterone acetate indicate that the pharmacokinetic disposition of both drugs is not altered when the drugs are coadministered. No other clinical drug-drug interaction studies have been conducted with CE plus MPA.

In vitro and in vivo studies have shown that estrogens are metabolized partially by cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4). Therefore, inducers or inhibitors of CYP3A4 may affect estrogen drug metabolism. Inducers of CYP3A4, such as St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) preparations, phenobarbital, carbamazepine, and rifampin, may reduce plasma concentrations of estrogens, possibly resulting in a decrease in therapeutic effects and/or changes in the uterine bleeding profile. Inhibitors of CYP3A4, such as erythromycin, clarithromycin, ketoconazole, itraconazole, ritonavir and grapefruit juice, may increase plasma concentrations of estrogens and may result in side effects.

Aminoglutethimide administered concomitantly with MPA may significantly depress the bioavailability of MPA.

PREMPRO and PREMPHASE should not be used during pregnancy [see Contraindications (4)]. There appears to be little or no increased risk of birth defects in children born to women who have used estrogens and progestins as an oral contraceptive inadvertently during early pregnancy.

PREMPRO and PREMPHASE should not be used during lactation. Estrogen administration to nursing women has been shown to decrease the quantity and quality of the breast milk. Detectable amounts of estrogen and progestin have been identified in the breast milk of women receiving these drugs. Caution should be exercised when PREMPRO or PREMPHASE is administered to a nursing woman.

PREMPRO and PREMPHASE are not indicated in children. Clinical studies have not been conducted in the pediatric population.

There have not been sufficient numbers of geriatric women involved in clinical studies utilizing PREMPRO or PREMPHASE to determine whether those over 65 years of age differ from younger subjects in their response to PREMPRO or PREMPHASE.

The Women's Health Initiative Studies

In the WHI estrogen plus progestin substudy (daily CE [0.625 mg] plus MPA [2.5 mg] versus placebo), there was a higher relative risk of nonfatal stroke and invasive breast cancer in women greater than 65 years of age [see Clinical Studies (14.6)].

In the WHI estrogen-alone substudy (daily CE [0.625 mg]-alone versus placebo), there was a higher relative risk of stroke in women greater than 65 years of age [see Clinical Studies (14.6)].

The Women's Health Initiative Memory Study

In the WHIMS ancillary studies of postmenopausal women 65 to 79 years of age, there was an increased risk of developing probable dementia in women receiving estrogen plus progestin or estrogen-alone when compared to placebo [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3), and Clinical Studies (14.7)].

Since both ancillary studies were conducted in women 65 to 79 years of age, it is unknown whether these findings apply to younger postmenopausal women [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3), and Clinical Studies (14.7)].

The effects of renal impairment on the pharmacokinetics of PREMPRO or PREMPHASE have not been studied.

The effects of hepatic impairment on the pharmacokinetics of PREMPRO or PREMPHASE have not been studied.

Overdosage of estrogen plus progestin may cause nausea, vomiting, breast tenderness, abdominal pain, drowsiness and fatigue, and withdrawal bleeding may occur in women. Treatment of overdose consists of discontinuation of PREMPRO or PREMPHASE therapy with institution of appropriate symptomatic care.

Premarin (conjugated estrogens tablets, USP) for oral administration contains a mixture obtained exclusively from natural sources, occurring as the sodium salts of water-soluble estrogen sulfates blended to represent the average composition of material derived from pregnant mares' urine. It is a mixture of sodium estrone sulfate and sodium equilin sulfate. It contains as concomitant components, as sodium sulfate conjugates, 17 α-dihydroequilin, 17 α-estradiol and 17 β-dihydroequilin.

Medroxyprogesterone acetate is a derivative of progesterone. It is a white to off-white, odorless, crystalline powder, stable in air, melting between 200°C and 210°C. It is freely soluble in chloroform, soluble in acetone and in dioxane, sparingly soluble in alcohol and in methanol, slightly soluble in ether, and insoluble in water. The chemical name for MPA is pregn-4-ene-3, 20-dione, 17-(acetyloxy)-6-methyl-, (6α)-. Its molecular formula is CHO, with a molecular weight of 386.53. Its structural formula is:

PREMPRO 0.3 mg/1.5 mg and 0.45 mg/1.5 mg tablets contain the following inactive ingredients: calcium phosphate tribasic, microcrystalline cellulose, carnauba wax, hypromellose, hydroxypropyl cellulose, sucrose, Eudragit NE 30D, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, polyethylene glycol, titanium dioxide, yellow iron oxide, propylene glycol and black iron oxide.

PREMPRO 0.625 mg/2.5 mg tablets contain the following inactive ingredients: calcium phosphate tribasic, microcrystalline cellulose, hypromellose, hydroxypropyl cellulose, sucrose, Eudragit NE 30D, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, polyethylene glycol, povidone, titanium dioxide, red iron oxide, yellow iron oxide, and black iron oxide.

PREMPRO 0.625 mg/5 mg tablets contain the following inactive ingredients: calcium phosphate tribasic, carnauba wax, Eudragit NE 30D, hydroxypropyl cellulose, hypromellose, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, polyethylene glycol, sucrose, titanium dioxide, FD&C Blue No. 2, and black iron oxide.

PREMPHASE

Each maroon Premarin tablets for oral administration contain 0.625 mg of conjugated estrogens and the following inactive ingredients: calcium phosphate tribasic, hydroxypropyl cellulose, microcrystalline cellulose, powdered cellulose, hypromellose, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, polyethylene glycol, sucrose, titanium dioxide, FD&C Blue No. 2, and FD&C Red No. 40. These tablets comply with USP Dissolution Test 5.

Each light-blue tablet for oral administration contains 0.625 mg of conjugated estrogens, 5 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate, and the following inactive ingredients: calcium phosphate tribasic, carnauba wax, Eudragit NE 30D, hydroxypropyl cellulose, hypromellose, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, polyethylene glycol, sucrose, titanium dioxide, FD&C Blue No. 2, and black iron oxide.

PREMPRO

PREMPHASE

Tablet Strength Tablet Color Contains
0.3 mg/1.5 mg Yellow iron oxide and black iron oxide
0.45 mg/1.5 mg Yellow iron oxide and black iron oxide
0.625 mg/2.5 mg Red iron oxide, yellow iron oxide, and black iron oxide
0.625 mg/5 mg FD&C Blue No. 2 and black iron oxide
Tablet Strength Tablet Color Contains
0.625 mg FD&C Blue No. 2 and FD&C Red No. 40
0.625 mg/5 mg FD&C Blue No. 2 and black iron oxide

Endogenous estrogens are largely responsible for the development and maintenance of the female reproductive system and secondary sexual characteristics. Although circulating estrogens exist in a dynamic equilibrium of metabolic interconversions, estradiol is the principal intracellular human estrogen and is substantially more potent than its metabolites, estrone and estriol, at the receptor level.

The primary source of estrogen in normally cycling adult women is the ovarian follicle, which secretes 70 to 500 mcg of estradiol daily, depending on the phase of the menstrual cycle. After menopause, most endogenous estrogen is produced by conversion of androstenedione, which is secreted by the adrenal cortex, to estrone in the peripheral tissues. Thus, estrone and the sulfate-conjugated form, estrone sulfate, are the most abundant circulating estrogens in postmenopausal women.

Estrogens act through binding to nuclear receptors in estrogen-responsive tissues. To date, two estrogen receptors have been identified. These vary in proportion from tissue to tissue.

Circulating estrogens modulate the pituitary secretion of the gonadotropins, luteinizing hormone (LH) and FSH, through a negative feedback mechanism. Estrogens act to reduce the elevated levels of these gonadotropins seen in postmenopausal women.

Parenterally administered medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) inhibits gonadotropin production, which in turn prevents follicular maturation and ovulation; although available data indicate that this does not occur when the usually recommended oral dosage is given as single daily doses. MPA may achieve its beneficial effect on the endometrium in part by decreasing nuclear estrogen receptors and suppression of epithelial DNA synthesis in endometrial tissue. Androgenic and anabolic effects of MPA have been noted, but the drug is apparently devoid of significant estrogenic activity.

Currently, there are no pharmacodynamic data known for PREMPRO or PREMPHASE tablets.

Absorption

PREMPRO and PREMPHASE contain a formulation of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) that is immediately released and conjugated estrogens that are slowly released over several hours. Conjugated estrogens are water-soluble and are well-absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract after release from the drug formulation. MPA is well absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Table 3 and Table 4 summarize the mean pharmacokinetic parameters for select unconjugated and conjugated estrogens and medroxyprogesterone acetate following administration of PREMPRO to healthy, postmenopausal women.

TABLE 3: PHARMACOKINETIC PARAMETERS FOR UNCONJUGATED AND CONJUGATED ESTROGENS (CE) AND MEDROXYPROGESTERONE ACETATE (MPA)
DRUG 2 × 0.625 mg CE/2.5 mg MPA
Combination Tablets
(n = 54)
2 × 0.625 mg CE/5 mg MPA
Combination Tablets
(n = 51)
BA* = Baseline adjusted
C max = peak plasma concentration
t max = time peak concentration occurs
t 1/2 = apparent terminal-phase disposition half-life (0.693/λz)
AUC = total area under the concentration-time curve
PK Parameter
Arithmetic
Mean (%CV)
C max
(pg/mL)
t max
(h)
t 1/2
(h)
AUC
(pg∙h/mL)
C max
(pg/mL)
t max
(h)
t 1/2
(h)
AUC
(pg∙h/mL)
Unconjugated Estrogens
Estrone 175
(23)
7.6
(24)
31.6
(23)
5358
(34)
124
(43)
10
(35)
62.2
(137)
6303
(40)
BA* -Estrone 159
(26)
7.6
(24)
16.9
(34)
3313
(40)
104
(49)
10
(35)
26.0
(100)
3136
(51)
Equilin 71
(31)
5.8
(34)
9.9
(35)
951
(43)
54
(43)
8.9
(34)
15.5
(53)
1179
(56)
PK Parameter
Arithmetic
Mean (%CV)
C max
(ng/mL)
t max
(h)
t 1/2
(h)
AUC
(ng∙h/mL)
C max
(ng/mL)
t max
(h)
t 1/2
(h)
AUC
(ng∙h/mL)
Conjugated Estrogens
Total Estrone 6.6
(38)
6.1
(28)
20.7
(34)
116
(59)
6.3
(48)
9.1
(29)
23.6
(36)
151
(42)
BA* -Total Estrone 6.4
(39)
6.1
(28)
15.4
(34)
100
(57)
6.2
(48)
9.1
(29)
20.6
(35)
139
(40)
Total Equilin 5.1
(45)
4.6
(35)
11.4
(25)
50
(70)
4.2
(52)
7.0
(36)
17.2
(131)
72
(50)
PK Parameter
Arithmetic Mean
(%CV)
C max
(ng/mL)
t max
(h)
t 1/2
(h)
AUC
(ng∙h/mL)
C max
(ng/mL)
t max
(h)
t 1/2
(h)
AUC
(ng∙h/mL)
Medroxyprogesterone Acetate
MPA 1.5
(40)
2.8
(54)
37.6
(30)
37
(30)
4.8
(31)
2.4
(50)
46.3
(39)
102
(28)
TABLE 4. PHARMACOKINETIC PARAMETERS FOR UNCONJUGATED AND CONJUGATED ESTROGENS (CE) AND MEDROXYPROGESTERONE ACETATE (MPA)
DRUG 4 × 0.45 mg CE/1.5 mg MPA Combination
(n = 65)
BA* = Baseline adjusted
C max = peak plasma concentration
t max = time peak concentration occurs
t 1/2 = apparent terminal-phase disposition half-life (0.693/λz)
AUC = total area under the concentration-time curve
PK Parameter
Arithmetic Mean (%CV)
C max
(pg/mL)
t max
(h)
t 1/2
(h)
AUC
(pg∙h/mL)
Unconjugated Estrogens
Estrone 149
(35)
8.9
(35)
37.5
(35)
6641
(39)
BA* -Estrone 130
(40)
8.9
(35)
21.2
(35)
3799
(47)
Equilin 83
(38)
8.3
(48)
15.9
(44)
1889
(40)
PK Parameter
Arithmetic Mean (%CV)
C max
(ng/mL)
t max
(h)
t 1/2
(h)
AUC
(ng∙h/mL)
Conjugated Estrogens
Total Estrone 5.4
(49)
7.9
(48)
22.4
(53)
119
(48)
BA* -Total Estrone 5.2
(48)
7.9
(48)
15.1
(29)
100
(47)
Total Equilin 4.3
(42)
6.5
(45)
11.6
(31)
74
(48)
PK Parameter
Arithmetic Mean (%CV)
C max
(ng/mL)
t max
(h)
t 1/2
(h)
AUC
(ng∙h/mL)
Medroxyprogesterone Acetate
MPA 0.7
(66)
2.0
(52)
26.2
(35)
5.0
(61)

Food-Effect: Single dose studies in healthy, postmenopausal women were conducted to investigate any potential drug interaction when PREMPRO or PREMPHASE is administered with a high-fat breakfast. Administration with food decreased the C of total estrone by 18 to 34 percent and increased total equilin C by 38 percent compared to the fasting state, with no other effect on the rate or extent of absorption of other conjugated or unconjugated estrogens. Administration with food approximately doubles MPA C and increases MPA AUC by approximately 20 to 30 percent.

Dose Proportionality: The C and AUC values for MPA observed in two separate pharmacokinetic studies conducted with 2 PREMPRO 0.625 mg/2.5 mg or 2 PREMPRO or PREMPHASE 0.625 mg/5 mg tablets exhibited nonlinear dose proportionality; doubling the MPA dose from 2 × 2.5 to 2 × 5 mg increased the mean C and AUC by 3.2- and 2.8-fold, respectively.

The dose proportionality of estrogens and medroxyprogesterone acetate was assessed by combining pharmacokinetic data across another two studies totaling 61 healthy, postmenopausal women. Single conjugated estrogens doses of 2 × 0.3 mg, 2 × 0.45 mg, or 2 × 0.625 mg were administered either alone or in combination with medroxyprogesterone acetate doses of 2 × 1.5 mg or 2 × 2.5 mg. Most of the estrogen components demonstrated dose proportionality; however, several estrogen components did not. Medroxyprogesterone acetate pharmacokinetic parameters increased in a dose-proportional manner.

Distribution

The distribution of exogenous estrogens is similar to that of endogenous estrogens. Estrogens are widely distributed in the body and are generally found in higher concentrations in the sex hormone target organs. Estrogens circulate in the blood largely bound to SHBG and albumin. MPA is approximately 90 percent bound to plasma proteins, but does not bind to SHBG.

Metabolism

Exogenous estrogens are metabolized in the same manner as endogenous estrogens. Circulating estrogens exist in a dynamic equilibrium of metabolic interconversions. These transformations take place mainly in the liver. Estradiol is converted reversibly to estrone, and both can be converted to estriol, which is a major urinary metabolite. Estrogens also undergo enterohepatic recirculation via sulfate and glucuronide conjugation in the liver, biliary secretion of conjugates into the intestine, and hydrolysis in the intestine followed by reabsorption. In postmenopausal women, a significant portion of the circulating estrogens exists as sulfate conjugates, especially estrone sulfate, which serves as a circulating reservoir for the formation of more active estrogens. Metabolism and elimination of MPA occur primarily in the liver via hydroxylation, with subsequent conjugation and elimination in the urine.

Excretion

Estradiol, estrone, and estriol are excreted in the urine along with glucuronide and sulfate conjugates. Most metabolites of MPA are excreted as glucuronide conjugates, with only minor amounts excreted as sulfates.

Use in Specific Populations

No pharmacokinetic studies were conducted in specific populations, including patients with renal or hepatic impairment.

Long-term continuous administration of natural and synthetic estrogens in certain animal species increases the frequency of carcinomas of the breasts, uterus, cervix, vagina, testis, and liver.

In the first year of the Health and Osteoporosis, Progestin and Estrogen (HOPE) Study, a total of 2,805 postmenopausal women (average age 53.3 ± 4.9 years) were randomly assigned to one of eight treatment groups of either placebo or conjugated estrogens, with or without medroxyprogesterone acetate. Efficacy for vasomotor symptoms was assessed during the first 12 weeks of treatment in a subset of symptomatic women (n = 241) who had at least seven moderate to severe hot flushes daily, or at least 50 moderate to severe hot flushes during the week before randomization. With PREMPRO 0.625 mg/2.5 mg, 0.45 mg/1.5 mg, and 0.3 mg/1.5 mg, the relief of both the frequency and severity of moderate to severe vasomotor symptoms was shown to be statistically improved compared to placebo at weeks 4 and 12. Table 5 shows the adjusted mean number of hot flushes in the PREMPRO 0.625 mg/2.5 mg, 0.45 mg/1.5 mg, 0.3 mg/1.5 mg, and placebo groups during the initial 12-week period.

TABLE 5: SUMMARY TABULATION OF THE NUMBER OF HOT FLUSHES PER DAY – MEAN VALUES AND COMPARISONS BETWEEN THE ACTIVE TREATMENT GROUPS AND THE PLACEBO GROUP – PATIENTS WITH AT LEAST 7 MODERATE TO SEVERE FLUSHES PER DAY OR AT LEAST 50 PER WEEK AT BASELINE, LAST OBSERVATION CARRIED FORWARD (LOCF)
TreatmentIdentified by dosage (mg) of Premarin/MPA or placebo.
(No. of Patients)

-------------------No. of Hot Flushes/Day-----------------
Time Period
(week)
Baseline
Mean ± SD
Observed
Mean ± SD
Mean
Change ± SD
p-Values
vs. PlaceboThere were no statistically significant differences between the 0.625 mg/2.5 mg, 0.45 mg/1.5 mg, and 0.3 mg/1.5 mg groups at any time period.
0.625 mg/2.5 mg
(n = 34)
4 11.98 ± 3.54 3.19 ± 3.74 -8.78 ± 4.72 <0.001
12 11.98 ± 3.54 1.16 ± 2.22 -10.82 ± 4.61 <0.001
0.45 mg/1.5 mg
(n = 29)
4 12.61 ± 4.29 3.64 ± 3.61 -8.98 ± 4.74 <0.001
12 12.61 ± 4.29 1.69 ± 3.36 -10.92 ± 4.63 <0.001
0.3 mg/1.5 mg
(n = 33)
4 11.30 ± 3.13 3.70 ± 3.29 -7.60 ± 4.71 <0.001
12 11.30 ± 3.13 1.31 ± 2.82 -10.00 ± 4.60 <0.001
Placebo
(n = 28)
4 11.69 ± 3.87 7.89 ± 5.28 -3.80 ± 4.71 -
12 11.69 ± 3.87 5.71 ± 5.22 -5.98 ± 4.60 -

Results of vaginal maturation indexes at cycles 6 and 13 showed that the differences from placebo were statistically significant (p < 0.001) for all treatment groups.

In a 1-year clinical trial of 1,376 women (average age 54 ± 4.6 years) randomized to PREMPRO 0.625 mg/2.5 mg (n = 340), PREMPRO 0.625 mg/5 mg (n = 338), PREMPHASE 0.625 mg/5 mg (n = 351), or Premarin 0.625 mg alone (n = 347), results of evaluable biopsies at 12 months (n = 279, 274, 277, and 283, respectively) showed a reduced risk of endometrial hyperplasia in the two PREMPRO treatment groups (less than 1 percent) and in the PREMPHASE treatment group (less than 1 percent; 1 percent when focal hyperplasia was included) compared to the Premarin group (8 percent; 20 percent when focal hyperplasia was included), see Table 6.

In the first year of the Health and Osteoporosis, Progestin and Estrogen (HOPE) Study, 2,001 women (average age 53.3 ± 4.9 years), of whom 88 percent were Caucasian, were treated with either Premarin 0.625 mg alone (n = 348), Premarin 0.45 mg alone (n = 338), Premarin 0.3 mg alone (n = 326) or PREMPRO 0.625 mg/2.5 mg (n = 331), PREMPRO 0.45 mg/1.5 mg (n = 331) or PREMPRO 0.3 mg/1.5 mg (n = 327). Results of evaluable endometrial biopsies at 12 months showed a reduced risk of endometrial hyperplasia or cancer in the PREMPRO treatment groups compared with the corresponding Premarin alone treatment groups, except for the PREMPRO 0.3 mg/1.5 mg and Premarin 0.3 mg alone groups, in each of which there was only 1 case, see Table 7.

No endometrial hyperplasia or cancer was noted in those patients treated with the continuous combined regimens who continued for a second year in the osteoporosis and metabolic substudy of the HOPE study, see Table 8.

TABLE 6: INCIDENCE OF ENDOMETRIAL HYPERPLASIA AFTER ONE YEAR OF TREATMENT
--------------------------Groups-------------------------
PREMPRO PREMPRO PREMPHASE Premarin
0.625 mg/2.5 mg 0.625 mg/5 mg 0.625 mg/5 mg 0.625 mg
Total number of patients 340 338 351 347
Number of patients with evaluable biopsies 279 274 277 283
No. (%) of patients with biopsies:
• All focal and non-focal hyperplasia 2 (<1)Significant (p < 0.001) in comparison with Premarin (0.625 mg) alone. 0 (0) 3 (1) 57 (20)
• Excluding focal cystic hyperplasia 2 (<1) 0 (0) 1 (<1) 25 (8)
TABLE 7: INCIDENCE OF ENDOMETRIAL HYPERPLASIA/CANCERAll cases of hyperplasia/cancer were endometrial hyperplasia, except for 1 patient in the Premarin 0.3 mg group diagnosed with endometrial cancer based on endometrial biopsy and 1 patient in the Premarin/MPA 0.45 mg/1.5 mg group diagnosed with endometrial cancer based on endometrial biopsy. AFTER ONE YEAR OF TREATMENTTwo (2) primary pathologists evaluated each endometrial biopsy. Where there was lack of agreement on the presence or absence of hyperplasia/cancer between the two, a third pathologist adjudicated (consensus).
-----------------------------------Groups---------------------------------
Patient Prempro
0.625 mg/2.5 mg
Premarin
0.625 mg
Prempro
0.45 mg/1.5 mg
Premarin
0.45 mg
Prempro
0.3 mg/1.5 mg
Premarin
0.3 mg
Total number of patients 331 348 331 338 327 326
Number of patients with evaluable biopsies 278 249 272 279 271 269
No. (%) of patients with biopsies:
• Hyperplasia/cancer
(consensusFor an endometrial biopsy to be counted as consensus endometrial hyperplasia or cancer, at least 2 pathologists had to agree on the diagnosis.)
0 (0)Significant (p < 0.05) in comparison with corresponding dose of Premarin alone. 20 (8) 1 (<1) , 9 (3) 1 (<1)Non-significant in comparison with corresponding dose of Premarin alone. 1 (<1)
TABLE 8: OSTEOPOROSIS AND METABOLIC SUBSTUDY, INCIDENCE OF ENDOMETRIAL HYPERPLASIA/CANCERAll cases of hyperplasia/cancer were endometrial hyperplasia in patients who continued for a second year in the osteoporosis and metabolic substudy of the HOPE study. AFTER TWO YEARS OF TREATMENTTwo (2) primary pathologists evaluated each endometrial biopsy. Where there was lack of agreement on the presence or absence of hyperplasia/cancer between the two, a third pathologist adjudicated (consensus).
-------------------------------Groups------------------------------
Patient Prempro
0.625 mg/2.5 mg
Premarin
0.625 mg
Prempro
0.45 mg/1.5 mg
Premarin
0.45 mg
Prempro
0.3 mg/1.5 mg
Premarin
0.3 mg
Total number of patients 75 65 75 74 79 73
Number of patients with evaluable biopsies 62 55 69 67 75 63
No. (%) of patients with biopsies:
• Hyperplasia/cancer
(consensusFor an endometrial biopsy to be counted as consensus endometrial hyperplasia or cancer, at least 2 pathologists had to agree on the diagnosis.)
0 (0)Significant (p < 0.05) in comparison with corresponding dose of Premarin alone. 15 (27) 0 (0) 10 (15) 0 (0) 2 (3)

The effects of PREMPRO on uterine bleeding or spotting, as recorded on daily diary cards, were evaluated in 2 clinical trials. Results are shown in Figures 1 and 2.

Note: The percentage of patients who were amenorrheic in a given cycle and through cycle 13 is shown. If data were missing, the bleeding value from the last reported day was carried forward (LOCF).

Note: The percentage of patients who were amenorrheic in a given cycle and through cycle 13 is shown. If data were missing, the bleeding value from the last reported day was carried forward (LOCF).

Health and Osteoporosis, Progestin and Estrogen (HOPE) Study

The HOPE study was a double-blind, randomized, placebo/active-drug-controlled, multicenter study of healthy postmenopausal women with an intact uterus. Subjects (mean age 53.3 ± 4.9 years) were 2.3 ± 0.9 years on average since menopause and took one 600 mg tablet of elemental calcium (Caltrate™) daily. Subjects were not given Vitamin D supplements. They were treated with PREMPRO 0.625 mg/2.5 mg, 0.45 mg/1.5 mg or 0.3 mg/1.5 mg, comparable doses of Premarin alone, or placebo. Prevention of bone loss was assessed by measurement of bone mineral density (BMD), primarily at the anteroposterior lumbar spine (L to L). Secondarily, BMD measurements of the total body, femoral neck, and trochanter were also analyzed. Serum osteocalcin, urinary calcium, and N-telopeptide were used as bone turnover markers (BTM) at cycles 6, 13, 19, and 26.

Intent-to-treat subjects

All active treatment groups showed significant differences from placebo in each of the four BMD endpoints. These significant differences were seen at cycles 6, 13, 19, and 26.

The percent changes from baseline to final evaluation are shown in Table 9.

Figure 3 shows the cumulative percentage of subjects with percent changes from baseline in spine BMD equal to or greater than the percent change shown on the x-axis.

The mean percent changes from baseline in L to L BMD for women who completed the bone density study are shown with standard error bars by treatment group in Figure 4. Significant differences between each of the PREMPRO dosage groups and placebo were found at cycles 6, 13, 19, and 26.

The bone turnover markers, serum osteocalcin and urinary N-telopeptide, significantly decreased (p < 0.001) in all active-treatment groups at cycles 6, 13, 19, and 26 compared with the placebo group. Larger mean decreases from baseline were seen with the active groups than with the placebo group. Significant differences from placebo were seen less frequently in urine calcium; only with PREMPRO 0.625 mg/2.5 mg and 0.45 mg/1.5 mg were there significantly larger mean decreases than with placebo at 3 or more of the 4 time points.

TABLE 9: PERCENT CHANGE IN BONE MINERAL DENSITY: COMPARISON BETWEEN ACTIVE AND PLACEBO GROUPS IN THE INTENT-TO-TREAT POPULATION, LOCF
Region Evaluated Treatment GroupIdentified by dosage (mg/mg) of Premarin/MPA or placebo. No. of Subjects Baseline
(g/cm2)
Mean ± SD
Change from
Baseline (%) Adjusted
Mean ± SE
p-Value
vs.
Placebo
L2 to L4 BMD
  0.625/2.5 81 1.14 ± 0.16 3.28 ± 0.37 <0.001
  0.45/1.5 89 1.16 ± 0.14 2.18 ± 0.35 <0.001
  0.3/1.5 90 1.14 ± 0.15 1.71 ± 0.35 <0.001
  Placebo 85 1.14 ± 0.14 -2.45 ± 0.36
Total body BMD
  0.625/2.5 81 1.14 ± 0.08 0.87 ± 0.17 <0.001
  0.45/1.5 89 1.14 ± 0.07 0.59 ± 0.17 <0.001
  0.3/1.5 91 1.13 ± 0.08 0.60 ± 0.16 <0.001
  Placebo 85 1.13 ± 0.08 -1.50 ± 0.17
Femoral neck BMD
  0.625/2.5 81 0.89 ± 0.14 1.62 ± 0.46 <0.001
  0.45/1.5 89 0.89 ± 0.12 1.48 ± 0.44 <0.001
  0.3/1.5 91 0.86 ± 0.11 1.31 ± 0.43 <0.001
  Placebo 85 0.88 ± 0.14 -1.72 ± 0.45
Femoral trochanter BMD
  0.625/2.5 81 0.77 ± 0.14 3.35 ± 0.59 0.002
  0.45/1.5 89 0.76 ± 0.12 2.84 ± 0.57 0.011
  0.3/1.5 91 0.76 ± 0.12 3.93 ± 0.56 <0.001
  Placebo 85 0.75 ± 0.12 0.81 ± 0.58

The WHI enrolled approximately 27,000 predominantly healthy postmenopausal women in two substudies to assess the risks and benefits of daily oral CE (0.625 mg)-alone or in combination with MPA (2.5 mg) compared to placebo in the prevention of certain chronic diseases. The primary endpoint was the incidence of CHD (defined as nonfatal MI, silent MI and CHD death), with invasive breast cancer as the primary adverse outcome. A "global index" included the earliest occurrence of CHD, invasive breast cancer, stroke, PE, endometrial cancer (only in the CE plus MPA substudy), colorectal cancer, hip fracture, or death due to other causes. These substudies did not evaluate the effects of CE plus MPA or CE-alone on menopausal symptoms.

WHI Estrogen Plus Progestin Substudy

The WHI estrogen plus progestin substudy was stopped early. According to the predefined stopping rule, after an average follow-up of 5.6 years of treatment, the increased risk of invasive breast cancer and cardiovascular events exceeded the specified benefits included in the "global index." The absolute excess risk of events included in the "global index" was 19 per 10,000 women-years.

For those outcomes included in the WHI "global index" that reached statistical significance after 5.6 years of follow-up, the absolute excess risks per 10,000 women-years in the group treated with CE plus MPA were 7 more CHD events, 8 more strokes, 10 more PEs, and 8 more invasive breast cancers, while the absolute risk reductions per 10,000 women-years were 6 fewer colorectal cancers and 5 fewer hip fractures.

Results of the CE plus MPA substudy, which included 16,608 women (average 63 years of age, range 50 to 79; 83.9 percent White, 6.8 percent Black, 5.4 percent Hispanic, 3.9 percent Other) are presented in Table 10. These results reflect centrally adjudicated data after an average follow-up of 5.6 years.

Timing of the initiation of estrogen plus progestin therapy relative to the start of menopause may affect the overall risk benefit profile. The WHI estrogen plus progestin substudy stratified by age showed in women 50 to 59 years of age, a non-significant trend toward reduced risk for overall mortality [hazard ratio (HR) 0.69 (95 percent CI, 0.44–1.07)].

TABLE 10: Relative and Absolute Risk Seen in the Estrogen Plus Progestin Substudy of WHI at an Average of 5.6 YearsAdapted from numerous WHI publications. WHI publications can be viewed at www.nhlbi.nih.gov/whi. , Results are based on centrally adjudicated data.
Relative Risk
CE/MPA vs. Placebo
(95% nCINominal confidence intervals unadjusted for multiple looks and multiple comparisons.)

CE/MPA
n = 8,506

Placebo
n = 8,102
Event Absolute Risk per 10,000
Women-Years
CHD events 1.23 (0.99–1.53) 41 34
Non-fatal MI 1.28 (1.00–1.63) 31 25
CHD death 1.10 (0.70–1.75) 8 8
All Strokes 1.31 (1.03–1.68) 33 25
Ischemic stroke 1.44 (1.09–1.90) 26 18
Deep vein thrombosisNot included in "global index." 1.95 (1.43–2.67) 26 13
Pulmonary embolism 2.13 (1.45–3.11) 18 8
Invasive breast cancerIncludes metastatic and non-metastatic breast cancer, with the exception of in situ breast cancer. 1.24 (1.01–1.54) 41 33
Colorectal cancer 0.61 (0.42–0.87) 10 16
Endometrial cancer 0.81 (0.48–1.36) 6 7
Cervical cancer 1.44 (0.47–4.42) 2 1
Hip fracture 0.67 (0.47–0.96) 11 16
Vertebral fractures 0.65 (0.46–0.92) 11 17
Lower arm/wrist fractures 0.71 (0.59–0.85) 44 62
Total fractures 0.76 (0.69–0.83) 152 199
Overall MortalityAll deaths, except from breast or colorectal cancer, definite or probable CHD, PE or cerebrovascular disease. 1.00 (0.83–1.19) 52 52
Global IndexA subset of the events was combined in a "global index" defined as the earliest occurrence of CHD events, invasive breast cancer, stroke, pulmonary embolism, colorectal cancer, hip fracture, or death due to other causes. 1.13 (1.02–1.25) 184 165

WHI Estrogen-Alone Substudy

The WHI estrogen-alone substudy was stopped early because an increased risk of stroke was observed, and it was deemed that no further information would be obtained regarding the risks and benefits of estrogen-alone in predetermined primary endpoints.

Results of the estrogen-alone substudy, which included 10,739 women (average 63 years of age, range 50 to 79; 75.3 percent White, 15.1 percent Black, 6.1 percent Hispanic, 3.6 percent Other) after an average follow-up of 7.1 years, are presented in Table 11.

For those outcomes included in the WHI "global index" that reached statistical significance, the absolute excess risk per 10,000 women-years in the group treated with CE-alone was 12 more strokes while the absolute risk reduction per 10,000 women-years was 7 fewer hip fractures. The absolute excess risk of events included in the "global index" was a non-significant 5 events per 10,000 women-years. There was no difference between the groups in terms of all-cause mortality.

No overall difference for primary CHD events (nonfatal MI, silent MI and CHD death) and invasive breast cancer incidence in women receiving CE-alone compared with placebo was reported in final centrally adjudicated results from the estrogen-alone substudy, after an average follow up of 7.1 years.

Centrally adjudicated results for stroke events from the estrogen-alone substudy, after an average follow-up of 7.1 years, reported no significant difference in distribution of stroke subtype or severity, including fatal strokes, in women receiving CE-alone compared to placebo. Estrogen-alone increased the risk for ischemic stroke, and this excess risk was present in all subgroups of women examined.

Timing of the initiation of estrogen-alone therapy relative to the start of menopause may affect the overall risk benefit profile. The WHI estrogen-alone substudy, stratified by age, showed in women 50 to 59 years of age a non-significant trend toward reduced risk for CHD [HR 0.63 (95 percent CI, 0.36–1.09)] and overall mortality [HR 0.71 (95 percent CI, 0.46–1.11)].

Table 11: Relative and Absolute Risk Seen in the Estrogen-Alone Substudy of WHIAdapted from numerous WHI publications. WHI publications can be viewed at www.nhlbi.nih.gov/whi.
Relative Risk
CE vs. Placebo
(95% nCINominal confidence intervals unadjusted for multiple looks and multiple comparisons.)

CE
n = 5,310

Placebo
n = 5,429
Event Absolute Risk per 10,000
Women-Years
CHD eventsResults are based on centrally adjudicated data for an average follow-up of 7.1 years. 0.95 (0.78–1.16) 54 57
Non-fatal MI 0.91 (0.73–1.14) 40 43
CHD death 1.01 (0.71–1.43) 16 16
All Strokes 1.33 (1.05–1.68) 45 33
Ischemic stroke 1.55 (1.19–2.01) 38 25
Deep vein thrombosis , Not included in "global index." 1.47 (1.06–2.06) 23 15
Pulmonary embolism 1.37 (0.90–2.07) 14 10
Invasive breast cancer 0.80 (0.62–1.04) 28 34
Colorectal cancerResults are based on an average follow-up of 6.8 years. 1.08 (0.75–1.55) 17 16
Hip fracture 0.65 (0.45–0.94) 12 19
Vertebral fractures , 0.64 (0.44–0.93) 11 18
Lower arm/wrist fractures , 0.58 (0.47–0.72) 35 59
Total fractures , 0.71 (0.64–0.80) 144 197
Death due to other causes , All deaths, except from breast or colorectal cancer, definite or probable CHD, PE or cerebrovascular disease. 1.08 (0.88–1.32) 53 50
Overall mortality , 1.04 (0.88–1.22) 79 75
Global IndexA subset of the events was combined in a "global index" defined as the earliest occurrence of CHD events, invasive breast cancer, stroke, pulmonary embolism, colorectal cancer, hip fracture, or death due to other causes. 1.02 (0.92–1.13) 206 201

The WHIMS estrogen plus progestin ancillary study of WHI enrolled 4,532 predominantly healthy postmenopausal women 65 years of age and older (47 percent were 65 to 69 years of age; 35 percent were 70 to 74 years of age; and 18 percent were 75 years of age and older) to evaluate the effects of daily CE (0.625 mg) plus MPA (2.5 mg) on the incidence of probable dementia (primary outcome) compared to placebo.

After an average follow-up of 4 years, the relative risk of probable dementia for CE plus MPA versus placebo was 2.05 (95 percent CI, 1.21–3.48). The absolute risk of probable dementia for CE plus MPA versus placebo was 45 versus 22 cases per 10,000 women-years. Probable dementia as defined in this study included Alzheimer's disease (AD), vascular dementia (VaD) and mixed types (having features of both AD and VaD). The most common classification of probable dementia in the treatment group and the placebo group was AD. Since the ancillary study was conducted in women 65 to 79 years of age, it is unknown whether these findings apply to younger postmenopausal women [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3), and Use in Specific Populations (8.5)].

The WHIMS estrogen-alone ancillary study of WHI enrolled 2,947 predominantly healthy hysterectomized postmenopausal women 65 to 79 years of age and older (45 percent were 65 to 69 years of age; 36 percent were 70 to 74 years of age; 19 percent were 75 years of age and older) to evaluate the effects of daily CE (0.625 mg)-alone on the incidence of probable dementia (primary outcome) compared to placebo.

After an average follow-up of 5.2 years, the relative risk of probable dementia for CE-alone versus placebo was 1.49 (95 percent CI, 0.83–2.66). The absolute risk of probable dementia for CE-alone versus placebo was 37 versus 25 cases per 10,000 women-years. Probable dementia as defined in this study included AD, VaD and mixed types (having features of both AD and VaD). The most common classification of probable dementia in the treatment group and the placebo group was AD. Since the ancillary study was conducted in women 65 to 79 years of age, it is unknown whether these findings apply to younger postmenopausal women [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3), and Use in Specific Populations (8.5)].

When data from the two populations were pooled as planned in the WHIMS protocol, the reported overall relative risk for probable dementia was 1.76 (95 percent CI, 1.19–2.60). Differences between groups became apparent in the first year of treatment. It is unknown whether these findings apply to younger postmenopausal women [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3), and Use in Specific Populations (8.5)].

PREMPRO therapy consists of a single tablet to be taken once daily.

PREMPRO 0.625 mg/2.5 mg

NDC 0046-1107-11, carton includes 1 blister card containing 28 oval, peach tablets.

NDC 69189-1107-1 single dose pack with 1 tablet as repackaged by Avera McKennan Hospital

The appearance of PREMPRO tablets is a trademark of Pfizer Inc.

The appearance of PREMARIN tablets is a trademark of Pfizer Inc. The appearance of the conjugated estrogens/medroxyprogesterone acetate combination tablets is a trademark.

Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F); excursions permitted to 15° to 30°C (59° to 86°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature].

See FDA-Approved Patient Labeling.

Inform postmenopausal women of the importance of reporting abnormal vaginal bleeding to their healthcare provider as soon as possible [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].

Inform postmenopausal women of possible serious adverse reactions of estrogen plus progestin therapy including Cardiovascular Disorders, Malignant Neoplasms, and Probable Dementia [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1, 5.2, 5.3)].

Inform postmenopausal women of possible less serious but common adverse reactions of estrogen plus progestin therapy such as headache, breast pain and tenderness, nausea and vomiting.

LAB-0502-6.0

This product's label may have been updated. For current package insert and further product information, please visit www.pfizer.com.

PREMPRO (Conjugated Estrogens/Medroxyprogesterone Acetate Tablets)PREMPHASE (Conjugated Estrogens plus Medroxyprogesterone Acetate Tablets)

Read this PATIENT INFORMATION before you start taking PREMPRO or PREMPHASE and read what you get each time you refill your PREMPRO or PREMPHASE prescription. There may be new information. This information does not take the place of talking to your healthcare provider about your medical condition or your treatment.

What is PREMPRO or PREMPHASE?

PREMPRO or PREMPHASE are medicines that contain two kinds of hormones, estrogens and a progestin.

What is PREMPRO or PREMPHASE used for?

PREMPRO or PREMPHASE is used after menopause to:

Who should not take PREMPRO or PREMPHASE?

Do not take PREMPRO or PREMPHASE if you have had your uterus (womb) removed (hysterectomy).

PREMPRO and PREMPHASE contain a progestin to decrease the chance of getting cancer of the uterus. If you do not have a uterus, you do not need a progestin and you should not take PREMPRO or PREMPHASE.

Do not take PREMPRO or PREMPHASE if you:

Tell your healthcare provider

How should I take PREMPRO or PREMPHASE?

What are the possible side effects of PREMPRO or PREMPHASE?

Side effects are grouped by how serious they are and how often they happen when you are treated.

Serious, but less common side effects include:

Call your healthcare provider right away if you get any of the following warning signs or any other unusual symptoms that concern you:

Less serious, but common side effects include:

These are not all the possible side effects of PREMPRO or PREMPHASE. For more information, ask your healthcare provider or pharmacist for advice about side effects. You may report side effects to Pfizer Inc. at 1-800-438-1985 or to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

What can I do to lower my chances of getting a serious side effect with PREMPRO or PREMPHASE?

General Information about the safe and effective use of PREMPRO and PREMPHASE

Medicines are sometimes prescribed for conditions that are not mentioned in patient information leaflets. Do not take PREMPRO or PREMPHASE for conditions for which it was not prescribed. Do not give PREMPRO or PREMPHASE to other people, even if they have the same symptoms you have. It may harm them.

Keep PREMPRO and PREMPHASE out of the reach of children.

This leaflet provides a summary of the most important information about PREMPRO and PREMPHASE. If you would like more information, talk with your healthcare provider or pharmacist. You can ask for information about PREMPRO and PREMPHASE that is written for health professionals.

What are the ingredients in PREMPRO and PREMPHASE?

PREMPRO contains the same conjugated estrogens found in Premarin, which are a mixture of sodium estrone sulfate and sodium equilin sulfate and other components, including sodium sulfate conjugates, 17α-dihydroequilin, 17α-estradiol and 17β-dihydroequilin. PREMPRO also contains either 1.5, 2.5, or 5 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate.

PREMPRO 0.3 mg/1.5 mg and 0.45 mg/1.5 mg tablets also contain calcium phosphate tribasic, microcrystalline cellulose, lactose monohydrate, carnauba wax, hypromellose, magnesium stearate, polyethylene glycol, sucrose, hydroxypropyl cellulose, Eudragit NE 30D, titanium dioxide, yellow iron oxide, propylene glycol and black iron oxide.

PREMPRO 0.625 mg/2.5 mg tablets also contain calcium phosphate tribasic, microcrystalline cellulose, lactose monohydrate, hypromellose, magnesium stearate, polyethylene glycol, sucrose, hydroxypropyl cellulose, Eudragit NE 30D, povidone, titanium dioxide, red iron oxide, yellow iron oxide, and black iron oxide.

PREMPRO 0.625 mg/5 mg tablets also contain calcium phosphate tribasic, carnauba wax, Eudragit NE 30D, hydroxypropyl cellulose, hypromellose, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, polyethylene glycol, sucrose, titanium dioxide, FD&C Blue No. 2, and black iron oxide.

PREMPHASE is two separate tablets. One tablet (maroon color) is 0.625 mg of Premarin, which is a mixture of sodium estrone sulfate and sodium equilin sulfate and other components, including sodium sulfate conjugates, 17 α-dihydroequilin, 17 α-estradiol and 17 β-dihydroequilin. The maroon tablet also contains calcium phosphate tribasic, hydroxypropyl cellulose, microcrystalline cellulose, powdered cellulose, hypromellose, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, polyethylene glycol, sucrose, titanium dioxide, FD&C Blue No. 2, FD&C Red No. 40. The second tablet (light-blue color) contains 0.625 mg of the same ingredients as the maroon color tablet plus 5 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate. The light-blue tablet also contains calcium phosphate tribasic, carnauba wax, Eudragit NE 30D, hydroxypropyl cellulose, hypromellose, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, polyethylene glycol, sucrose, titanium dioxide, FD&C Blue No. 2, and black iron oxide.

PREMPRO therapy consists of a single tablet to be taken once daily.

PREMPRO 0.3 mg/1.5 mg

Blister Card - Each carton includes 1 blister card containing 28 oval, cream tablets. Each tablet contains 0.3 mg of the conjugated estrogens found in Premarin tablets and 1.5 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate for oral administration.

PREMPRO 0.45 mg/1.5 mg

Blister Card - Each carton includes 1 blister card containing 28 oval, gold tablets. Each tablet contains 0.45 mg of the conjugated estrogens found in Premarin tablets and 1.5 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate for oral administration.

PREMPRO 0.625 mg/2.5 mg

Blister Card - Each carton includes 1 blister card containing 28 oval, peach tablets. Each tablet contains 0.625 mg of the conjugated estrogens found in Premarin tablets and 2.5 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate for oral administration.

PREMPRO 0.625 mg/5 mg

Blister Card - Each carton includes 1 blister card containing 28 oval, light-blue tablets. Each tablet contains 0.625 mg of the conjugated estrogens found in Premarin tablets and 5 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate for oral administration.

PREMPHASE therapy consists of two separate tablets; one maroon Premarin tablet taken daily on days 1 through 14 and one light-blue tablet taken on days 15 through 28.

Each carton includes 1 blister pack containing 28 tablets. One blister pack contains 14 oval, maroon Premarin tablets containing 0.625 mg of conjugated estrogens and 14 oval, light-blue tablets that contain 0.625 mg of the conjugated estrogens found in Premarin tablets and 5 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate for oral administration.

The appearance of PREMPRO tablets is a trademark of Pfizer Inc.

The appearance of PREMARIN tablets is a trademark of Pfizer Inc. The appearance of the conjugated estrogens/medroxyprogesterone acetate combination tablets is a trademark.

Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F); excursions permitted to 15° to 30°C (59° to 86°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature].

LAB-0504-7.0March 2015

What is the most important information I should know about PREMPRO and PREMPHASE (combinations of estrogens and a progestin)? Do not use estrogens with progestins to prevent heart disease, heart attacks, strokes, or dementia (decline of brain function) Using estrogens with progestins may increase your chances of getting heart attacks, strokes, breast cancer, or blood clots Using estrogens with progestins may increase your chance of getting dementia, based on a study of women 65 years of age or older Do not use estrogen-alone to prevent heart disease, heart attacks, strokes or dementia Using estrogen-alone may increase your chance of getting cancer of the uterus (womb) Using estrogen-alone may increase your chances of getting strokes or blood clots Using estrogen-alone may increase your chance of getting dementia, based on a study of women 65 years of age or older You and your healthcare provider should talk regularly about whether you still need treatment with PREMPRO or PREMPHASE
This product's label may have been updated. For current package insert and further product information, please visit www.pfizer.com.

Manufacturer

Avera McKennan Hospital

Active Ingredients

Source

Drugs and Medications [5 Associated Drugs and Medications listed on BioPortfolio]

Prempro [a-s medication solutions]

These highlights do not include all the information needed to use PREMPRO/PREMPHASE safely and effectively. See full prescribing information for PREMPRO/PREMPHASE. PREMPRO (conjugated estrogens/medrox...

Premphase [wyeth pharmaceuticals llc, a subsidiary of pfizer inc.]

These highlights do not include all the information needed to use PREMPRO/PREMPHASE safely and effectively. See full prescribing information for PREMPRO/PREMPHASE. PREMPRO (conjugated estrogens/medrox...

Prempro [dispensing solutions, inc.]

These highlights do not include all the information needed to use PREMPRO/PREMPHASE safely and effectively. See full prescribing information for PREMPRO/PREMPHASE. PREMPRO (conjugated estrogens/medrox...

Premphase [physicians total care, inc.]

These highlights do not include all the information needed to use PREMPRO/PREMPHASE safely and effectively. See full prescribing information for PREMPRO/PREMPHASE. PREMPRO (conjugated estrogens/medrox...

Prempro [physicians total care, inc.]

These highlights do not include all the information needed to use PREMPRO/PREMPHASE safely and effectively. See full prescribing information for PREMPRO/PREMPHASE. PREMPRO (conjugated estrogens/medrox...

Clinical Trials [8 Associated Clinical Trials listed on BioPortfolio]

Study Comparing Bioavailability of 3 New Formulations of Premarin/MPA With Premarin/MPA (PREMPRO) Reference Formulation

This study will compare the bioavailabity of three new investigational combination formulations of Premarin and medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) with a currently marketed formulation of P...

Bioequivalence Study of 3 New Formulations of Premarin/MPA Compared With Premarin/MPA (Prempro)

To evaluate three new investigational tablet formulations of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved medication Prempro™, Premarin combined with medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA)...

Effects of Angeliq and Prempro on Blood Pressure and Sodium Sensitivity in Postmenopausal Women With Prehypertension

The main purpose of this study is to compare the effects of treatment of two different formulations of Angeliq® and Prempro on blood pressure in post-menopausal women with prehypertension...

Study Comparing Bioequivalence of Two New Formulations of Premarin/MPA With Premarin/MPA Reference Formulation.

This study will compare the bioequivalence of two new investigational combination formulations of Premarin and medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) with a currently marketed formulation of Pr...

Bioidentical 'Natural' Hormone Evaluation in Early Menopause

Prospective double blind pilot study comparing bioidentical 'natural' hormones to low-dose PremPro. Forty participants will be enrolled. The purpose of this study is to try to gather earl...

PubMed Articles [1 Associated PubMed Articles listed on BioPortfolio]

Human versus non-human sex steroid use in hormone replacement therapies part 1: Preclinical data.

Prior to 2002, hormone replacement therapy (HRT) was considered to be an important component of postmenopausal healthcare. This was based on a plethora of basic, epidemiological and clinical studies d...

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