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These highlights do not include all the information needed to use INDOMETHACIN CAPSULES safely and effectively. See full prescribing information for INDOMETHACIN CAPSULES. INDOMETHACIN capsules, for oral useInitial U.S. Approval: 1965 | Indomethacin [A-S Medication Solutions] | BioPortfolio

13:51 EST 27th January 2019 | BioPortfolio
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Cardiovascular Thrombotic Events

Gastrointestinal Bleeding, Ulceration, and Perforation

Indomethacin capsules are indicated for:

Carefully consider the potential benefits and risks of indomethacin capsules and other treatment options before deciding to use indomethacin capsules. Use the lowest effective dosage for the shortest duration consistent with individual patient treatment goals [see Warnings and Precautions (5) ].

After observing the response to initial therapy with indomethacin, the dose and frequency should be adjusted to suit an individual patient’s needs.

Adverse reactions generally appear to correlate with the dose of indomethacin. Therefore, every effort should be made to determine the lowest effective dosage for the individual patient.

Dosage recommendations for active stages of the following:

Indomethacin capsules 25 mg twice a day or three times a day. If this is well tolerated, increase the daily dosage by 25 mg or by 50 mg, if required by continuing symptoms, at weekly intervals until a satisfactory response is obtained or until a total daily dose of 150 to 200 mg is reached. Doses above this amount generally do not increase the effectiveness of the drug.

In patients who have persistent night pain and/or morning stiffness, the giving of a large portion, up to a maximum of 100 mg, of the total daily dose at bedtime may be helpful in affording relief. The total daily dose should not exceed 200 mg. In acute flares of chronic rheumatoid arthritis, it may be necessary to increase the dosage by 25 mg or, if required, by 50 mg daily.

If minor adverse effects develop as the dosage is increased, reduce the dosage rapidly to a tolerated dose and observe the patient closely.

If severe adverse reactions occur, stop the drug. After the acute phase of the disease is under control, an attempt to reduce the daily dose should be made repeatedly until the patient is receiving the smallest effective dose or the drug is discontinued.

Careful instructions to, and observations of, the individual patient are essential to the prevention of serious, irreversible, including fatal, adverse reactions.

As advancing years appear to increase the possibility of adverse reactions, indomethacin capsules should be used with greater care in the elderly [see Use in Specific Populations (8.5) ].

Indomethacin capsules 75 to 150 mg daily in 3 or 4 divided doses.

The drug should be discontinued after the signs and symptoms of inflammation have been controlled for several days. The usual course of therapy is 7 to 14 days.

Indomethacin capsules 50 mg three times a day until pain is tolerable. The dose should then be rapidly reduced to complete cessation of the drug. Definite relief of pain has been reported within 2 to 4 hours. Tenderness and heat usually subside in 24 to 36 hours, and swelling gradually disappears in 3 to 5 days.

Indomethacin Capsules, USP are available containing either 25 mg or 50 mg of indomethacin, USP.

The 25 mg capsule is a size ‘3’ two piece opaque green hard gelatin capsule imprinted with ‘G406’ on body and ‘G’ on cap, filled with white-to off-white granular powder.

The 50 mg capsule is a size ‘1’ two piece opaque green hard gelatin capsules imprinted with ‘G302’ on body and ‘G’ on cap filled with white to off-white granular powder.

Indomethacin capsules are contraindicated in the following patients:

Clinical trials of several COX-2 selective and nonselective NSAIDs of up to three years duration have shown an increased risk of serious cardiovascular (CV) thrombotic events, including myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke, which can be fatal. Based on available data, it is unclear that the risk for CV thrombotic events is similar for all NSAIDs. The relative increase in serious CV thrombotic events over baseline conferred by NSAID use appears to be similar in those with and without known CV disease or risk factors for CV disease. However, patients with known CV disease or risk factors had a higher absolute incidence of excess serious CV thrombotic events, due to their increased baseline rate. Some observational studies found that this increased risk of serious CV thrombotic events began as early as the first weeks of treatment. The increase in CV thrombotic risk has been observed most consistently at higher doses.

To minimize the potential risk for an adverse CV event in NSAID-treated patients, use the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration possible. Physicians and patients should remain alert for the development of such events, throughout the entire treatment course, even in the absence of previous CV symptoms. Patients should be informed about the symptoms of serious CV events and the steps to take if they occur.

There is no consistent evidence that concurrent use of aspirin mitigates the increased risk of serious CV thrombotic events associated with NSAID use. The concurrent use of aspirin and an NSAID, such as indomethacin, increases the risk of serious gastrointestinal (GI) events [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2) ].

Status Post Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) Surgery

Two large, controlled clinical trials of a COX-2 selective NSAID for the treatment of pain in the first 10 to 14 days following CABG surgery found an increased incidence of myocardial infarction and stroke. NSAIDs are contraindicated in the setting of CABG [see Contraindications (4) ].

Post-MI Patients

Observational studies conducted in the Danish National Registry have demonstrated that patients treated with NSAIDs in the post-MI period were at increased risk of reinfarction, CV-related death, and all-cause mortality beginning in the first week of treatment. In this same cohort, the incidence of death in the first year post-MI was 20 per 100 person years in NSAID-treated patients compared to 12 per 100 person years in non-NSAID exposed patients. Although the absolute rate of death declined somewhat after the first year post-MI, the increased relative risk of death in NSAID users persisted over at least the next four years of follow-up.

Avoid the use of indomethacin capsules in patients with a recent MI unless the benefits are expected to outweigh the risk of recurrent CV thrombotic events. If indomethacin capsules is used in patients with a recent MI, monitor patients for signs of cardiac ischemia.

NSAIDs, including indomethacin, cause serious gastrointestinal (GI) adverse events including inflammation, bleeding, ulceration, and perforation of the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, or large intestine, which can be fatal. These serious adverse events can occur at any time, with or without warning symptoms, in patients treated with NSAIDs. Only one in five patients who develop a serious upper GI adverse event on NSAID therapy is symptomatic. Upper GI ulcers, gross bleeding, or perforation caused by NSAIDs occurred in approximately 1% of patients treated for 3 to 6 months, and in about 2% to 4% of patients treated for one year. However, even short-term NSAID therapy is not without risk.

Risk Factors for GI Bleeding, Ulceration, and Perforation

Patients with a prior history of peptic ulcer disease and/or GI bleeding who used NSAIDs had a greater than 10-fold increased risk for developing a GI bleed compared to patients without these risk factors. Other factors that increase the risk of GI bleeding in patients treated with NSAIDs include longer duration of NSAID therapy; concomitant use of oral corticosteroids, aspirin, anticoagulants, or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs); smoking; use of alcohol; older age; and poor general health status. Most postmarketing reports of fatal GI events occurred in elderly or debilitated patients. Additionally, patients with advanced liver disease and/or coagulopathy are at increased risk for GI bleeding.

Strategies to Minimize the GI Risks in NSAID-treated patients:

Elevations of ALT or AST (three or more times the upper limit of normal [ULN]) have been reported in approximately 1% of NSAID-treated patients in clinical trials. In addition, rare, sometimes fatal, cases of severe hepatic injury, including fulminant hepatitis, liver necrosis, and hepatic failure have been reported.

Elevations of ALT or AST (less than three times ULN) may occur in up to 15% of patients treated with NSAIDs including indomethacin.

Inform patients of the warning signs and symptoms of hepatotoxicity (e.g., nausea, fatigue, lethargy, diarrhea, pruritus, jaundice, right upper quadrant tenderness, and “flu-like” symptoms). If clinical signs and symptoms consistent with liver disease develop, or if systemic manifestations occur (e.g., eosinophilia, rash, etc.), discontinue indomethacin capsules immediately, and perform a clinical evaluation of the patient.

NSAIDs, including indomethacin capsules, can lead to new onset of hypertension or worsening of preexisting hypertension, either of which may contribute to the increased incidence of CV events. Patients taking angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, thiazide diuretics, or loop diuretics may have impaired response to these therapies when taking NSAIDs [see Drug Interactions (7) ].

Monitor blood pressure (BP) during the initiation of NSAID treatment and throughout the course of therapy.

The Coxib and traditional NSAID Trialists’ Collaboration meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials demonstrated an approximately two-fold increase in hospitalizations for heart failure in COX-2 selective-treated patients and nonselective NSAID-treated patients compared to placebo-treated patients. In a Danish National Registry study of patients with heart failure, NSAID use increased the risk of MI, hospitalization for heart failure, and death.

Additionally, fluid retention and edema have been observed in some patients treated with NSAIDs. Use of indomethacin may blunt the CV effects of several therapeutic agents used to treat these medical conditions (e.g., diuretics, ACE inhibitors, or angiotensin receptor blockers [ARBs]) [see Drug Interactions (7) ].

Avoid the use of indomethacin capsules in patients with severe heart failure unless the benefits are expected to outweigh the risk of worsening heart failure. If indomethacin capsules are used in patients with severe heart failure, monitor patients for signs of worsening heart failure.

Renal Toxicity

Long-term administration of NSAIDs has resulted in renal papillary necrosis and other renal injury.

Renal toxicity has also been seen in patients in whom renal prostaglandins have a compensatory role in the maintenance of renal perfusion. In these patients, administration of an NSAID may cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation and, secondarily, in renal blood flow, which may precipitate overt renal decompensation. Patients at greatest risk of this reaction are those with impaired renal function, dehydration, hypovolemia, heart failure, liver dysfunction, those taking diuretics and ACE inhibitors or ARBs, and the elderly. Discontinuation of NSAID therapy is usually followed by recovery to the pretreatment state.

No information is available from controlled clinical studies regarding the use of indomethacin capsules in patients with advanced renal disease. The renal effects of indomethacin capsules may hasten the progression of renal dysfunction in patients with preexisting renal disease.

Correct volume status in dehydrated or hypovolemic patients prior to initiating indomethacin capsules. Monitor renal function in patients with renal or hepatic impairment, heart failure, dehydration, or hypovolemia during use of indomethacin capsules [see Drug Interactions (7) ]. Avoid the use of indomethacin capsules in patients with advanced renal disease unless the benefits are expected to outweigh the risk of worsening renal function. If indomethacin capsules are used in patients with advanced renal disease, monitor patients for signs of worsening renal function.

It has been reported that the addition of the potassium-sparing diuretic, triamterene, to a maintenance schedule of indomethacin resulted in reversible acute renal failure in two of four healthy volunteers. Indomethacin and triamterene should not be administered together.

Hyperkalemia

Increases in serum potassium concentration, including hyperkalemia, have been reported with use of NSAIDs, even in some patients without renal impairment. In patients with normal renal function, these effects have been attributed to a hyporeninemic-hypoaldosteronism state.

Both Indomethacin and potassium-sparing diuretics may be associated with increased serum potassium levels. The potential effects of indomethacin and potassium-sparing diuretics on potassium levels and renal function should be considered when these agents are administered concurrently.

Indomethacin has been associated with anaphylactic reactions in patients with and without known hypersensitivity to indomethacin and in patients with aspirin-sensitive asthma [see Contraindications (4) and Warnings and Precautions (5.8) ].

Seek emergency help if an anaphylactic reaction occurs.

A subpopulation of patients with asthma may have aspirin-sensitive asthma which may include chronic rhinosinusitis complicated by nasal polyps; severe, potentially fatal bronchospasm; and/or intolerance to aspirin and other NSAIDs. Because cross-reactivity between aspirin and other NSAIDs has been reported in such aspirin-sensitive patients, indomethacin capsules are contraindicated in patients with this form of aspirin sensitivity [see Contraindications (4) ]. When indomethacin capsules are used in patients with preexisting asthma (without known aspirin sensitivity), monitor patients for changes in the signs and symptoms of asthma.

NSAIDs, including indomethacin, can cause serious skin adverse reactions such as exfoliative dermatitis, Stevens-Johnson Syndrome (SJS), and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), which can be fatal. These serious events may occur without warning. Inform patients about the signs and symptoms of serious skin reactions, and to discontinue the use of indomethacin capsules at the first appearance of skin rash or any other sign of hypersensitivity.

Indomethacin capsules are contraindicated in patients with previous serious skin reactions to NSAIDs [see Contraindications (4) ].

Indomethacin may cause premature closure of the fetal ductus arteriosus. Avoid use of NSAIDs, including indomethacin capsules, in pregnant women starting at 30 weeks of gestation (third trimester) [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1) ].

Anemia has occurred in NSAID-treated patients. This may be due to occult or gross blood loss, fluid retention, or an incompletely described effect on erythropoiesis. If a patient treated with indomethacin capsules has any signs or symptoms of anemia, monitor hemoglobin or hematocrit.

NSAIDs, including indomethacin capsules, may increase the risk of bleeding events. Co-morbid conditions, such as coagulation disorders, or concomitant use of warfarin, other anticoagulants, antiplatelet agents (e.g., aspirin), serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), and serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) may increase this risk. Monitor these patients for signs of bleeding [see Drug Interactions (7) ].

The pharmacological activity of indomethacin capsules in reducing inflammation, and possibly fever, may diminish the utility of diagnostic signs in detecting infections.

Because serious GI bleeding, hepatotoxicity, and renal injury can occur without warning symptoms or signs, consider monitoring patients on long-term NSAID treatment with a CBC and a chemistry profile periodically [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2, 5.3, 5.6) ].

Indomethacin capsules may aggravate depression or other psychiatric disturbances, epilepsy, and parkinsonism, and should be used with considerable caution in patients with these conditions. Discontinue indomethacin capsules if severe CNS adverse reactions develop.

Indomethacin capsules may cause drowsiness; therefore, caution patients about engaging in activities requiring mental alertness and motor coordination, such as driving a car. Indomethacin may also cause headache. Headache which persists despite dosage reduction requires cessation of therapy with indomethacin capsules.

Corneal deposits and retinal disturbances, including those of the macula, have been observed in some patients who had received prolonged therapy with indomethacin capsules. Be alert to the possible association between the changes noted and indomethacin capsules. It is advisable to discontinue therapy if such changes are observed. Blurred vision may be a significant symptom and warrants a thorough ophthalmological examination. Since these changes may be asymptomatic, ophthalmologic examination at periodic intervals is desirable in patients receiving prolonged therapy. Indomethacin capsules are not indicated for long-term treatment.

The following adverse reactions are discussed in greater detail in other sections of the labeling:

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in clinical practice.

In a gastroscopic study in 45 healthy subjects, the number of gastric mucosal abnormalities was significantly higher in the group receiving indomethacin capsules than in the group taking indomethacin suppositories or placebo.

In a double-blind comparative clinical study involving 175 patients with rheumatoid arthritis, however, the incidence of upper gastrointestinal adverse effects with indomethacin capsules or suppositories was comparable. The incidence of lower gastrointestinal adverse effects was greater in the suppository group.

The adverse reactions for indomethacin capsules listed in the following table have been arranged into two groups: (1) incidence greater than 1%; and (2) incidence less than 1%. The incidence for group (1) was obtained from 33 double-blind controlled clinical trials reported in the literature (1,092 patients). The incidence for group (2) was based on reports in clinical trials, in the literature, and on voluntary reports since marketing. The probability of a causal relationship exists between indomethacin capsules and these adverse reactions, some of which have been reported only rarely.

The adverse reactions reported with indomethacin capsules may occur with use of the suppositories. In addition, rectal irritation and tenesmus have been reported in patients who have received the capsules.

Causal relationship unknown: Other reactions have been reported but occurred under circumstances where a causal relationship could not be established. However, in these rarely reported events, the possibility cannot be excluded. Therefore, these observations are being listed to serve as alerting information to physicians:

Cardiovascular: Thrombophlebitis

Hematologic: Although there have been several reports of leukemia, the supporting information is weak

Genitourinary: Urinary frequency

A rare occurrence of fulminant necrotizing fasciitis, particularly in association with Group Aβ hemolytic streptococcus, has been described in persons treated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, including indomethacin, sometimes with fatal outcome.

Table 1 Summary of Adverse Reactions for Indomethacin Capsules
Incidence greater than 1% Incidence less than 1%
GASTROINTESTINAL
nauseaReactions occurring in 3% to 9% of patients treated with indomethacin capsules. (Those reactions occurring in less than 3% of the patients are unmarked.) with or without vomiting
dyspepsia (including indigestion, heartburn and epigastric pain)
diarrhea
abdominal distress or pain
constipation
anorexia
bloating (includes distension)
flatulence
peptic ulcer
gastroenteritis
rectal bleeding
proctitis
single or multiple ulcerations,
including perforation and hemorrhage of the esophagus, stomach, duodenum or small and large intestines
intestinal ulceration associated with stenosis and obstruction
gastrointestinal bleeding without obvious ulcer formation and perforation of preexisting sigmoid lesions (diverticulum, carcinoma, etc.) development of ulcerative colitis and regional ileitis
ulcerative stomatitis
toxic hepatitis and jaundice (some fatal cases have been reported)
intestinal strictures (diaphragms)
CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
headache (11.7%)
dizziness
vertigo
somnolence
depression and fatigue (including malaise and listlessness)
anxiety (includes nervousness)
muscle weakness
involuntary muscle movements
insomnia
muzziness
psychic disturbances including psychotic episodes
mental confusion
drowsiness
light-headedness
syncope
paresthesia
aggravation of epilepsy and parkinsonism
depersonalization
coma
peripheral neuropathy
convulsion
dysarthria
SPECIAL SENSES
tinnitus ocular - corneal deposits and retinal disturbances, including those of the macula, have been reported in some patients on prolonged therapy with indomethacin capsules blurred vision
diplopia
hearing disturbances, deafness
CARDIOVASCULAR
None hypertension
hypotension
tachycardia
chest pain
congestive heart failure
arrhythmia; palpitations
METABOLIC
None edema
weight gain
fluid retention
flushing or sweating
hyperglycemia
glycosuria
hyperkalemia
INTEGUMENTARY
none pruritus
rash; urticaria
petechiae or ecchymosis
exfoliative dermatitis
erythema nodosum
loss of hair
Stevens-Johnson syndrome
erythema multiforme
toxic epidermal necrolysis
HEMATOLOGIC
None leukopenia
bone marrow depression
anemia secondary to obvious or occult gastrointestinal bleeding
aplastic anemia
hemolytic anemia
agranulocytosis
thrombocytopenic purpura
disseminated intravascular coagulation
HYPERSENSITIVITY
None acute anaphylaxis
acute respiratory distress
rapid fall in blood pressure resembling a shock-like state
angioedema
dyspnea
asthma
purpura
angiitis
pulmonary edema
fever
GENITOURINARY
None hematuria
vaginal bleeding
proteinuria
nephrotic syndrome
interstitial nephritis
BUN elevation
renal insufficiency, including renal failure
MISCELLANEOUS
None epistaxis
breast changes, including enlargement and tenderness, or gynecomastia

See Table 2 for clinically significant drug interactions with indomethacin.

Indomethacin and anticoagulants such as warfarin have a synergistic effect on bleeding. The concomitant use of indomethacin and anticoagulants have an increased risk of serious bleeding compared to the use of either drug alone. Serotonin release by platelets plays an important role in hemostasis. Case-control and cohort epidemiological studies showed that concomitant use of drugs that interfere with serotonin reuptake and an NSAID may potentiate the risk of bleeding more than an NSAID alone.NSAIDs may diminish the antihypertensive effect of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), or beta-blockers (including propranolol). In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or have renal impairment, co-administration of an NSAID with ACE inhibitors or ARBs may result in deterioration of renal function, including possible acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible.During concomitant use of indomethacin capsules and ACE-inhibitors, ARBs, or beta-blockers, monitor blood pressure to ensure that the desired blood pressure is obtained. During concomitant use of indomethacin capsules and ACE-inhibitors or ARBs in patients who are elderly, volume-depleted, or have impaired renal function, monitor for signs of worsening renal function [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6) ]. When these drugs are administered concomitantly, patients should be adequately hydrated. Assess renal function at the beginning of the concomitant treatment and periodically thereafter.
Table 2 Clinically Significant Drug Interactions with Indomethacin
Drugs That Interfere with Hemostasis
Clinical Impact:
Intervention: Monitor patients with concomitant use of indomethacin capsules with anticoagulants (e.g., warfarin), antiplatelet agents (e.g., aspirin), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), and serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) for signs of bleeding [see Warnings and Precautions (5.11) ].
Aspirin
Clinical Impact: Controlled clinical studies showed that the concomitant use of NSAIDs and analgesic doses of aspirin does not produce any greater therapeutic effect than the use of NSAIDs alone. In a clinical study, the concomitant use of an NSAID and aspirin was associated with a significantly increased incidence of GI adverse reactions as compared to use of the NSAID alone [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2) ].
Intervention: Concomitant use of indomethacin capsules and analgesic doses of aspirin is not generally recommended because of the increased risk of bleeding [see Warnings and Precautions (5.11)].
Indomethacin capsules are not substitute for low dose aspirin for cardiovascular protection.
ACE Inhibitors, Angiotensin Receptor Blockers, and Beta-Blockers
Clinical Impact:
Intervention:
Diuretics
Clinical Impact: Clinical studies, as well as post-marketing observations, showed that NSAIDs reduced the natriuretic effect of loop diuretics (e.g., furosemide) and thiazide diuretics in some patients. This effect has been attributed to the NSAID inhibition of renal prostaglandin synthesis.

It has been reported that the addition of triamterene to a maintenance schedule of
indomethacin capsules resulted in reversible acute renal failure in two of four healthy volunteers. Indomethacin capsules and triamterene should not be administered together.

Both indomethacin capsules and potassium-sparing diuretics may be associated with increased serum potassium levels. The potential effects of indomethacin capsules and potassium-sparing diuretics on potassium levels and renal function should be considered when these agents are administered concurrently.
Intervention: Indomethacin and triamterene should not be administered together.
During concomitant use of indomethacin capsules with diuretics, observe patients for signs of worsening renal function, in addition to assuring diuretic efficacy including antihypertensive effects.
Be aware that indomethacin and potassium-sparing diuretics may both be associated with increased serum potassium levels [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6) ].
Digoxin
Clinical Impact: The concomitant use of indomethacin with digoxin has been reported to increase the serum concentration and prolong the half-life of digoxin.
Intervention: During concomitant use of indomethacin capsules and digoxin, monitor serum digoxin levels.
Lithium
Clinical Impact: NSAIDs have produced elevations in plasma lithium levels and reductions in renal lithium clearance. The mean minimum lithium concentration increased 15%, and the renal clearance decreased by approximately 20%. This effect has been attributed to NSAID inhibition of renal prostaglandin synthesis.
Intervention: During concomitant use of indomethacin capsules and lithium, monitor patients for signs of lithium toxicity.
Methotrexate
Clinical Impact: Concomitant use of NSAIDs and methotrexate may increase the risk for methotrexate toxicity (e.g., neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, renal dysfunction).
Intervention: During concomitant use of indomethacin capsules and methotrexate, monitor patients for methotrexate toxicity.
Cyclosporine
Clinical Impact: Concomitant use of indomethacin capsules and cyclosporine may increase cyclosporine’s nephrotoxicity.
Intervention: During concomitant use of indomethacin capsules and cyclosporine, monitor patients for signs of worsening renal function.
NSAIDs and Salicylates
Clinical Impact: Concomitant use of indomethacin with other NSAIDs or salicylates (e.g., diflunisal, salsalate) increases the risk of GI toxicity, with little or no increase in efficacy [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2) ].
Combined use with diflunisal may be particularly hazardous because diflunisal causes significantly higher plasma levels of indomethacin [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ]. In some patients, combined use of indomethacin and diflunisal has been associated with fatal gastrointestinal hemorrhage.
Intervention: The concomitant use of indomethacin with other NSAIDs or salicylates, especially diflunisal, is not recommended.
Pemetrexed
Clinical Impact: Concomitant use of indomethacin capsules and pemetrexed may increase the risk of pemetrexed-associated myelosuppression, renal, and GI toxicity (see the pemetrexed prescribing information).
Intervention: During concomitant use of indomethacin capsules and pemetrexed, in patients with renal impairment whose creatinine clearance ranges from 45 to 79 mL/min, monitor for myelosuppression, renal and GI toxicity.

NSAIDs with short elimination half-lives (e.g., diclofenac, indomethacin) should be avoided for a period of two days before, the day of, and two days following administration of pemetrexed.

In the absence of data regarding potential interaction between pemetrexed and NSAIDs with longer half-lives (e.g., meloxicam, nabumetone), patients taking these NSAIDs should interrupt dosing for at least five days before, the day of, and two days following pemetrexed administration.
Probenecid
Clinical Impact: When indomethacin is given to patients receiving probenecid, the plasma levels of indomethacin are likely to be increased.
Intervention: During the concomitant use of indomethacin capsules and probenecid, a lower total daily dosage of indomethacin may produce a satisfactory therapeutic effect. When increases in the dose of indomethacin are made, they should be made carefully and in small increments.

Effects on Laboratory Tests

Indomethacin capsules reduces basal plasma renin activity (PRA), as well as those elevations of PRA induced by furosemide administration, or salt or volume depletion. These facts should be considered when evaluating plasma renin activity in hypertensive patients.

False-negative results in the dexamethasone suppression test (DST) in patients being treated with indomethacin have been reported. Thus, results of the DST should be interpreted with caution in these patients.

Risk Summary

Use of NSAIDs, including indomethacin capsules, during the third trimester of pregnancy increases the risk of premature closure of the fetal ductus arteriosus. Avoid use of NSAIDs, including indomethacin capsules, in pregnant women starting at 30 weeks of gestation (third trimester).

There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of indomethacin capsules in pregnant women.

Data from observational studies regarding potential embryofetal risks of NSAID use in women in the first or second trimesters of pregnancy are inconclusive. In the general U.S. population, all clinically recognized pregnancies, regardless of drug exposure, have a background rate of 2 to 4% for major malformations, and 15 to 20% for pregnancy loss. In animal reproduction studies retarded fetal ossification was observed with administration of indomethacin to mice and rats during organogenesis at doses 0.1 and 0.2 times, respectively, the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD, 200 mg). In published studies in pregnant mice, indomethacin produced maternal toxicity and death, increased fetal resorptions, and fetal malformations at 0.1 times the MRHD. When rat and mice dams were dosed during the last three days of gestation, indomethacin produced neuronal necrosis in the offspring at 0.1 and 0.05 times the MRHD, respectively [see Data ]. Based on animal data, prostaglandins have been shown to have an important role in endometrial vascular permeability, blastocyst implantation, and decidualization. In animal studies, administration of prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors such as indomethacin, resulted in increased pre- and post-implantation loss.

Clinical Considerations

Labor or Delivery

There are no studies on the effects of indomethacin capsules during labor or delivery. In animal studies, NSAIDs, including indomethacin, inhibit prostaglandin synthesis, cause delayed parturition, and increase the incidence of stillbirth.

Data

Animal data

Reproductive studies were conducted in mice and rats at dosages of 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 mg/kg/day. Except for retarded fetal ossification at 4 mg/kg/day (0.1 times [mice] and 0.2 times [rats] the MRHD on a mg/m basis, respectively) considered secondary to the decreased average fetal weights, no increase in fetal malformations was observed as compared with control groups. Other studies in mice reported in the literature using higher doses (5 to 15 mg/kg/day, 0.1 to 0.4 times MRHD on a mg/mbasis) have described maternal toxicity and death, increased fetal resorptions, and fetal malformations.

In rats and mice, maternal indomethacin administration of 4 mg/kg/day (0.2 times and 0.1 times the MRHD on mg/m basis) during the last 3 days of gestation was associated with an increased incidence of neuronal necrosis in the diencephalon in the live-born fetuses however no increase in neuronal necrosis was observed at 2 mg/kg/day as compared to the control groups (0.1 times and 0.05 times the MRHD on a mg/m basis). Administration of 0.5 or 4 mg/kg/day to offspring during the first 3 days of life did not cause an increase in neuronal necrosis at either dose level.

Risk Summary

Based on available published clinical data, indomethacin may be present in human milk. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for indomethacin capsules and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from the indomethacin capsules or from the underlying maternal condition.

Data

In one study, levels of indomethacin in breast milk were below the sensitivity of the assay (<20 mcg/L) in 11 of 15 women using doses ranging from 75 mg orally to 300 mg rectally daily (0.94 to 4.29 mg/kg daily) in the postpartum period. Based on these levels, the average concentration present in breast milk was estimated to be 0.27% of the maternal weight-adjusted dose. In another study indomethacin levels were measured in breast milk of eight postpartum women using doses of 75 mg daily and the results were used to calculate an estimated infant daily dose. The estimated infant dose of indomethacin from breast milk was less than 30 mcg/day or 4.5 mcg/kg/day assuming breast milk intake of 150 mL/kg/day. This is 0.5% of the maternal weight-adjusted dosage or about 3% of the neonatal dose for treatment of patent ductus arteriosus.

Infertility

Females

Based on the mechanism of action, the use of prostaglandin-mediated NSAIDs, including indomethacin capsules, may delay or prevent rupture of ovarian follicles, which has been associated with reversible infertility in some women. Published animal studies have shown that administration of prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors has the potential to disrupt prostaglandin-mediated follicular rupture required for ovulation. Small studies in women treated with NSAIDs have also shown a reversible delay in ovulation. Consider withdrawal of NSAIDs, including indomethacin capsules, in women who have difficulties conceiving or who are undergoing investigation of infertility.

Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients 14 years of age and younger has not been established.

Indomethacin capsules should not be prescribed for pediatric patients 14 years of age and younger unless toxicity or lack of efficacy associated with other drugs warrants the risk.

In experience with more than 900 pediatric patients reported in the literature or to the manufacturer who were treated with indomethacin capsules, side effects in pediatric patients were comparable to those reported in adults. Experience in pediatric patients has been confined to the use of indomethacin capsules.

If a decision is made to use indomethacin for pediatric patients two years of age or older, such patients should be monitored closely and periodic assessment of liver function is recommended. There have been cases of hepatotoxicity reported in pediatric patients with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, including fatalities. If indomethacin treatment is instituted, a suggested starting dose is 1 to 2 mg/kg/day given in divided doses. Maximum daily dosage should not exceed 3 mg/kg/day or 150 to 200 mg/day, whichever is less. Limited data are available to support the use of a maximum daily dosage of 4 mg/kg/day or 150 to 200 mg/day, whichever is less. As symptoms subside, the total daily dosage should be reduced to the lowest level required to control symptoms, or the drug should be discontinued.

Elderly patients, compared to younger patients, are at greater risk for NSAID-associated serious cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and/or renal adverse reactions. If the anticipated benefit for the elderly patient outweighs these potential risks, start dosing at the low end of the dosing range, and monitor patients for adverse effects [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.6, 5.13) ].

Indomethacin may cause confusion or rarely, psychosis [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)]; physicians should remain alert to the possibility of such adverse effects in the elderly.

Indomethacin and its metabolites are known to be substantially excreted by the kidneys, and the risk of adverse reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, use caution in this patient population, and it may be useful to monitor renal function [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ].

Symptoms following acute NSAID overdosages have been typically limited to lethargy, drowsiness, nausea, vomiting, and epigastric pain, which have been generally reversible with supportive care. Gastrointestinal bleeding has occurred. Hypertension, acute renal failure, respiratory depression, and coma have occurred, but were rare [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1, 5.2, 5.4, 5.6) ].

Manage patients with symptomatic and supportive care following an NSAID overdosage. There are no specific antidotes. Consider emesis and/or activated charcoal (60 to 100 grams in adults, 1 to 2 grams per kg of body weight in pediatric patients) and/or osmotic cathartic in symptomatic patients seen within four hours of ingestion or in patients with a large overdosage (5 to 10 times the recommended dosage). Forced diuresis, alkalinization of urine, hemodialysis, or hemoperfusion may not be useful due to high protein binding.

For additional information about overdosage treatment contact a poison control center (1-800-222-1222).

Indomethacin Capsules, USP are nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, available as capsules containing 25 mg of indomethacin, USP, administered for oral use. The chemical name is 1-(4-chlorobenzoyl)-5-methoxy-2-methyl-1H-indole-3-acetic acid. The molecular weight is 357.79. Its molecular formula is CHClNO, and it has the following chemical structure.

Indomethacin, USP is a white to yellow crystalline powder. It is practically insoluble in water and sparingly soluble in alcohol. It has a pKa of 4.5 and is stable in neutral or slightly acidic media and decomposes in strong alkali.

The inactive ingredients in Indomethacin Capsules, USP 25 mg and 50 mg include: colloidal silicon dioxide, FD&C Blue No. 1, D&C Yellow No. 10, gelatin, hypromellose, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, sodium lauryl sulfate, sodium starch glycolate and titanium dioxide.

The imprinting ink contains the following: black iron oxide, butyl alcohol, dehydrated alcohol, isopropyl alcohol, potassium hydroxide, propylene glycol, shellac and strong ammonia solution.

Indomethacin has analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic properties.

The mechanism of action of indomethacin capsules, like that of other NSAIDs, is not completely understood but involves inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX-1 and COX-2).

Indomethacin is a potent inhibitor of prostaglandin synthesis in vitro. Indomethacin concentrations reached during therapy have produced in vivo effects. Prostaglandins sensitize afferent nerves and potentiate the action of bradykinin in inducing pain in animal models. Prostaglandins are mediators of inflammation. Because indomethacin is an inhibitor of prostaglandin synthesis, its mode of action may be due to a decrease of prostaglandins in peripheral tissues.

Absorption

Following single oral doses of indomethacin capsules 25 mg or 50 mg, indomethacin is readily absorbed, attaining peak plasma concentrations of about 1 and 2 mcg/mL, respectively, at about 2 hours. Orally administered indomethacin capsules are virtually 100% bioavailable, with 90% of the dose absorbed within 4 hours. A single 50 mg dose of indomethacin oral suspension was found to be bioequivalent to a 50 mg indomethacin capsules when each was administered with food. With a typical therapeutic regimen of 25 or 50 mg three times a day, the steady-state plasma concentrations of indomethacin are an average 1.4 times those following the first dose.

Distribution

Indomethacin is highly bound to protein in plasma (about 99%) over the expected range of therapeutic plasma concentrations. Indomethacin has been found to cross the blood-brain barrier and the placenta, and appears in breast milk.

Elimination

Specific Populations

Drug Interaction Studies

Carcinogenesis

In an 81-week chronic oral toxicity study in the rat at doses up to 1 mg/kg/day (0.05 times the MRHD on a mg/m basis), indomethacin had no tumorigenic effect. Indomethacin produced no neoplastic or hyperplastic changes related to treatment in carcinogenic studies in the rat (dosing period 73 to 110 weeks) and the mouse (dosing period 62 to 88 weeks) at doses up to 1.5 mg/kg/day (0.04 times [mice] and 0.07 times [rats] the MRHD on a mg/m basis, respectively).

Mutagenesis

Indomethacin did not have any mutagenic effect in in vitro bacterial tests and a series of in vivo tests including the host-mediated assay, sex-linked recessive lethals in Drosophila, and the micronucleus test in mice.

Impairment of Fertility

Indomethacin at dosage levels up to 0.5 mg/kg/day had no effect on fertility in mice in a two generation reproduction study (0.01 times the MRHD on a mg/mbasis) or a two litter reproduction study in rats (0.02 times the MRHD on a mg/m basis).

Indomethacin has been shown to be an effective anti-inflammatory agent, appropriate for long-term use in rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and osteoarthritis.

Indomethacin capsules affords relief of symptoms; it does not alter the progressive course of the underlying disease.

Indomethacin capsules suppress inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis as demonstrated by relief of pain, and reduction of fever, swelling and tenderness. Improvement in patients treated with indomethacin capsules for rheumatoid arthritis has been demonstrated by a reduction in joint swelling, average number of joints involved, and morning stiffness; by increased mobility as demonstrated by a decrease in walking time; and by improved functional capability as demonstrated by an increase in grip strength. Indomethacin capsules may enable the reduction of steroid dosage in patients receiving steroids for the more severe forms of rheumatoid arthritis. In such instances the steroid dosage should be reduced slowly and the patients followed very closely for any possible adverse effects.

Product: 50090-0055

NDC: 50090-0055-0 30 CAPSULE in a BOTTLE

Advise the patient to read the FDA-approved patient labeling (Medication Guide) that accompanies each prescription dispensed. Inform patients, families, or their caregivers of the following information before initiating therapy with indomethacin capsules and periodically during the course of ongoing therapy.

Cardiovascular Thrombotic Events

Advise patients to be alert for the symptoms of cardiovascular thrombotic events, including chest pain, shortness of breath, weakness, or slurring of speech, and to report any of these symptoms to their health care provider immediately [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) ].

Gastrointestinal Bleeding, Ulceration, and Perforation

Advise patients to report symptoms of ulcerations and bleeding, including epigastric pain, dyspepsia, melena, and hematemesis to their health care provider. In the setting of concomitant use of low-dose aspirin for cardiac prophylaxis, inform patients of the increased risk for and the signs and symptoms of GI bleeding [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2) ].

Hepatotoxicity

Inform patients of the warning signs and symptoms of hepatotoxicity (e.g., nausea, fatigue, lethargy, pruritus, diarrhea, jaundice, right upper quadrant tenderness, and “flu-like” symptoms). If these occur, instruct patients to stop indomethacin capsules and seek immediate medical therapy [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3) ].

Heart Failure and Edema

Advise patients to be alert for the symptoms of congestive heart failure including shortness of breath, unexplained weight gain, or edema and to contact their healthcare provider if such symptoms occur [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5) ].

Anaphylactic Reactions

Inform patients of the signs of an anaphylactic reaction (e.g., difficulty breathing, swelling of the face or throat). Instruct patients to seek immediate emergency help if these occur [see Contraindications (4) and Warnings and Precautions (5.7) ].

Serious Skin Reactions

Advise patients to stop indomethacin capsules immediately if they develop any type of rash and to contact their healthcare provider as soon as possible [see Warnings and Precautions (5.9) ].

Female Fertility

Advise females of reproductive potential who desire pregnancy that NSAIDs, including indomethacin capsules, may be associated with a reversible delay in ovulation [see Use in Specific Populations (8.3) ].

Fetal Toxicity

Inform pregnant women to avoid use of indomethacin capsules and other NSAIDs starting at 30 weeks gestation because of the risk of the premature closing of the fetal ductus arteriosus [see Warnings and Precautions (5.10) and Use in Specific Populations (8.1) ].

Avoid Concomitant Use of NSAIDs

Inform patients that the concomitant use of indomethacin capsules with other NSAIDs or salicylates (e.g., diflunisal, salsalate) is not recommended due to the increased risk of gastrointestinal toxicity, and little or no increase in efficacy [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2) and Drug Interactions (7) ]. Alert patients that NSAIDs may be present in “over the counter” medications for treatment of colds, fever, or insomnia.

Use of NSAIDs and Low-Dose Aspirin

Inform patients not to use low-dose aspirin concomitantly with indomethacin capsules until they talk to their healthcare provider [see Drug Interactions (7) ].

Manufactured by:

Glenmark Pharmaceuticals Ltd.

Colvale-Bardez, Goa 403 513, India

Manufactured for:

Glenmark Pharmaceuticals Inc., USA

Mahwah, NJ 07430

Questions? 1 (888)721-7115

www.glenmarkpharma.com/usa

November 2017

Increased risk of a heart attack or stroke that can lead to death. This risk may happen early in treatment and may increase: with increasing doses of NSAIDs with longer use of NSAIDs Do not take NSAIDs right before or after a heart surgery called a “coronary artery bypass graft (CABG).” Avoid taking NSAIDs after a recent heart attack, unless your healthcare provider tells you to. You may have an increased risk of another heart attack if you take NSAIDs after a recent heart attack. Increased risk of bleeding, ulcers, and tears (perforation) of the esophagus (tube leading from the mouth to the stomach), stomach and intestines: anytime during use without warning symptoms that may cause death The risk of getting an ulcer or bleeding increases with: past history of stomach ulcers, or stomach or intestinal bleeding with use of NSAIDs taking medicines called “corticosteroids”, “anticoagulants”, “SSRIs”, or “SNRIs”increasing doses of NSAIDs longer use of NSAIDs smoking drinking alcohololder age poor health advanced liver disease bleeding problemsexactly as prescribed at the lowest dose possible for your treatment for the shortest time neededif you have had an asthma attack, hives, or other allergic reaction with aspirin or any other NSAIDs. right before or after heart bypass surgery.have liver or kidney problems have high blood pressure have asthma are pregnant or plan to become pregnant. Talk to your healthcare provider if you are considering taking NSAIDs during pregnancy. You should not take NSAIDs after 29 weeks of pregnancy. are breastfeeding or plan to breast feed. Tell your healthcare provider about all of the medicines you take, including prescription or over-the-counter medicines, vitamins or herbal supplements. NSAIDs and some other medicines can interact with each other and cause serious side effects. Do not start taking any new medicine without talking to your healthcare provider first. new or worse high blood pressure heart failure liver problems including liver failure kidney problems including kidney failure low red blood cells (anemia) life-threatening skin reactions life-threatening allergic reactions Other side effects of NSAIDs include: stomach pain, constipation, diarrhea, gas, heartburn, nausea, vomiting, and dizziness. Get emergency help right away if you get any of the following symptoms: shortness of breath or trouble breathing chest pain weakness in one part or side of your bodyslurred speech swelling of the face or throatnausea more tired or weaker than usual diarrhea itching your skin or eyes look yellow indigestion or stomach pain flu-like symptomsvomit blood there is blood in your bowel movement or it is black and sticky like tar unusual weight gain skin rash or blisters with fever swelling of the arms, legs, hands and feetAspirin is an NSAID but it does not increase the chance of a heart attack. Aspirin can cause bleeding in the brain, stomach, and intestines. Aspirin can also cause ulcers in the stomach and intestines. Some NSAIDs are sold in lower doses without a prescription (over-the-counter). Talk to your healthcare provider before using over-the-counter NSAIDs for more than 10 days.
Medication Guide for Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)
This Medication Guide has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.
What is the most important information I should know about medicines called Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)? NSAIDs can cause serious side effects, including:
o o     o o o  
o o
o o o o
o o o o
NSAIDs should only be used:
o o o
What are NSAIDs? NSAIDs are used to treat pain and redness, swelling, and heat (inflammation) from medical conditions such as different types of arthritis, menstrual cramps, and other types of short-term pain.
Who should not take NSAIDs? Do not take NSAIDs:
Before taking NSAIDs, tell your healthcare provider about all of your medical conditions, including if you:
What are the possible side effects of NSAIDs? NSAIDs can cause serious side effects, including: See “What is the most important information I should know about medicines called Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)?”
Stop taking your NSAID and call your healthcare provider right away if you get any of the following symptoms:
If you take too much of your NSAID, call your healthcare provider or get medical help right away. These are not all the possible side effects of NSAIDs. For more information, ask your healthcare provider or pharmacist about NSAIDs. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.
Other information about NSAIDs
General information about the safe and effective use of NSAIDs Medicines are sometimes prescribed for purposes other than those listed in a Medication Guide. Do not use NSAIDs for a condition for which it was not prescribed. Do not give NSAIDs to other people, even if they have the same symptoms that you have. It may harm them. If you would like more information about NSAIDs, talk with your healthcare provider. You can ask your pharmacist or healthcare provider for information about NSAIDs that is written for health professionals.
Manufactured by: Glenmark Pharmaceuticals Ltd. India Manufactured for: Glenmark Pharmaceuticals Inc., USA Mahwah, NJ 07430 Questions? 1 (888)721-7115 www.glenmarkpharma.com/usa July 2015

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A-S Medication Solutions

Active Ingredients

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Drugs and Medications [9 Associated Drugs and Medications listed on BioPortfolio]

Indomethacin [fresenius kabi usa, llc]

These highlights do not include all the information needed to use Indomethacin for Injection safely and effectively. See full prescribing information for Indomethacin for Injection. Indomethacin for I...

Indomethacin [fresenius kabi usa, llc]

These highlights do not include all the information needed to use Indomethacin for Injection safely and effectively. See full prescribing information for Indomethacin for Injection. Indomethacin for I...

Indomethacin [fresenius kabi usa, llc]

These highlights do not include all the information needed to use Indomethacin for Injection safely and effectively. See full prescribing information for Indomethacin for Injection. Indomethacin for I...

Indomethacin [directrx]

INDOMETHACIN

Indomethacin [direct rx]

INDOMETHACIN

Clinical Trials [75 Associated Clinical Trials listed on BioPortfolio]

Evaluate the Safety, Tolerability, & Pharmacokinetics of K-285 Compared With Indomethacin Capsule in Healthy Adults

This study is to compare the PK parameters of multiple doses and applications of K-285 with a single dose of indomethacin capsule.

Phase 2 Study of Indomethacin Capsules to Treat Dental Pain

The purpose of this study is to determine whether Indomethacin Test Formulation Capsules are safe and effective for the treatment of dental pain.

Indomethacin PK-PD in Extremely Preterm Neonates

This is a phase II open-label study evaluating the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of targeted early use of indomethacin for PDA treatment in preterm neonates

Risk Factors of Post-ERCP Pancreatitis in Patients Receiving Rectal Indomethacin

Post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography(ERCP) pancreatitis (PEP)remains the most frequent adverse event of ERCP. Rectal indomethacin, as one kind of classic NSAIDs, has been pr...

Indomethacin Germinal Matrix Hemorrhage/Intraventricular Hemorrhage (GMH/IVH) Prevention Trial

The purpose of this multicenter trial is to determine if indomethacin prevents bleeding in the brain of very low birth weight preterm infants.

PubMed Articles [58 Associated PubMed Articles listed on BioPortfolio]

A Randomized Trial of Topical Epinephrine and Rectal Indomethacin for Preventing Post-Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography Pancreatitis in High-Risk Patients.

Rectal indomethacin and topical spray of epinephrine have separately shown efficacy in the prevention of post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis (PEP) in randomized controlled...

Low dose of indomethacin and Hedgehog signaling inhibitor administration synergistically attenuates cartilage damage in osteoarthritis by controlling chondrocytes pyroptosis.

Blockade of Hedgehog signaling can prevent osteoarthritis (OA) syndromes. However, the amelioration of related inflammation condition is limited. The purpose of this study was to observe the effect of...

A combination of indomethacin and atorvastatin ameliorates cognitive and pathological deterioration in PrP-hAβPPswe/PS1 transgenic mice.

Mounting evidence has shown that inflammation might drive Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology and contribute to its exacerbation. Previous studies have indicated that indomethacin or atorvastatin are b...

Protective effects of Aronia melanocarpa juices either alone or combined with extracts from Rosa canina or Alchemilla vulgaris in a rat model of indomethacin-induced gastric ulcers.

The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of four Aronia melanocarpa-based juices in a rat model of indomethacin-induced gastric ulceration. THE JUICES WERE: AM1 and AM2 (produced from aroni...

Alanyl-glutamine heals indomethacin induced gastric ulceration in rats via anti-secretory and anti-apoptotic mechanisms.

Alanyl-glutamine (AG) is a dipeptide that fuels enterocytes and has a co-adjuvant role during gut healing. The current study aimed to investigate the potential ulcer-healing effect of AG in indomethac...

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