Advertisement

Topics

These highlights do not include all the information needed to use GEMCITABINE FOR INJECTION safely and effectively. See full prescribing information for GEMCITABINE FOR INJECTION. GEMCITABINE for injection, powder, lyophilized, for solution for intravenou | GEMCITABINE [Hospira, Inc.] | BioPortfolio

13:18 EST 27th January 2019 | BioPortfolio

Note: While we endeavour to keep our records up-to-date one should not rely on these details being accurate without first consulting a professional. Click here to read our full medical disclaimer.

Gemcitabine in combination with carboplatin is indicated for the treatment of patients with advanced ovarian cancer that has relapsed at least 6 months after completion of platinum-based therapy.

Gemcitabine in combination with paclitaxel is indicated for the first-line treatment of patients with metastatic breast cancer after failure of prior anthracycline-containing adjuvant chemotherapy, unless anthracyclines were clinically contraindicated.

Gemcitabine is indicated in combination with cisplatin for the first-line treatment of patients with inoperable, locally advanced (Stage IIIA or IIIB), or metastatic (Stage IV) non-small cell lung cancer.

Gemcitabine is indicated as first-line treatment for patients with locally advanced (nonresectable Stage II or Stage III) or metastatic (Stage IV) adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. Gemcitabine is indicated for patients previously treated with 5-FU.

Recommended Dose and Schedule

The recommended dose of gemcitabine is 1,000 mg/mas an intravenous infusion over 30 minutes on Days 1 and 8 of each 21-day cycle, in combination with carboplatin AUC 4 intravenously after gemcitabine administration on Day 1 of each 21-day cycle. Refer to carboplatin prescribing information for additional information.

Dose Modifications

Recommended gemcitabine dose modifications for myelosuppression are described in Table 1 and Table 2 [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]. Refer to Dosage and Administration (2.5) for recommendations for non-hematologic adverse reactions.

Table 1: Dosage Reduction Guidelines for Gemcitabine for Myelosuppression on Day of Treatment in Ovarian Cancer
Treatment Day Absolute granulocyte count (x 106/L) Platelet count (x 106/L) % of full dose
Day 1 ≥1,500 and ≥100,000 100%
<1,500 or <100,000 Delay Treatment Cycle
Day 8 ≥1,500 and ≥100,000 100%
1,000-1,499 or 75,000-99,999 50%
<1,000 or <75,000 Hold
Table 2: Gemcitabine Dose Modification for Myelosuppression in Previous Cycle In Ovarian Cancer
Occurrence Myelosuppression During Treatment Cycle Dose Modification
Initial Occurrence Absolute granulocyte count less than 500 x 106/L for more than 5 days Absolute granulocyte count less than 100 x 106/L for more than 3 days Febrile neutropenia Platelets less than 25,000x106/L Cycle delay of more than one week due to toxicity Permanently reduce gemcitabine to 800 mg/m2 on Days 1 and 8
Subsequent Occurrence If any of the above toxicities occur after the initial dose reduction Permanently reduce gemcitabine dose to 800 mg/m2 on Day 1 only

Recommended Dose and Schedule

The recommended dose of gemcitabine is 1,250 mg/m intravenously over 30 minutes on Days 1 and 8 of each 21-day cycle that includes paclitaxel. Paclitaxel should be administered at 175 mg/m on Day 1 as a 3 hour intravenous infusion before gemcitabine administration.

Dose Modifications

Recommended dose modifications for gemcitabine for myelosuppression are described in Table 3 [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]. Refer to Dosage and Administration (2.5) for recommendations for non-hematologic adverse reactions.

Table 3: Recommended Dose Reductions for Gemcitabine for Myelosuppression on Day of Treatment in Breast Cancer
Treatment Day Absolute granulocyte count (x 106/L) Platelet count (x 106/L) % of full dose
Day 1 ≥1,500 and ≥100,000 100%
less than 1,500 or less than 100,000 Hold
Day 8 ≥1,200 and >75,000 100%
1,000-1,199 or 50,000-75,000 75%
700-999 and ≥50,000 50%
<700 or <50,000 Hold

Recommended Dose and Schedule

Every 4-week schedule

The recommended dose of gemcitabine is 1,000 mg/m intravenously over 30 minutes on Days 1, 8, and 15 in combination with cisplatin therapy. Administer cisplatin intravenously at 100 mg/m on Day 1 after the infusion of gemcitabine.

Every 3-week schedule

The recommended dose of gemcitabine is 1,250 mg/m intravenously over 30 minutes on Days 1 and 8 in combination with cisplatin therapy. Administer cisplatin intravenously at 100 mg/mon Day 1 after the infusion of gemcitabine.

Dose Modifications

Recommended dose modifications for gemcitabine myelosuppression are described in Table 4 [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]. Refer to Dosage and Administration (2.5) for gemcitabine recommendations for non-hematologic adverse reactions.

Recommended Dose and Schedule

The recommended dose of gemcitabine is 1,000 mg/m over 30 minutes intravenously. The recommended treatment schedule is as follows:

Dose Modifications

Recommended dose modifications for gemcitabine for myelosuppression are described in Table 4 [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]. Refer to Dosage and Administration (2.5) for recommendations for non-hematologic adverse reactions.

Patients receiving gemcitabine should be monitored prior to each dose with a complete blood count (CBC), including differential and platelet count. If marrow suppression is detected, therapy should be modified or suspended according to the guidelines in Table 4.

Table 4: Recommended Dose Reductions for Gemcitabine for Myelosuppression in Pancreatic Cancer and Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
Absolute granulocyte count (x 106/L) Platelet count (x 106/L) % of full dose
≥1,000 and ≥100,000 100%
500-999 or 50,000-99,999 75%
<500 or <50,000 Hold

Permanently discontinue gemcitabine for any of the following:

Withhold gemcitabine or reduce dose by 50% for other severe (Grade 3 or 4) non-hematological toxicity until resolved. No dose modifications are recommended for alopecia, nausea, or vomiting.

Exercise caution and wear gloves when preparing gemcitabine solutions. Immediately wash the skin thoroughly or rinse the mucosa with copious amounts of water if gemcitabine contacts the skin or mucus membranes. Death has occurred in animal studies due to dermal absorption. For further guidance on handling gemcitabine go to "OSHA Hazardous Drugs" (refer to antineoplastic weblinks including OSHA Technical Manual) at OSHA. http://www.osha.gov/SLTC/hazardousdrugs/index.html

The recommended diluent for reconstitution of gemcitabine for injection is 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection without preservatives. Due to solubility considerations, the maximum concentration for gemcitabine upon reconstitution is 40 mg/mL. Reconstitution at concentrations greater than 40 mg/mL may result in incomplete dissolution, and should be avoided.

To reconstitute, add 50 mL of 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection to the 2 g vial. Shake to dissolve. This dilution yields a gemcitabine concentration of 38 mg/mL which includes accounting for the displacement volume of the lyophilized powder (2.6 mL for the 2 g vial). The total volume upon reconstitution will be 52.6 mL. Complete withdrawal of the vial contents will provide 2 g of gemcitabine, respectively. The appropriate amount of drug may be administered as prepared or further diluted with 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection to concentrations as low as 0.1 mg/mL.

Reconstituted gemcitabine for injection is a clear, colorless to light straw-colored solution. After reconstitution with 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, the pH of the resulting solution lies in the range of 2.7 to 3.3. The solution should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration, prior to administration, whenever solution or container permit. If particulate matter or discoloration is found, do not administer.

When prepared as directed, gemcitabine solutions are stable for 24 hours at controlled room temperature 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Discard unused portion. Solutions of reconstituted gemcitabine should not be refrigerated, as crystallization may occur.

No incompatibilities have been observed with infusion bottles or polyvinyl chloride bags and administration sets.

Gemcitabine for injection, USP is a white to off-white lyophilized powder available in sterile single-dose vials containing 2 g gemcitabine.

Gemcitabine is contraindicated in patients with a known hypersensitivity to gemcitabine.

In clinical trials evaluating the maximum tolerated dose of gemcitabine, prolongation of the infusion time beyond 60 minutes or more frequent than weekly dosing resulted in an increased incidence of clinically significant hypotension, severe flu-like symptoms, myelosuppression, and asthenia. The half-life of gemcitabine for injection is influenced by the length of the infusion [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

Myelosuppression manifested by neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and anemia occurs with gemcitabine as a single agent and the risks are increased when gemcitabine is combined with other cytotoxic drugs. In clinical trials, Grade 3-4 neutropenia, anemia, and thrombocytopenia occurred in 25%, 8%, and 5%, respectively of patients receiving single-agent gemcitabine. The frequencies of Grade 3-4 neutropenia, anemia, and thrombocytopenia varied from 48% to 71%, 8 to 28%, and 5 to 55%, respectively, in patients receiving gemcitabine in combination with another drug.

Pulmonary toxicity, including interstitial pneumonitis, pulmonary fibrosis, pulmonary edema, and adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), has been reported. In some cases, these pulmonary events can lead to fatal respiratory failure despite discontinuation of therapy. The onset of pulmonary symptoms may occur up to 2 weeks after the last dose of gemcitabine. Discontinue gemcitabine in patients who develop unexplained dyspnea, with or without bronchospasm, or have any evidence of pulmonary toxicity [see Adverse Reactions (6.1 and 6.2)].

Hemolytic uremic syndrome, including fatalities from renal failure or the requirement for dialysis, can occur in patients treated with gemcitabine. In clinical trials, HUS was reported in 6 of 2,429 patients (0.25%). Most fatal cases of renal failure were due to HUS [see Adverse Reactions ( 6.1 and 6.2)]. Assess renal function prior to initiation of gemcitabine and periodically during treatment. Consider the diagnosis of HUS in patients who develops anemia with evidence of microangiopathic hemolysis, elevation of bilirubin or LDH, or reticulocytosis; severe thrombocytopenia; or evidence of renal failure (elevation of serum creatinine or BUN) [see Dosage and Administration (2.5) and Use in Specific Populations (8.6)]. Permanently discontinue gemcitabine in patients with HUS or severe renal impairment. Renal failure may not be reversible even with discontinuation of therapy.

Drug-induced liver injury, including liver failure and death, has been reported in patients receiving gemcitabine alone or in combination with other potentially hepatotoxic drugs [see Adverse Reactions ( 6.1 and 6.2)]. Administration of gemcitabine in patients with concurrent liver metastases or a pre-existing medical history of hepatitis, alcoholism, or liver cirrhosis can lead to exacerbation of the underlying hepatic insufficiency [see Use in Specific Populations (8.7)]. Assess hepatic function prior to initiation of gemcitabine and periodically during treatment. Discontinue gemcitabine in patients that develop severe liver injury.

Gemcitabine can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman, based on its mechanism of action. Gemcitabine was teratogenic, embryotoxic, and fetotoxic in mice and rabbits. If this drug is used during pregnancy, or if a woman becomes pregnant while taking gemcitabine, the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to a fetus [ see Use in Specific Populations ( 8.1 ) ].

Gemcitabine is not indicated for use in combination with radiation therapy.

Concurrent (given together or ≤7 days apart) - Life-threatening mucositis, especially esophagitis and pneumonitis occurred in a trial in which gemcitabine was administered at a dose of 1,000 mg/m to patients with non-small cell lung cancer for up to 6 consecutive weeks concurrently with thoracic radiation.

Non-concurrent (given >7 days apart) - Excessive toxicity has not been observed when gemcitabine is administered more than 7 days before or after radiation. Radiation recall has been reported in patients who receive gemcitabine after prior radiation.

Capillary leak syndrome (CLS) with severe consequences has been reported in patients receiving gemcitabine as a single agent or in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents. Discontinue gemcitabine if CLS develops during therapy.

Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) has been reported in patients receiving gemcitabine as a single agent or in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents. PRES can present with headache, seizure, lethargy, hypertension, confusion, blindness, and other visual and neurologic disturbances. Confirm the diagnosis of PRES with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and discontinue gemcitabine if PRES develops during therapy.

The following serious adverse reactions are discussed in greater detail in another section of the label

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in clinical practice.

Single-Agent Use:

The data described below reflect exposure to gemcitabine as a single-agent administered at doses between 800 mg/mto 1,250 mg/m over 30 minutes intravenously, once weekly, in 979 patients with a variety of malignancies. The most common (≥20%) adverse reactions of single-agent gemcitabine are nausea/vomiting, anemia, increased ALT, increased AST, neutropenia, increased alkaline phosphatase, proteinuria, fever, hematuria, rash, thrombocytopenia, dyspnea, and edema. The most common (≥5%) Grade 3 or 4 adverse reactions were neutropenia, nausea/vomiting; increased ALT, increase alkaline phosphatase, anemia, increased AST, and thrombocytopenia. Approximately 10% of the 979 patients discontinued gemcitabine due to adverse reactions. Adverse reactions resulting in discontinuation of gemcitabine in 2% of 979 patients were cardiovascular adverse events (myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular accident, arrhythmia, and hypertension) and adverse reactions resulting in discontinuation of gemcitabine in less than 1% of the 979 patients were anemia, thrombocytopenia, hepatic dysfunction, renal dysfunction, nausea/vomiting, fever, rash, dyspnea, hemorrhage, infection, stomatitis, somnolence, flu-like syndrome, and edema.

Table 5 presents the incidence of adverse reactions reported in 979 patients with various malignancies receiving single-agent gemcitabine across 5 clinical trials. Table 5 includes all clinical adverse reactions, reported in at least 10% of patients. A listing of clinically significant adverse reactions is provided following the table.

Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer:

Table 6 presents the incidence of selected adverse reactions, occurring in >10% of gemcitabine-treated patients and at a higher incidence in the gemcitabine plus cisplatin arm, reported in a randomized trial of gemcitabine plus cisplatin (n=262) administered in 28-day cycles as compared to cisplatin alone (n=260) in patients receiving first-line treatment for locally advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) [see Clinical Studies (14.3)].

Patients randomized to gemcitabine plus cisplatin received a median of 4 cycles of treatment and those randomized to cisplatin received a median of 2 cycles of treatment. In this trial, the requirement for dose adjustments (>90% versus 16%), discontinuation of treatment for adverse reactions (15% versus 8%), and the proportion of patients hospitalized (36% versus 23%) were all higher for patients receiving gemcitabine plus cisplatin arm compared to those receiving cisplatin alone. The incidence of febrile neutropenia (9/262 versus 2/260), sepsis (4% versus 1%), Grade 3 cardiac dysrhythmias (3% versus <1%) were all higher in the gemcitabine plus cisplatin arm compared to the cisplatin alone arm.

The two-drug combination was more myelosuppressive with 4 (1.5%) possibly treatment-related deaths, including 3 resulting from myelosuppression with infection and one case of renal failure associated with pancytopenia and infection. No deaths due to treatment were reported on the cisplatin arm.

Table 7 presents the incidence of selected adverse reactions, occurring in ≥10% of gemcitabine-treated patients and at a higher incidence in the gemcitabine plus cisplatin arm, reported in a randomized trial of gemcitabine plus cisplatin (n=69) administered in 21-day cycles as compared to etoposide plus cisplatin alone (n=66) in patients receiving first-line treatment for locally advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) [see Clinical Studies (14.3)]. A listing of clinically significant adverse reactions is provided following the table.

Patients in the gemcitabine cisplatin (GC) arm received a median of 5 cycles and those in the etoposide/cisplatin (EC) arm received a median of 4 cycles. The majority of patients receiving more than one cycle of treatment required dose adjustments; 81% in the (GC) arm and 68% in the (EC) arm. The incidence of hospitalizations for treatment-related adverse events was 22% (GC) and 27% in the (EC) arm. The proportion of discontinuation of treatment for treatment-related adverse reactions was higher for patients in the (GC) arm (14% versus 8%). The proportion of patients hospitalized for febrile neutropenia was lower in the (GC) arm (7% versus 12%). There was one death attributed to treatment, a patient with febrile neutropenia and renal failure, which occurred in the gemcitabine/cisplatin arm.

Breast Cancer:

Table 8 presents the incidence of selected adverse reactions, occurring in ≥10% of gemcitabine-treated patients and at a higher incidence in the gemcitabine plus paclitaxel arm, reported in a randomized trial of gemcitabine plus paclitaxel (n=262) compared to paclitaxel alone (n=259) for the first-line treatment of metastatic breast cancer (MBC) in women who received anthracycline-containing chemotherapy in the adjuvant/neo-adjuvant setting or for whom anthracyclines were contraindicated [see Clinical Studies (14.2)].

The requirement for dose reduction of paclitaxel were higher for patients in the gemcitabine/paclitaxel arm (5% versus 2%). The number of paclitaxel doses omitted (<1%), the proportion of patients discontinuing treatment for treatment-related adverse reactions (7% versus 5%), and the number of treatment-related deaths (1 patient in each arm) were similar between the two arms.

Clinically relevant Grade 3 or 4 dyspnea occurred with a higher incidence in the gemcitabine plus paclitaxel arm compared with the paclitaxel arm (1.9% versus 0).

Ovarian Cancer:

Table 9 presents the incidence of selected adverse reactions, occurring in ≥10% of gemcitabine-treated patients and at a higher incidence in the gemcitabine plus carboplatin arm, reported in a randomized trial of gemcitabine plus carboplatin (n=175) compared to carboplatin alone (n=174) for the second-line treatment of ovarian cancer in women with disease that had relapsed more than 6 months following first-line platinum-based chemotherapy [see Clinical Studies (14.1)]. Additional clinically significant adverse reactions, occurring in less than 10% of patients, are provided following Table 9.

The proportion of patients with dose adjustments for carboplatin (1.8% versus 3.8%), doses of carboplatin omitted (0.2% versus 0), and discontinuing treatment for treatment-related adverse reactions (10.9% versus 9.8%), were similar between arms. Dose adjustment for gemcitabine occurred in 10.4% of patients and gemcitabine dose was omitted in 13.7% of patients in the gemcitabine/carboplatin arm.

Hematopoietic growth factors were administered more frequently in the gemcitabine-containing arm: granulocyte growth factors (23.6% and 10.1%) and erythropoietic agents (7.3% and 3.9%).

The following clinically relevant, Grade 3 and 4 adverse reactions occurred more frequently in the gemcitabine plus carboplatin arm: dyspnea (3.4% versus 2.9%), febrile neutropenia (1.1% versus 0), hemorrhagic event (2.3% versus 1.1%), motor neuropathy (1.1% versus 0.6%), and rash/desquamation (0.6% versus 0).

Table 5: Selected Per-Patient Incidence of Adverse Events in Patients Receiving Single-Agent Gemcitabinea
a       Grade based on criteria from the World Health Organization (WHO).
b       N=699-974; all patients with laboratory or non-laboratory data.
c       Regardless of causality.
d       For approximately 60% of patients, non-laboratory adverse events were graded only if assessed to be possibly drug-related.
All Patientsb
All Grades Grade 3 Grade 4
Laboratoryc Hematologic    Anemia    Neutropenia    Thrombocytopenia 68 63 24 7 19 4 1 6 1
Hepatic    Increased ALT    Increased AST    Increased Alkaline    Phosphatase    Hyperbilirubinemia 68 67 55   13 8 6 7   2 2 2 2   <1
Renal    Proteinuria    Hematuria    Increased BUN    Increased Creatinine 45 35 16 8 <1 <1 0 <1 0 0 0 0
Non-laboratoryd    Nausea and Vomiting    Fever    Rash    Dyspnea    Diarrhea    Hemorrhage    Infection    Alopecia    Stomatitis    Somnolence    Paresthesias 69 41 30 23 19 17 16 15 11 11 10 13 2 <1 3 1 <1 1 <1 <1 <1 <1 1 0 0 <1 0 <1 <1 0 0 <1 0
Table 6: Per-Patient Incidence of Selected Adverse Reactions from Randomized Trial of Gemcitabine plus Cisplatin versus Single-Agent Cisplatin in Patients with NSCLC Occurring at Higher Incidence in Gemcitabine-Treated Patients [Between Arm Difference of ≥5% (All Grades) or ≥2% (Grades 3-4)]a
a      National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC) for severity grading.
b      N=217-253; all gemcitabine plus cisplatin patients with laboratory or non-laboratory data. Gemcitabine at 1,000 mg/m2 on Days 1, 8, and 15 and cisplatin at 100 mg/m2 on Day 1 every 28 days.
c      N=213-248; all cisplatin patients with laboratory or non-laboratory data. Cisplatin at 100 mg/m2 on Day 1 every 28 days.
d      Regardless of causality.
e      Percent of patients receiving transfusions. Percent transfusions are not CTC-graded events.
f      Non-laboratory events were graded only if assessed to be possibly drug-related.
Gemcitabine plus Cisplatinb Cisplatinc
All Grades Grade 3 Grade 4 All Grades Grade 3 Grade 4
Laboratoryd Hematologic    Anemia    RBC Transfusione    Neutropenia    Thrombocytopenia    Platelet Transfusionse    Lymphopenia 89 39 79 85 21 75 22   22 25   25 3   35 25   18 67 13 20 13 <1 51 6   3 3   12 1   1 1   5
Hepatic    Increased    Transaminases    Increased Alkaline    Phosphatase 22   19 2   1 1   0 10   13 1   0 0   0
Renal    Proteinuria    Hematuria    Elevated creatinine 23 15 38 0 0 4 0 0 <1 18 13 31 0 0 2 0 0 <1
Other Laboratory    Hyperglycemia    Hypomagnesemia    Hypocalcemia 30 30 18 4 4 2 0 3 0 23 17 7 3 2 0 0 0 <1
Non-laboratoryf    Nausea    Vomiting    Alopecia    Neuro Motor    Diarrhea    Neuro Sensory    Infection    Fever    Neuro Cortical    Neuro Mood    Local    Neuro Headache    Stomatitis    Hemorrhage    Hypotension    Rash
93
78 53 35 24 23 18 16 16 16 15 14 14 14 12 11

25
11 1 12 2 1 3 0 3 1 0 0 1 1 1 0

2
12 0 0 2 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

87
71 33 15 13 18 12 5 9 10 6 7 5 4 7 3

20
10 0 3 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0

<1
9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Table 7: Per-Patient Incidence of Selected Adverse Reactions in Randomized Trial of Gemcitabine plus Cisplatin versus Etoposide plus Cisplatin in Patients with NSCLCa
a      Grade based on criteria from the World Health Organization (WHO).
b      N=67-69; all gemcitabine plus cisplatin patients with laboratory or non-laboratory data. Gemcitabine at 1,250 mg/m2 on Days 1 and 8 and cisplatin at 100 mg/m2 on Day 1 every 21 days.
c      N=57-63; all cisplatin plus etoposide patients with laboratory or non-laboratory data. Cisplatin at 100 mg/m2 on Day 1 and intravenous etoposide at 100 mg/m2 on Days 1, 2, and 3 every 21 days.
d      Regardless of causality.
e      WHO grading scale not applicable to proportion of patients with transfusions.
f      Non-laboratory events were graded only if assessed to be possibly drug-related. Pain data were not collected.
g      Flu-like syndrome and edema were not graded.
Gemcitabine plus Cisplatinb Etoposide plus Cisplatinc
All Grades Grade 3 Grade 4 All Grades Grade 3 Grade 4
Laboratoryd Hematologic    Anemia    RBC Transfusionse    Neutropenia    Thrombocytopenia    Platelet Transfusionse 88 29 88 81 3 22 - 36 39 - 0 - 28 16 - 77 21 87 45 8 13 - 20 8 - 2 - 56 5 -
Hepatic    Increased ALT    Increased AST    Increased Alkaline    Phosphatase    Bilirubin 6 3 16   0 0 0 0   0 0 0 0   0 12 11 11   0 0 0 0   0 0 0 0   0
Renal    Proteinuria    Hematuria    BUN    Creatinine 12 22 6 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 10 4 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Non-laboratoryf    Nausea and Vomiting    Fever    Rash    Dyspnea    Diarrhea    Hemorrhage    Infection    Alopecia    Stomatitis    Somnolence    Paresthesias    Flu-like syndromeg    Edemag 96 6 10 1 14 9 28 77 20 3 38 3 12 35 0 0 0 1 0 3 13 4 0 0 - - 4 0 0 1 1 3 1 0 0 0 0 - - 86 3 3 3 13 3 21 92 18 3 16 0 2 19 0 0 0 0 0 8 51 2 2 2 - - 7 0 0 0 2 3 0 0 0 0 0 - -
Table 8: Per-Patient Incidence of Selected Adverse Reactions from Comparative Trial of Gemcitabine plus Paclitaxel versus Single-Agent Paclitaxel in Breast Cancera Occurring at Higher Incidence in Gemcitabine-Treated Patients [Between Arm Difference of ≥5% (All Grades) or ≥2% (Grades 3-4)]
a      Severity grade based on National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC) Version 2.0.
b      Regardless of causality.
c      Non-laboratory events were graded only if assessed to be possibly drug-related.
Gemcitabine plus Paclitaxel (N=262) Paclitaxel (N=259)
All Grades Grade 3 Grade 4 All Grades Grade 3 Grade 4
Laboratoryb Hematologic    Anemia    Neutropenia    Thrombocytopenia 69 69 26 6 31 5 1 17 <1 51 31 7 3 4 <1 <1 7 <1
Hepatobiliary    Increased ALT    Increased AST 18 16 5 2 <1 0 6 5 <1 <1 0 0
Non-laboratoryc    Alopecia    Neuropathy-sensory    Nausea    Fatigue    Vomiting    Diarrhea    Anorexia    Neuropathy-motor    Stomatitis/pharyngitis    Fever    Rash/desquamation    Febrile neutropenia 90 64 50 40 29 20 17 15 13 13 11 6 14 5 1 6 2 3 0 2 1 <1 <1 5 4 <1 0 <1 0 0 0 <1 <1 0 <1 <1 92 58 31 28 15 13 12 10 8 3 5 2 19 3 2 1 2 2 <1 <1 <1 0 0 1 3 0 0 <1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Table 9: Per-Patient Incidence of Adverse Reactions in Randomized Trial of Gemcitabine plus Carboplatin versus Carboplatin in Ovarian Cancera Occurring at Higher Incidence in Gemcitabine-Treated Patients [Between Arm Difference of ≥5% (All Grades) or ≥2% (Grades 3-4)]
a      Grade based on Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC) Version 2.0.
b      Regardless of causality.
c      Percent of patients receiving transfusions. Transfusions are not CTC-graded events. Blood transfusions included both packed red blood cells and whole blood.
Gemcitabine plus Carboplatin (N=175) Carboplatin (N=174)
All Grades Grade 3 Grade 4 All Grades Grade 3 Grade 4
Laboratoryb Hematologic    Neutropenia    Anemia    Thrombocytopenia    RBC Transfusionsc    Platelet Transfusionsc 90 86 78 38 9 42 22 30 - - 29 6 5 - - 58 75 57 15 3 11 9 10 - - 1 2 1 - -
Non-laboratoryb    Nausea    Alopecia    Vomiting    Constipation    Fatigue    Diarrhea    Stomatitis/pharyngitis 69 49 46 42 40 25 22 6 0 6 6 3 3 <1 0 0 0 1 <1 0 0 61 17 36 37 32 14 13 3 0 2 3 5 <1 0 0 0 <1 0 0 0 0

The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of gemcitabine. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.

Cardiovascular - Congestive heart failure, myocardial infarction, arrhythmias, supraventricular arrhythmias

Vascular Disorders - Peripheral vasculitis, gangrene, and capillary leak syndrome [see Warnings and Precautions (5.8)]

Skin - Cellulitis, pseudocellulitis, severe skin reactions, including desquamation and bullous skin eruptions

Hepatic - Hepatic failure, hepatic veno-occlusive disease

Pulmonary - Interstitial pneumonitis, pulmonary fibrosis, pulmonary edema, and adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)

Nervous System – Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.9)]

No drug interaction studies have been conducted.

[ see Warnings and Precautions (5.6) ].

Risk Summary

Gemcitabine can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Based on its mechanism of action, gemcitabine is expected to result in adverse reproductive effects. Gemcitabine was teratogenic, embryotoxic, and fetotoxic in mice and rabbits. If gemcitabine is used during pregnancy, or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking gemcitabine, the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to a fetus.

Animal Data

Gemcitabine is embryotoxic causing fetal malformations (cleft palate, incomplete ossification) at doses of 1.5 mg/kg/day in mice (approximately 0.005 times the recommended human dose on a mg/m basis). Gemcitabine is fetotoxic causing fetal malformations (fused pulmonary artery, absence of gall bladder) at doses of 0.1 mg/kg/day in rabbits (about 0.002 times the recommended human dose on a mg/mbasis). Embryotoxicity was characterized by decreased fetal viability, reduced live litter sizes, and developmental delays [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)].

It is not known whether this drug is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk and because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from gemcitabine, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.

The safety and effectiveness of gemcitabine have not been established in pediatric patients. The safety and pharmacokinetics of gemcitabine were evaluated in a trial in pediatric patients with refractory leukemia. The maximum tolerated dose was 10 mg/m/min for 360 minutes weekly for three weeks followed by a one-week rest period. The safety and activity of gemcitabine were evaluated in a trial of pediatric patients with relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia (22 patients) and acute myelogenous leukemia (10 patients) at a dose of 10 mg/m/min administered over 360 minutes weekly for three weeks followed by a one-week rest period. Patients with M1 or M2 bone marrow on Day 28 who did not experience unacceptable toxicity were eligible to receive a maximum of one additional four-week course. Toxicities observed included bone marrow suppression, febrile neutropenia, elevation of serum transaminases, nausea, and rash/desquamation. No meaningful clinical activity was observed in this trial.

In clinical studies of gemcitabine, enrolling 979 patients with various cancers who received gemcitabine as a single agent, no overall differences in safety were observed between patients aged 65 and older and younger patients, with the exception of a higher rate of Grade 3–4 thrombocytopenia in older patients as compared to younger patients. In a randomized trial in women with ovarian cancer, 175 women received gemcitabine plus carboplatin, of which 29% were age 65 years or older. Similar effectiveness was observed between older and younger women. There was significantly higher Grade 3/4 neutropenia in women 65 years of age or older.

Gemcitabine clearance is affected by age, however there are no recommended dose adjustments based on patients' age [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

No clinical studies have been conducted with gemcitabine in patients with decreased renal function.

No clinical studies have been conducted with gemcitabine in patients with decreased hepatic function.

Gemcitabine clearance is affected by gender [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. In single-agent studies of gemcitabine, women, especially older women, were more likely not to proceed to a subsequent cycle and to experience Grade 3/4 neutropenia and thrombocytopenia.

Myelosuppression, paresthesias, and severe rash were the principal toxicities seen when a single dose as high as 5,700 mg/m was administered by intravenous infusion over 30 minutes every 2 weeks to several patients in a dose-escalation study.

Gemcitabine is a nucleoside metabolic inhibitor that exhibits antitumor activity. Gemcitabine HCl is 2´-deoxy-2´,2´-difluorocytidine monohydrochloride (β-isomer).

The structural formula is as follows:

The empirical formula for gemcitabine HCl is CHFNO • HCl. It has a molecular weight of 299.66.

Gemcitabine HCl is a white to off-white solid. It is soluble in water, slightly soluble in methanol, and practically insoluble in ethanol and polar organic solvents.

Gemcitabine HCl is supplied in a sterile form for intravenous use only. Vials of gemcitabine for injection, USP contain 2 g of gemcitabine HCl (expressed as free base) formulated with mannitol (2 g) and sodium acetate (125 mg) as a sterile lyophilized powder. Hydrochloric acid and/or sodium hydroxide may have been added for pH adjustment.

Gemcitabine kills cells undergoing DNA synthesis and blocks the progression of cells through the G1/S-phase boundary. Gemcitabine is metabolized by nucleoside kinases to diphosphate (dFdCDP) and triphosphate (dFdCTP) nucleosides. Gemcitabine diphosphate inhibits ribonucleotide reductase, an enzyme responsible for catalyzing the reactions that generate deoxynucleoside triphosphates for DNA synthesis, resulting in reductions in deoxynucleotide concentrations, including dCTP. Gemcitabine triphosphate competes with dCTP for incorporation into DNA. The reduction in the intracellular concentration of dCTP by the action of the diphosphate enhances the incorporation of gemcitabine triphosphate into DNA (self-potentiation). After the gemcitabine nucleotide is incorporated into DNA, only one additional nucleotide is added to the growing DNA strands, which eventually results in the initiation of apoptotic cell death.

Absorption and Distribution

The pharmacokinetics of gemcitabine were examined in 353 patients, with various solid tumors. Pharmacokinetic parameters were derived using data from patients treated for varying durations of therapy given weekly with periodic rest weeks and using both short infusions (<70 minutes) and long infusions (70 to 285 minutes). The total gemcitabine dose varied from 500 to 3,600 mg/m.

The volume of distribution was increased with infusion length. Volume of distribution of gemcitabine was 50 L/m following infusions lasting <70 minutes. For long infusions, the volume of distribution rose to 370 L/m.

Gemcitabine pharmacokinetics are linear and are described by a 2-compartment model. Population pharmacokinetic analyses of combined single and multiple dose studies showed that the volume of distribution of gemcitabine was significantly influenced by duration of infusion and gender. Gemcitabine plasma protein binding is negligible.

Metabolism

Gemcitabine disposition was studied in 5 patients who received a single 1,000 mg/m/30 minute infusion of radiolabeled drug. Within one (1) week, 92% to 98% of the dose was recovered, almost entirely in the urine. Gemcitabine (<10%) and the inactive uracil metabolite, 2´-deoxy-2´,2´-difluorouridine (dFdU), accounted for 99% of the excreted dose. The metabolite dFdU is also found in plasma.

The active metabolite, gemcitabine triphosphate, can be extracted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The half-life of the terminal phase for gemcitabine triphosphate from mononuclear cells ranges from 1.7 to 19.4 hours.

Elimination

Clearance of gemcitabine was affected by age and gender. The lower clearance in women and the elderly results in higher concentrations of gemcitabine for any given dose. Differences in either clearance or volume of distribution based on patient characteristics or the duration of infusion result in changes in half-life and plasma concentrations. Table 10 shows plasma clearance and half-life of gemcitabine following short infusions for typical patients by age and gender.

Gemcitabine half-life for short infusions ranged from 42 to 94 minutes, and the value for long infusions varied from 245 to 638 minutes, depending on age and gender, reflecting a greatly increased volume of distribution with longer infusions.

Drug Interactions

When gemcitabine (1,250 mg/m on Days 1 and 8) and cisplatin (75 mg/m on Day 1) were administered in NSCLC patients, the clearance of gemcitabine on Day 1 was 128 L/hr/m and on Day 8 was 107 L/hr/m. Analysis of data from metastatic breast cancer patients shows that, on average, gemcitabine has little or no effect on the pharmacokinetics (clearance and half-life) of paclitaxel and paclitaxel has little or no effect on the pharmacokinetics of gemcitabine. Data from NSCLC patients demonstrate that gemcitabine and carboplatin given in combination does not alter the pharmacokinetics of gemcitabine or carboplatin compared to administration of either single-agent. However, due to wide confidence intervals and small sample size, interpatient variability may be observed.

Table 10: Gemcitabine Clearance and Half-Life for the "Typical" Patient
a       Half-life for patients receiving <70 minute infusion.
Age Clearance Men (L/hr/m2) Clearance Women (L/hr/m2) Half-Lifea Men (min) Half-Lifea Women (min)
29 92.2 69.4 42 49
45 75.7 57.0 48 57
65 55.1 41.5 61 73
79 40.7 30.7 79 94

Long-term animal studies to evaluate the carcinogenic potential of gemcitabine have not been conducted. Gemcitabine was mutagenic in an in vitro mouse lymphoma (L5178Y) assay and was clastogenic in an in vivo mouse micronucleus assay. Gemcitabine IP doses of 0.5 mg/kg/day (about 1/700 the human dose on a mg/m basis) in male mice had an effect on fertility with moderate to severe hypospermatogenesis, decreased fertility, and decreased implantations. In female mice, fertility was not affected but maternal toxicities were observed at 1.5 mg/kg/day administered intravenously (about 1/200 the human dose on a mg/m basis) and fetotoxicity or embryolethality was observed at 0.25 mg/kg/day administered intravenously (about 1/1,300 the human dose on a mg/m basis).

The safety and efficacy of gemcitabine was studied in a randomized trial of 356 women with advanced ovarian cancer that had relapsed at least 6 months after first-line platinum-based therapy. Patients were randomized to receive either gemcitabine 1,000 mg/mon Days 1 and 8 of a 21-day cycle and carboplatin AUC 4 administered after gemcitabine infusion on Day 1 of each cycle (n=178) or to carboplatin AUC 5 administered on Day 1 of each 21-day cycle (n=178). The primary efficacy outcome measure was progression free survival (PFS).

Patient characteristics are shown in Table 11. The addition of gemcitabine to carboplatin resulted in statistically significant improvements in PFS and overall response rate as shown in Table 12 and Figure 1. Approximately 75% of patients in each arm received additional chemotherapy for disease progression; 13 of 120 patients in the carboplatin alone arm received gemcitabine for treatment of disease progression. There was no significant difference in overall survival between the treatment arms.

Figure 1: Kaplan-Meier Curve of Progression Free Survival in Gemcitabine plus Carboplatin versus Carboplatin in Ovarian Cancer (N=356).

Table 11: Randomized Trial of Gemcitabine plus Carboplatin versus Carboplatin in Ovarian Cancer - Baseline Demographics and Clinical Characteristics
a      5 patients on gemcitabine plus carboplatin arm and 4 patients on carboplatin arm with no baseline Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status.
b      2 on gemcitabine plus carboplatin arm and 1 on carboplatin arm had platinum-free interval <6 months.
Gemcitabine/Carboplatin Carboplatin
Number of randomized patients 178 178
Median age, years    Range 59 36 to 78 58 21 to 81
Baseline ECOG performance status 0-1a 94% 95%
Disease Status    Evaluable    Bidimensionally measurable 8% 92% 3% 96%
Platinum-free intervalb    6-12 months    >12 months 40% 59% 40% 60%
First-line therapy    Platinum-taxane combination    Platinum-non-taxane combination    Platinum monotherapy 70% 29% 1% 71% 28% 1%
Table 12: Randomized Trial of Gemcitabine plus Carboplatin versus Carboplatin in Ovarian Cancer - Efficacy Outcomes
a      CI=confidence interval.
b      Log rank, unadjusted.
c      Chi square.
d      CR=Complete response.
e      PR plus PRNM=Partial response plus partial response, non-measurable disease.
f       Independently reviewed cohort - gemcitabine/carboplatin (n=121), carboplatin (n=101); independent reviewers unable to measure disease detected by sonography or physical exam.
Gemcitabine/Carboplatin (N=178) Carboplatin (N=178)
Progression-free Survival    Median (95% CIa) months 8.6 (8.0, 9.7) 5.8 (5.2, 7.1)
   Hazard Ratio (95% CI) 0.72 (0.57, 0.90)
   p-valueb p=0.0038
Overall Survival    Median (95% CI) months 18.0 (16.2, 20.3) 17.3 (15.2, 19.3)
   Hazard Ratio (95% CI) 0.98 (0.78, 1.24)
   p-valueb p=0.8977
Investigator Reviewed Overall Response Rate 47.2% 30.9%
   p-valuec p=0.0016
   CRd    PR plus PRNMe 14.6% 32.6% 6.2% 24.7%
Independently Reviewed Overall Response Ratef 46.3% 35.6%
   p-valuec p=0.11
   CRd    PR plus PRNMe 9.1% 37.2% 4.0% 31.7%

The safety and efficacy of gemcitabine were evaluated in a multi-national, randomized, open-label trial conducted in women receiving initial treatment for metastatic breast cancer in women who have received prior adjuvant/neoadjuvant anthracycline chemotherapy unless clinically contraindicated. Patients were randomized to receive gemcitabine 1,250 mg/m on Days 1 and 8 of a 21-day cycle and paclitaxel 175 mg/m administered prior to gemcitabine on Day 1 of each cycle (n=267) or to receive paclitaxel 175 mg/m was administered on Day 1 of each 21-day cycle (n=262). The primary efficacy outcome measure was time to documented disease progression.

A total of 529 patients were enrolled; 267 were randomized to gemcitabine and paclitaxel and 262 to paclitaxel alone. Demographic and baseline characteristics were similar between treatment arms (see Table 13). Efficacy results are presented in Table 13 and Figure 2. The addition of gemcitabine to paclitaxel resulted in statistically significant improvement in time to documented disease progression and overall response rate compared to paclitaxel alone. There was no significant difference in overall survival.

Figure 2: Kaplan-Meier Curve of Time to Documented Disease Progression in Gemcitabine plus Paclitaxel versus Paclitaxel Breast Cancer Study (N=529).

Table 13: Randomized Trial of Gemcitabine plus Paclitaxel versus Paclitaxel in Breast Cancer
a      Karnofsky Performance Status.
b      These represent reconciliation of investigator and Independent Review Committee assessments according to a predefined algorithm.
c      Based on the ITT population.
Gemcitabine/Paclitaxel Paclitaxel
Number of patients 267 262
Demographic/Entry Characteristics Median age (years)    Range 53 26 to 83 52 26 to 75
Metastatic disease 97% 97%
Baseline KPSa ≥90 70% 74%
Number of tumor sites    1-2    ≥3 57% 43% 59% 41%
Visceral disease 73% 73%
Prior anthracycline 97% 96%
Efficacy Outcomes
Time to Documented Disease Progressionb    Median in months (95% CI) 5.2 (4.2, 5.6) 2.9 (2.6, 3.7)
   Hazard Ratio (95% CI) 0.650 (0.524, 0.805)
   p-value p<0.0001
   Overall Survivalc    Median Survival in months (95% CI) 18.6 (16.5, 20.7) 15.8 (14.1, 17.3)
   Hazard Ratio (95% CI) 0.86 (0.71, 1.04)
   p-value Not Significant
   Overall Response Rate (95% CI) 40.8% (34.9, 46.7) 22.1% (17.1, 27.2)
   p-value p<0.0001

The safety and efficacy of gemcitabine was evaluated in two randomized, multicenter trials.

28-Day Schedule

A multinational, randomized trial compared gemcitabine plus cisplatin to cisplatin alone in the treatment of patients with inoperable Stage IIIA, IIIB, or IV NSCLC who had not received prior chemotherapy. Patients were randomized to receive gemcitabine 1,000 mg/m on Days 1, 8, and 15 of a 28-day cycle with cisplatin 100 mg/m administered on Day 1 of each cycle or to receive cisplatin 100 mg/m on Day 1 of each 28-day cycle. The primary efficacy outcome measure was overall survival. A total of 522 patients were enrolled at clinical centers in Europe, the US, and Canada. Patient demographics and baseline characteristics (shown in Table 14) were similar between arms with the exception of histologic subtype of NSCLC, with 48% of patients on the cisplatin arm and 37% of patients on the gemcitabine plus cisplatin arm having adenocarcinoma. Efficacy results are presented in Table 14 and Figure 3 for overall survival.

21-Day Schedule

A randomized (1:1), multicenter trial was conducted in 135 patients with Stage IIIB or IV NSCLC. Patients were randomized to receive gemcitabine 1,250 mg/m on Days 1 and 8, and cisplatin 100 mg/m on Day 1 of a 21-day cycle or to receive etoposide 100 mg/m intravenously on Days 1, 2, and 3 and cisplatin 100 mg/m on Day 1 of a 21-day cycle.

There was no significant difference in survival between the two treatment arms (Log rank p=0.18, two-sided, see Table 14). The median survival was 8.7 months for the gemcitabine plus cisplatin arm versus 7.0 months for the etoposide plus cisplatin arm. Median time to disease progression for the gemcitabine plus cisplatin arm was 5.0 months compared to 4.1 months on the etoposide plus cisplatin arm (Log rank p=0.015, two-sided). The objective response rate for the gemcitabine plus cisplatin arm was 33% compared to 14% on the etoposide plus cisplatin arm (Fisher's Exact p=0.01, two-sided).

Figure 3: Kaplan-Meier Survival Curve in Gemcitabine plus Cisplatin versus Cisplatin in Patients with NSCLC Study (N=522).

Table 14: Randomized Trials of Gemcitabine plus Cisplatin in Patients with NSCLC
a     28-day schedule — Gemcitabine plus cisplatin: gemcitabine 1,000 mg/m2 on Days 1, 8, and 15 and cisplatin 100 mg/m2 on Day 1 every 28 days; Single-agent cisplatin: cisplatin 100 mg/m2 on Day 1 every 28 days.
b     21-day schedule — Gemcitabine plus cisplatin: gemcitabine 1,250 mg/m2 on Days 1 and 8 and cisplatin 100 mg/m2 on Day 1 every 21 days; Etoposide plus Cisplatin: cisplatin 100 mg/m2 on Day 1 and intravenous etoposide 100 mg/m2 on Days 1, 2, and 3 every 21 days.
c     N/A - Not applicable.
d     Karnofsky Performance Status.
e     CI=confidence intervals.
f     p-value two-sided Fisher's Exact test for difference in binomial proportions; log rank test for time-to-event analyses.
Trial 28-day Schedulea 21-day Scheduleb
Treatment Arm Gemcitabine plus Cisplatin Cisplatin Gemcitabine plus Cisplatin Etoposide plus Cisplatin
Number of patients 260 262 69 66
Demographic/Entry Characteristics    Male Median age, years    Range 70% 62 36 to 88 71% 63 35 to 79 93% 58 33 to 76 92% 60 35 to 75
Stage IIIA 7% 7% N/Ac N/Ac
Stage IIIB 26% 23% 48% 52%
Stage IV 67% 70% 52% 49%
Baseline KPSd 70 to 80 41% 44% 45% 52%
Baseline KPSd 90 to 100 57% 55% 55% 49%
Efficacy Outcomes
Survival    Median in months    (95% CIe) months 9.0 8.2, 11.0 7.6 6.6, 8.8 8.7 7.8, 10.1 7.0 6.0, 9.7
p-valuef p=0.008 p=0.18
Time to Disease Progression    Median in months    (95% CIe) months 5.2 4.2, 5.7 3.7 3.0, 4.3 5.0 4.2, 6.4 4.1 2.4, 4.5
   p-valuef p=0.009 p=0.015
Tumor Response 26% 10% 33% 14%
   p-valuef p<0.0001 p=0.01

The safety and efficacy of gemcitabine was evaluated in two trials, a randomized, single-blind, two-arm, active-controlled trial conducted in patients with locally advanced or metastatic pancreatic cancer who had received no prior chemotherapy and in a single-arm, open-label, multicenter trial conducted in patients with locally advanced or metastatic pancreatic cancer previously treated with 5-FU or a 5-FU-containing regimen. The first trial randomized patients to receive gemcitabine 1,000 mg/m intravenously over 30 minutes once weekly for 7 weeks followed by a one-week rest, then once weekly dosing for 3 consecutive weeks every 28-days in subsequent cycles (n=63) or to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) 600 mg/m intravenously over 30 minutes once weekly (n=63). In the second trial, all patients received gemcitabine 1,000 mg/m intravenously over 30 minutes once weekly for 7 weeks followed by a one-week rest, then once weekly dosing for 3 consecutive weeks every 28-days in subsequent cycles. The primary efficacy outcome measure in both trials was "clinical benefit response". A patient was considered to have had a clinical benefit response if either of the following occurred:

OR:

The randomized trial enrolled 126 patients across 17 sites in the US and Canada. The demographic and entry characteristics were similar between the arms (Table 15). The efficacy outcome results are shown in Table 15 and for overall survival in Figure 4. Patients treated with gemcitabine had statistically significant increases in clinical benefit response, survival, and time to disease progression compared to those randomized to receive 5-FU. No confirmed objective tumor responses were observed in either treatment arm.

Figure 4: Kaplan-Meier Survival Curve.

Table 15: Randomized Trial of Gemcitabine versus 5-Fluorouracil in Pancreatic Cancer
a      Karnofsky Performance Status.
b      p-value for clinical benefit response calculated using the two-sided test for difference in binomial proportions. All other p-values are calculated using log rank test.
Gemcitabine 5-FU
Number of patients 63 63
Demographic/Entry Characteristics    Male Median age    Range Stage IV disease Baseline KPSa ≤70 54% 62 years 37 to 79 71% 70% 54% 61 years 36 to 77 76% 68%
Efficacy Outcomes
Clinical benefit response 22.2% 4.8%
   p-valueb p=0.004
Survival    Median    (95% CI) 5.7 months (4.7, 6.9) 4.2 months (3.1, 5.1)
   p-valueb p=0.0009
Time to Disease Progression    Median    (95% CI) 2.1 months (1.9, 3.4) 0.9 months (0.9, 1.1)
   p-valueb p=0.0013

Gemcitabine for injection, USP is available in sterile single-dose vials individually packaged in a carton containing:

2 g white to off-white, lyophilized powder in a 100-mL size sterile single-dose vial - NDC 0409-0187-01

Unopened vials of gemcitabine for injection, USP are stable until the expiration date indicated on the package when stored at controlled room temperature 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) and that allows for excursions between 15° and 30°C (59° and 86°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature] [see Dosage and Administration (2.6 and 2.7)].

Distributed by Hospira, Inc., Lake Forest, IL 60045 USA  

LAB-0919-3.0

2 g Single-dose VialNDC 0409-0187-01

Sterile

Gemcitabine forInjection, USP

2 g

Rx only

(lyophilized)For Intravenous Use OnlyCaution: Cytotoxic Agent

VIAL

Hospira

1 x 2 g VialNDC 0409-0187-01

Sterile

Gemcitabine forInjection, USP

2 g

(lyophilized)

Rx only

For Intravenous Use OnlyDO NOT REFRIGERATE Single-dose Vial

Caution: Cytotoxic Agent

Manufacturer

Hospira, Inc.

Active Ingredients

Source

Drugs and Medications [33 Associated Drugs and Medications listed on BioPortfolio]

Gemcitabine [bedford laboratories]

These highlights do not include all the information needed to use gemcitabine for injection safely and effectively. See full prescribing information for gemcitabine for injection. Gemcitabine For Inje...

Gemcitabine [dr. reddy's laboratories limited ]

These highlights do not include all the information needed to used GEMCITABINE FOR INJECTION safely and effectively. See full prescribing information for GEMCITABINE FOR INJECTION. GEMCITABINE for inj...

Gemcitabine [hospira, inc.]

These highlights do not include all the information needed to use GEMCITABINE FOR INJECTION safely and effectively. See full prescribing information for GEMCITABINE FOR INJECTION.GEMCITABINE for injec...

Gemcitabine hydrochloride [bluepoint laboratories]

These highlights do not include all the information needed to use Gemcitabine for Injection safely and effectively. See full prescribing information for Gemcitabine for Injection. Gemcitabine for inje...

Gemcitabine hydrochloride [cipla usa inc.]

These highlights do not include all the information needed to use GEMCITABINE FOR INJECTION safely and effectively. See full prescribing information for GEMCITABINE FOR INJECTION. GEMCITABINE for inje...

Clinical Trials [1275 Associated Clinical Trials listed on BioPortfolio]

EndoTAG-1 / Gemcitabine Combination Therapy to Treat Locally Advanced and/or Metastatic Adenocarcinoma of the Pancreas

The intention of this trial is to evaluate safety and efficacy of a combination treatment of EndoTAG-1 with Gemcitabine versus Gemcitabine monotherapy.

A Phase I/II Open-Label Dose-Escalation Clinical Trial of CPI-613 in Combination With Gemcitabine in Cancer Patients

The objectives of this study are: - To determine the safety and MTD of CPI-613, when used in combination with Gemcitabine, in cancer patients. - To compare the safety an...

Nab-Paclitaxel Plus Gemcitabine Versus Gemcitabine For The First Line Treatment of Pancreas Cancer

This is a randomized, multicenter, phase II study of with nab-paclitaxel plus gemcitabine or gemcitabine alone for the treatment of chemotherapy-naïve patients with locally advanced or me...

Gemcitabine and Docetaxel With Or Without Bevacizumab in Leiomyosarcoma, Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma and Angiosarcoma

The purpose of this study is to test whether an experimental drug called bevacizumab given together with gemcitabine and docetaxel, a standard chemotherapy regimen for sarcoma, can help sa...

Randomized Trial of Docetaxel and Gemcitabine Versus Gemcitabine in Elderly Patients With NSCLC

This trial will compare the efficacy of the docetaxel and gemcitabine combination versus monotherapy with gemcitabine as first-line treatment in elderly patients with advanced NSCLC

PubMed Articles [110 Associated PubMed Articles listed on BioPortfolio]

Comparison of Gemcitabine monotherapy with Gemcitabine and Cisplatin combination in metastatic pancreatic cancer: a retrospective analysis.

Gemcitabine is among the standard first-line agents for the treatment of metastatic pancreatic cancer. However, as the median survival with gemcitabine monotherapy is 6 months, different combinations ...

USP9X inhibition improves gemcitabine sensitivity in pancreatic cancer by inhibiting autophagy.

Gemcitabine is the cornerstone of pancreatic cancer treatment. Although effective in most patients, development of tumor resistance to gemcitabine can critically limit its efficacy. The mechanisms res...

Digoxin sensitizes gemcitabine-resistant pancreatic cancer cells to gemcitabine via inhibiting Nrf2 signaling pathway.

Chemoresistance is a major therapeutic obstacle in the treatment of human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). As an oxidative stress responsive transcription factor, nuclear factor erythroid 2-re...

Gemcitabine exhibits a suppressive effect on pancreatic cancer cell growth by regulating processing of PVT1 to miR1207.

Gemcitabine serves as a first-line chemotherapy agent for advanced pancreatic cancer. However, the molecular basis by which gemcitabine exerts its effects is not well-established, and the targeted gen...

Poly (L-glutamic acid)-g-methoxy poly (ethylene glycol)-gemcitabine conjugate improves the anticancer efficacy of gemcitabine.

Gemcitabine is widely used for anticancer therapy. However, its short blood circulation time and poor stability greatly impair its application. To solve this problem, we prepared a poly (L-glutamic ac...

Advertisement
Quick Search
Advertisement
Advertisement

 

Relevant Topics

Cancer
  Bladder Cancer Brain Cancer Breast Cancer Cancer Cervical Cancer Colorectal Head & Neck Cancers Hodgkin Lymphoma Leukemia Lung Cancer Melanoma Myeloma Ovarian Cancer Pancreatic Cancer ...

Gilotrif (afatinib)
GILOTRIF (afatinib) is a kinase inhibitor indicated for the first-line treatment of patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) whose tumors have epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) exon 19 deletions or exon 21 (L8...


Drugs and Medication Quicklinks


Searches Linking to this Drug Record