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These highlights do not include all the information needed to use OSMITROL safely and effectively. See full prescribing information for OSMITROL. OSMITROL (mannitol injection), for intravenous useInitial U.S. Approval: 1964 | Osmitrol [Baxter Healthcare Corporation] | BioPortfolio

13:22 EST 27th January 2019 | BioPortfolio

Note: While we endeavour to keep our records up-to-date one should not rely on these details being accurate without first consulting a professional. Click here to read our full medical disclaimer.

OSMITROL is indicated for:

Preparation

Administration

Prior to administration of OSMITROL, evaluate renal, cardiac and pulmonary status of the patient and correct fluid and electrolyte imbalances.

The total dosage, concentration, and rate of administration depend on the age, weight, and condition of the patient being treated, including fluid requirement, electrolyte balance, serum osmolality, urinary output, and concomitant therapy.

The following outline of administration and dosage is only a general guide to therapy.

Reduction of Intraocular Pressure

The recommended dosage is 1.5 to 2 grams/kg of a 20% w/v solution (7.5 to 10 mL/kg) or as a 15% w/v solution (10 to 13 mL/kg) as a single dose administered intravenously over at least 30 minutes. When used preoperatively, administer OSMITROL sixty to ninety minutes before surgery to achieve maximal reduction of intraocular pressure before operation.

Reduction of Intracranial Pressure

Usually a maximum reduction in intracranial pressure can be achieved with a dose of 0.25 gram/kg given intravenously as an intravenous infusion over 30 minutes which may be repeated every six to eight hours.

During and following OSMITROL infusion, monitor fluid and electrolytes, serum osmolarity, and renal, cardiac and pulmonary function. Discontinue OSMITROL if renal, cardiac, or pulmonary status worsens or CNS toxicity develops [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.5)].

OSMITROL Injection:

OSMITROL is contraindicated in patients with:

Serious hypersensitivity reactions, including anaphylaxis, hypotension and dyspnea resulting in cardiac arrest and death have been reported with OSMITROL [see Adverse Reactions (6)].

Stop the infusion immediately if signs or symptoms of a suspected hypersensitivity reaction develop. Initiate appropriate therapeutic countermeasures as clinically indicated. During and following OSMITROL infusion, monitor the patient clinically and monitor laboratory tests for changes in fluid and electrolyte status. Discontinue OSMITROL if renal function worsens [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)].

Renal complications, including irreversible renal failure have been reported in patients receiving mannitol. In patients with severe renal impairment, a test dose should be utilized. A second test dose may be tried if there is an inadequate response, but no more than two test doses should be attempted [see Dosage and Administration (2.2)].

Reversible, oliguric acute kidney injury (AKI) has occurred in patients with normal pretreatment renal function who received large intravenous doses of OSMITROL. Although the osmotic nephrosis associated with OSMITROL administration is in principle reversible, osmotic nephrosis in general is known to potentially proceed chronic or even end-stage renal failure. Monitor renal function closely during OSMITROL infusion. Patients with pre-existing renal disease, patients with conditions that put them at high risk for renal failure, or those receiving potentially nephrotoxic drugs or other diuretics, are at increased risk of renal failure following administration of OSMITROL. Avoid concomitant administration of nephrotoxic drugs (e.g., aminoglycosides) or, other diuretics with OSMITROL, if possible [see Drug Interactions (7.1, 7.2)].

Patients with oliguric AKI who subsequently develop anuria while receiving mannitol are at risk of congestive heart failure, pulmonary edema, hypertensive crisis, coma and death.

During and following OSMITROL infusion for the reduction in intracranial pressure, monitor the patient clinically and laboratory tests for changes in fluid and electrolyte status. Discontinue OSMITROL if CNS toxicity develops. [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)].

OSMITROL should be administered with caution to patients with impaired renal function [see Dosage and Administration (2.2)].

If the urine output declines during OSMITROL infusion, the patient’s clinical status should be closely monitored for developing renal impairment, and the OSMITROL infusion suspended, if necessary.

OSMITROL should not be administered in patients with renal dysfunction until volume and electrolytes have been restored [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)].

CNS toxicity manifested by, e.g., confusion, lethargy, coma has been reported in patients treated with mannitol, some resulting in death, in particular in the presence of impaired renal function CNS toxicity may result from high serum mannitol concentrations, serum hyperosmolarity resulting in intracellular dehydration within CNS, hyponatremia or other disturbances of electrolyte and acid/base balance secondary to mannitol administration [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)].

At high concentrations, mannitol may cross the blood brain barrier and interfere with the ability of the brain to maintain the pH of the cerebrospinal fluid especially in the presence of acidosis.

In patients with preexisting compromise of the blood brain barrier, the risk of increasing cerebral edema (general and focal) associated with repeated or continued use of OSMITROL must be individually weighed against the expected benefits.

A rebound increase of intracranial pressure may occur several hours after the infusion. Patients with a compromised blood brain barrier are at increased risk.

Concomitant administration of neurotoxic drugs (e.g., aminoglycosides) with OSMITROL may potentiate neurotoxicity. Avoid concomitant use of neurotoxic drugs, if possible [see Drug Interactions (7.3)].

Depending on dosage and duration, administration of OSMITROL may result in hypervolemia leading to or exacerbating existing congestive heart failure. Accumulation of mannitol due to insufficient renal excretion increases risk of hypervolemia. Mannitol-induced osmotic diuresis may cause or worsen dehydration/hypovolemia and hemoconcentration. Administration of OSMITROL may also cause hyperosmolarity [see Description (11)].

Depending on dosage and duration of administration, electrolyte and acid/base imbalances may also result from transcellular shifts in water and electrolytes, osmotic diuresis and/or other mechanisms. Such imbalances may be severe and potentially fatal.

Imbalances that may result from OSMITROL administration include:

Pediatric patients less than two years of age, particularly preterm and term neonates, may be at higher risk for fluid and electrolyte abnormalities following OSMITROL administration due to decreased glomerular filtration rate and limited ability to concentrate urine [see Use in Specific Populations (8.4)].

During and following OSMITROL infusion for the reduction in intracranial pressure, monitor fluid and electrolyte status and discontinue OSMITROL if imbalances occur [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)].

During and following OSMITROL infusion for the reduction in intracranial pressure, monitor:

Discontinue OSMITROL if renal, cardiac, or pulmonary status worsens or CNS toxicity develops [see Contraindications (4)].

The infusion of hypertonic solutions through a peripheral vein, including OSMITROL at a concentration of 10% w/v or greater, may result in peripheral venous irritation, including phlebitis. Other severe infusion site reactions, such as compartment syndrome and swelling associated with extravasation, can occur with administration of OSMITROL [see Adverse Reactions (6)]. OSMITROL is preferably for administration into a large central vein [see Dosage and Administration (2.1)].

High concentrations of mannitol can cause false low results for inorganic phosphorus blood concentrations [see Drug Interactions (7.6)].

Mannitol may produce false positive results in tests for blood ethylene glycol concentrations [see Drug Interactions (7.6)].

The following adverse reactions from voluntary reports or clinical studies have been reported with OSMITROL. Because many of these reactions were reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.

Concomitant administration of nephrotoxic drugs (e.g., cyclosporine, aminoglycosides) increases the risk of renal failure following administration of mannitol. Avoid use of nephrotoxic drugs with OSMITROL, if possible [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].

Concomitant administration of other diuretics may potentiate the renal toxicity of mannitol. Avoid use of other diuretics with OSMITROL, if possible [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].

Concomitant administration of systemic neurotoxic drugs (e.g., aminoglycosides) with OSMITROL may potentiate the CNS toxicity of mannitol. Avoid use of systemic neurotoxic drugs with OSMITROL, if possible[see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].

The development of electrolyte imbalances (e.g., hyperkalemia, hypokalemia) associated with mannitol administration may result in cardiac adverse reactions in patients receiving drugs that are sensitive to such imbalances (e.g., digoxin, drugs that prolong the QT interval, neuromuscular blocking agents) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)]. During and following OSMITROL infusion, monitor serum electrolytes and discontinue OSMITROL if cardiac status worsens [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)].

Mannitol therapy may increase the elimination, and decrease the effectiveness of treatment with, drugs that undergo significant renal elimination. Concomitant administration of mannitol with lithium may initially increase the elimination of lithium but may also increase the risk of lithium toxicity if patients develop hypovolemia or renal impairment. In patients receiving lithium, consider holding lithium doses during treatment with OSMITROL. In patients requiring concomitant administration of lithium and OSMITROL, frequently monitor serum lithium concentrations and for signs of lithium toxicity.

High concentrations of mannitol can cause false low results for inorganic phosphorus blood concentrations when an assay based on the conversion of phosphate (orthophosphate) to the phosphomolybdate complex is used.

Mannitol may produce false positive results in tests for blood ethylene glycol concentrations in which mannitol is initially oxidized to an aldehyde.

Animal reproduction studies have not been conducted with mannitol. It is also not known whether mannitol can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman or can affect reproduction capacity. OSMITROL should be given to a pregnant woman only if clearly needed.

Studies have not been conducted to evaluate the effects of mannitol on labor and delivery. Caution should be exercised when administering OSMITROL during labor and delivery.

It is not known whether mannitol is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when OSMITROL is administered to a nursing woman.

OSMITROL is approved for use in the pediatric population for the reduction of intracranial and intraocular pressure. Studies have not defined the optimal dose of OSMITROL in the pediatric population. The safety profile for mannitol use in pediatric patients is similar to adults at dosages described in labeling. However, pediatric patients less than two years of age, particularly preterm and term neonates, may be at higher risk for fluid and electrolyte abnormalities following OSMITROL administration due to decreased glomerular filtration rate and limited ability to concentrate urine [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)].

Mannitol is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney and the risk of adverse reactions to this drug may be greater in elderly patients with impaired renal function. Evaluate the renal, cardiac and pulmonary status of the patient and correct fluid and electrolyte imbalances prior to administration of OSMITROL [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.5)].

Patients with pre-existing renal disease, patients with conditions that put them at high risk for renal failure, or those receiving potentially nephrotoxic drugs or other diuretics, are at increased risk of renal failure with administration of mannitol. Evaluate the renal, cardiac and pulmonary status of the patient and correct fluid and electrolyte imbalances prior to administration of OSMITROL [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.5)].

Signs and symptoms of overdose with OSMITROL include renal failure and AKI, hypo/hypervolemia, hyperosmolarity and electrolyte imbalances, CNS toxicity (e.g., coma, seizures), some of which can be fatal [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2, 5.3, 5.4)].

Management of overdosage with OSMITROL is symptomatic and supportive. Discontinue the infusion and institute appropriate corrective measures with particular attention to renal, cardiac and pulmonary systems. Correct fluid and electrolyte imbalances.

OSMITROL is dialyzable (hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis), hemodialysis may increase OSMITROL elimination.

OSMITROL is a sterile, nonpyrogenic solution of Mannitol, USP in a single-dose flexible container for intravenous administration. It contains no antimicrobial agents. Mannitol is a six carbon sugar alcohol prepared commercially by the reduction of dextrose. Although virtually inert metabolically in humans, it occurs naturally in fruits and vegetables. OSMITROL is an osmotic diuretic. The pH is adjusted with sodium hydroxide or hydrochloric acid. Composition, osmolarity, and pH are shown in Table 1.

The plastic container is fabricated from a specially formulated polyvinyl chloride (PL 146 Plastic). The amount of water that can permeate from inside the container into the overwrap is insufficient to affect the solution significantly. Solutions in contact with the plastic container can leach out certain of its chemical components in very small amounts within the expiration period, e.g., di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), up to 5 parts per million. However, the safety of the plastic has been confirmed in tests in animals according to USP biological tests for plastic containers as well as by tissue culture toxicity studies.

Table 1   Composition
Size (mL) Mannitol, USP
(g/L)
Normal physiologic osmolarity range is approximately 280 to 310 mOsmol/L.Osmolarity
(mOsmol/L) (calc)
pH
5% OSMITROL 1000 50 274 5.0
(4.5 TO 7.0)
10% OSMITROL 500 100 549 5.0
(4.5 TO 7.0)
15% OSMITROL 500 150 823 5.0
(4.5 TO 7.0)
20% OSMITROL 250 200 1098 5.0
(4.5 TO 7.0)
500

Mannitol, when administered intravenously, exerts its osmotic diuretic effect as a solute of relatively small molecular size being largely confined to the extracellular space. Mannitol hinders tubular reabsorption of water and enhances excretion of sodium and chloride by elevating the osmolarity of the glomerular filtrate.

This increase in extracellular osmolarity affected by the intravenous administration of mannitol will induce the movement of intracellular water to the extracellular and vascular spaces. This action underlies the role of mannitol in reducing intracranial pressure, intracranial edema, and intraocular pressure.

Distribution

Mannitol distributes largely in the extracellular space in 20 to 40 minutes after intravenous administration. The volume of distribution of mannitol is approximately 17 L in adults.

Elimination

In subjects with normal renal function, the total clearance is 87 to 109 mL/min. The elimination half-life of mannitol is 0.5 to 2.5 hours.

Metabolism

Only relatively small amount of the dose administered is metabolized after intravenous administration of OSMITROL to healthy subjects.

Excretion

Mannitol is eliminated primarily via the kidneys in unchanged form. Mannitol is filtered by the glomeruli, exhibits less than 10% of tubular reabsorption, and is not secreted by tubular cells. Following intravenous administration, approximately 80% of an administered dose of mannitol is estimated to be excreted in the urine in three hours with lesser amounts thereafter.

Specific Populations

Patients with Renal Impairment

In patients with renal impairment, the elimination half-life of mannitol is prolonged. In a published study, in patients with renal impairment including acute renal failure and end stage renal failure, the elimination half-life of mannitol was estimated at about 36 hours, based on serum osmolarity. In patients with renal impairment on dialysis, the elimination half-life of mannitol was reduced to 6 and 21 hours during hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis, respectively. [see Use in Specific Populations (8.6) , Overdosage (10)]

OSMITROL injection is supplied in single-dose, flexible VIAFLEX plastic containers and is available as follows:

Do not remove container from overwrap until intended for use.

Exposure of pharmaceutical products to heat should be minimized. Avoid excessive heat. Store at room temperature (25°C); brief exposure up to 40°C does not adversely affect the product.

Code Size (mL) NDC Product Name
2D5604 1000 0338-0351-04 5% (0.05 g/mL mannitol, USP)
2D5613 500 0338-0353-03 10% (0.1 g/mL mannitol, USP)
2D5623 500 0338-0355-03 15% (0.15 g/mL mannitol, USP)
2D5632 250 0338-0357-02 20% (0.2 g/mL mannitol, USP)
2D5633 500 0338-0357-03 20% (0.2 g/mL mannitol, USP)

Inform patients or caregivers of the following risks of OSMITROL:

Manufactured by:Baxter Healthcare CorporationDeerfield, IL 60015 USA

Printed in USA

Baxter, Osmitrol, and Viaflex are trademarks of Baxter International Inc.

07-19-72-662

2D5604NDC 0338-0351-04

5% OSMITROLInjection (5% Mannitol Injection USP)

1000 mL

EACH 100 mL CONTAINS 5 g MANNITOL USP pH ADJUSTED WITHSODIUM HYDROXIDE OR HYDROCHLORIC ACID pH 5.0 (4.5 TO 7.0)OSMOLARITY 274 mOsmol/L (CALC) STERILE NONPYROGENICSINGLE DOSE CONTAINER OSMOTIC DIURETIC DOSAGE INTRAVENOUSLYAS DIRECTED BY A PHYSICIAN SEE DIRECTIONS CAUTIONS SQUEEZE ANDINSPECT INNER BAG WHICH MAINTAINS PRODUCT STERILITY DISCARD IFLEAKS ARE FOUND DO NOT ADMINISTER SIMULTANEOUSLY WITH BLOODMUST NOT BE USED IN SERIES CONNECTIONS DO NOT USE UNLESSSOLUTION IS CLEAR RX ONLY STORE UNIT IN MOISTURE BARRIEROVERWRAP AT ROOM TEMPERATURE (25°C/77ºF) UNTIL READY TO USEAVOID EXCESSIVE HEAT SEE INSERT

VIAFLEX CONTAINERPL 146 PLASTIC

FOR PRODUCT INFORMATION1-800-933-0303

BAXTER OSMITROL VIAFLEXAND PL 146 ARE TRADEMARKS OFBAXTER INTERNATIONAL INC 

BAXTER HEALTHCARE CORPORATION DEERFIELD IL 60015 USAMADE IN USA

2D5604X 14-1000 ML VIAFLEX CONTAINER

5% OSMITROL INJECTION 5% MANNITOL INJECTION, USP

EXP XXXXX

SECONDARY BAR CODE(17) YYMM00 (10) XXXXX

LOT XXXXX

PRIMARY BAR CODE(01) 50303380351041

2D5613 NDC 0338-0353-03

10% OSMITROL Injection (10% Mannitol Injection USP)

500 mL

EACH 100 mL CONTAINS 10 g MANNITOL USP pH ADJUSTED WITH SODIUM HYDROXIDE OR HYDROCHLORIC ACID pH 5.0 (4.5 TO 7.0) HYPERTONIC OSMOLARITY 549 mOsmol/L (CALC) STERILE NONPYROGENIC SINGLE DOSE CONTAINER OSMOTIC DIURETIC DOSAGE INTRAVENOUSLYAS DIRECTED BY A PHYSICIAN SEE DIRECTIONS CAUTIONS SQUEEZE AND INSPECT INNER BAG WHICH MAINTAINS PRODUCT STERILITY DISCARD IF LEAKS ARE FOUND DO NOT ADMINISTER SIMULTANEOUSLY WITH BLOOD MUST NOT BE USED IN SERIES CONNECTIONS DO NOT USE UNLESSSOLUTION IS CLEAR RX ONLY STORE UNIT IN MOISTURE BARRIER OVERWRAP AT ROOM TEMPERATURE (25°C/77ºF) UNTIL READY TO USE AVOID EXCESSIVE HEAT SEE INSERT

VIAFLEX CONTAINERPL 146 PLASTIC

FOR PRODUCT INFORMATION1-800-933-0303

BAXTER OSMITROL VIAFLEXAND PL 146 ARE TRADEMARKS OFBAXTER INTERNATIONAL INC 

BAXTER HEALTHCARE CORPORATION DEERFIELD IL 60015 USAMADE IN USA

2D5613Q 24-500 ML

VIAFLEX CONTAINER

10% OSMITTROL INJECTION10% OSMITROL INJECTION, USP

EXPXXXXX

SECONDARY BAR CODE(17) YYMM00 (10) XXXXX

LOTXXXXX

PRIMARY BAR CODE(01) 50303380353038

2D5623 NDC 0338-0355-03

15% OSMITROL Injection (15% Mannitol Injection USP)

500 mL

EACH 100 mL CONTAINS 15 g MANNITOL USP pH ADJUSTED WITH SODIUM HYDROXIDE OR HYDROCHLORIC ACID pH 5.0 (4.5 TO 7.0) OSMOLARITY 823 mOsmol/L (CALC) HYPERTONIC MAY CAUSEVEIN DAMAGE STERILE NONPYROGENIC SINGLE DOSE CONTAINER OSMOTIC DIURETIC DOSAGE INTRAVENOUSLY AS DIRECTED BY A PHYSICIAN USING A FILTER TYPE SET SEE DIRECTIONS CAUTIONS SQUEEZE AND INSPECT INNER BAG WHICH MAINTAINS PRODUCT STERILITY DISCARD IF LEAKS ARE FOUND DO NOT ADMINISTER SIMULTANEOUSLY WITH BLOOD MUST NOT BE USED IN SERIES CONNECTIONS DO NOT USE UNLESS SOLUTION IS CLEAR IF CRYSTALS ARE VISIBLE REDISSOLVEBY WARMING UNIT TO 70°C/158°F WITH AGITATION COOL TO ROOMTEMPERATURE AND REINSPECT FOR CRYSTALS BEFORE INFUSION RX ONLY STORE UNIT IN MOISTURE BARRIER OVERWRAP AT ROOM TEMPERATURE (25°C/77ºF) UNTIL READY TO USE AVOID EXCESSIVE HEAT SEE INSERT

VIAFLEX CONTAINERPL 146 PLASTIC

FOR PRODUCT INFORMATION1-800-933-0303

BAXTER OSMITROL VIAFLEXAND PL 146 ARE TRADEMARKS OFBAXTER INTERNATIONAL INC 

BAXTER HEALTHCARE CORPORATION DEERFIELD IL 60015 USAMADE IN USA

2D5623Q 24-500 MLVIAFLEX CONTAINER

15% OSMITROL INJECTION15% OSMITROL INJECTION, USP

EXPXXXXX

SECONDARY BAR CODE(17) YYMM00 (10) XXXXX

LOTXXXXX

PRIMARY BAR CODE(01) 50303380355032

LOT EXP

2D5632 NDC 0338-0357-02

20% OSMITROL Injection (20% Mannitol Injection USP)

250 mL EACH 100 mL CONTAINS 20 g MANNITOL USP pH ADJUSTED WITH SODIUM HYDROXIDE OR HYDROCHLORIC ACID pH 5.0 (4.5 TO 7.0) OSMOLARITY 1098 mOsmol/L (CALC) HYPERTONIC MAY CAUSE VEIN DAMAGE STERILE NONPYROGENIC SINGLE DOSE CONTAINER OSMOTIC DIURETIC DOSAGEINTRAVENOUSLY AS DIRECTED BY A PHYSICIAN USING A FILTER TYPE SET SEE DIRECTIONS CAUTIONS SQUEEZE AND INSPECT INNER BAG WHICH MAINTAINS PRODUCT STERILITY DISCARD IF LEAKS ARE FOUND DO NOT ADMINISTER SIMULTANEOUSLY WITH BLOOD MUST NOT BE USED IN SERIES CONNECTIONS DO NOT USE UNLESS SOLUTION IS CLEAR IF CRYSTALS ARE VISIBLE REDISSOLVE BY WARMING UNIT TO 70°C/158°F WITH AGITATION COOL TO ROOM TEMPERATURE AND REINSPECT FOR CRYSTALS BEFORE INFUSION RX ONLY STORE UNIT IN MOISTURE BARRIER OVERWRAP AT ROOM TEMPERATURE (25°C/77ºF) UNTIL READY TO USE AVOID EXCESSIVE HEAT SEE INSERT

VIAFLEX CONTAINER PL 146 PLASTIC

FOR PRODUCT INFORMATION1-800-933-0303

BAXTER OSMITROL VIAFLEXAND PL 146 ARE TRADEMARKS OFBAXTER INTERNATIONAL INC 

BAXTER HEALTHCARE CORPORATION DEERFIELD IL 60015 USAMADE IN USA

2D5623Q 36-500 MLVIAFLEX CONTAINER

20% OSMITROL INJECTION20% OSMITROL INJECTION, USP

EXPXXXXX

SECONDARY BAR CODE(17) YYMM00 (10) XXXXX

LOTXXXXX

PRIMARY BAR CODE(01) 50303380357029

Manufacturer

Baxter Healthcare Corporation

Active Ingredients

Source

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