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Latest Biotechnology, Pharmaceutical and Healthcare PubMed Articles

21:31 EDT 23rd September 2018 | BioPortfolio

Epilepsy has been treated for centuries with herbal remedies, including leaves of the African shrub Mallotus oppositifolius, yet the underlying molecular mechanisms have remained unclear. Voltage-gated potassium channel isoforms KCNQ2-5, predominantly KCNQ2/3 heteromers, underlie the neuronal M-current, which suppresses neuronal excitability, protecting against seizures. Here, in silico docking, m...

Most surfaces are either static or switchable only between "on" and "off" states for a specific application. It is a challenge to develop reconfigurable surfaces that can adapt to rapidly changing environments or applications. Here, we demonstrate fabrication of surfaces that can be reconfigured for user-defined functions using visible-light-controlled Ru-thioether coordination chemistry. We modif...

Efficient chromophore supply is paramount for the continuous function of vertebrate cone photoreceptors. It is well established that isomerization of all-trans- to 11-cis- retinoid in the retinal pigmented epithelium by RPE65 is a key reaction in this process. Mutations in RPE65 result in a disrupted chromophore supply, retinal degeneration, and blindness. Interestingly, RPE65 has recently been fo...

Proteolysis is an irreversible physiological process that can result in the termination or activation of protein function. Many transmembrane proteins that are involved in the cellular communication between immune cells and structural cells - for example, Notch, CD23, CD44, and membrane-anchored cytokines and their receptors - are cleaved by the ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase) family of...

Individual housing characteristics can modify outdoor ambient air pollution infiltration through air exchange rate (AER). Time and labor-intensive methods needed to measure AER has hindered characterization of AER distributions across large geographic areas. Using publicly-available data and regression models associating AER with housing characteristics, we estimated AER for all Massachusetts resi...

Element deficiencies and excesses play important roles in non-communicable disease aetiology. When investigating their roles in epidemiologic studies without prospective designs, reverse-causality limits the utility of transient biomarkers in cases. This study aimed to investigate whether surrogate participants may provide viable proxies by assessing concentration correlations within households. W...

Exposure to a chemical is a critical consideration in the assessment of risk, as it adds real-world context to toxicological information. Descriptions of where and how individuals spend their time are important for characterizing exposures to chemicals in consumer products and in indoor environments. Herein we create an agent-based model (ABM) that simulates longitudinal patterns in human behavior...

In the United States each year, more than 300,000 infants are admitted to neonatal intensive care units (NICU) where they are exposed to a chemical-intensive hospital environment during a developmentally vulnerable period. Although multiple studies have demonstrated elevated phthalate biomarkers in NICU patients, specific sources of NICU-based phthalate exposure have not been identified.In this st...

After birth, cardiomyocytes (CM) acquire numerous adaptations in order to efficiently pump blood throughout an animal's lifespan. How this maturation process is regulated and coordinated is poorly understood. Here, we perform a CRISPR/Cas9 screen in mice and identify serum response factor (SRF) as a key regulator of CM maturation. Mosaic SRF depletion in neonatal CMs disrupts many aspects of their...

The archaeological site of Lepenski Vir is widely known after its remarkable stone art sculptures that represent a unique and unprecedented case of Holocene hunter-gatherer creativity. These artworks were found largely associated with equally unique trapezoidal limestone building floors around their centrally located rectangular stone-lined hearths. A debate has raged since the discovery of the si...

Heterotopic ossification (HO) is the process of bone formation in tissues that are not usually osseous. It occurs in 60% of those with blast-related amputations. HO can result in reduced range of motion, pain, nerve impingement and can affect prosthesis fitting and is caused by a combination of mechanical, biological, local and systemic factors. As with normal bone formation and remodelling, it is...

Pulsed laser melting in liquid (PLML) is a technique to fabricate submicrometer crystalline spherical particles of various materials by laser irradiation of suspended raw particles with random shapes. To fully exploit the unique features of PLML-fabricated particles (crystalline and spherical) in practice, a mass-production PLML technique is required. To this end, the present study develops a new ...

We performed the electronic structure calculations of Cu-doped TiO nanotubes by using density functional theory aided by the Hubbard correction (DFT + U). Relative positions of the sub-bands due to the dopants in the band diagram are examined to see if they are properly located within the redox interval. The doping is found to tune the material to be a possible candidate for the photocatalyst ...

A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has been fixed in the paper.

Soil erosion will cause a degradation in soil nitrogen supplying capacity (SNSC) and manure amendment is an effective way to restored eroded soils. Both labile fractions of soil organic N (SON) and N transformation enzymes are indicators for SNSC, but the effect of manure amendments on labile SON fractions and the relationship between labile SON fractions and enzyme activities remains unclear. In ...

A rare population of salivary gland cells isolated based on c-Kit immunoreactivity are thought to represent tissue stem cells since they exhibit the most robust proliferative and differentiation capacity ex vivo. Despite their high promise for cell-based therapies aimed at restoring salivary function, the precise location and in vivo function of c-Kit stem cells remain unclear. Here, by combining ...

Role of PKCε in insulin resistance.

Added: 2018-09-21 08:00:00

The bacterial type III secretion system, or injectisome, is a syringe shaped nanomachine essential for the virulence of many disease causing Gram-negative bacteria. At the core of the injectisome structure is the needle complex, a continuous channel formed by the highly oligomerized inner and outer membrane hollow rings and a polymerized helical needle filament which spans through and projects int...

Surface adhesins of pathogens and probiotics strains are implicated in mediating the binding of microbes to host. Mucus-binding protein (Mub) is unique to gut inhabiting lactic acid bacteria; however, the precise role of Mub proteins or its structural domains in host-microbial interaction is not well understood. Last two domains (Mubs5s6) of the six mucus-binding domains arranged in tandem at the ...

Cancer-induced blood coagulation in human tumour generates insoluble fibrin (IF)-rich cancer stroma in which uneven monoclonal antibody (mAb) distribution reduce the potential effectiveness of mAb-mediated treatments. Previously, we developed a mAb that reacts only with IF and not with fibrinogen (FNG) or the fibrin degradation product (FDP). Although IF, FNG and FDP share same amino acid sequence...

In recent years, incidences of invasive fungal infections have greatly increased, especially in immunosuppressed patients, but most today's antifungal drugs are not completely effective due to the development of drug resistance, as well as potential toxicity and adverse effects. Consequently, it is imperative to search for novel antifungal agents to combat fungal infections. This review will discu...

Self-organization is the generation of order out of local interactions. It is deeply connected to many fields of science from physics, chemistry to biology, all based on physical interactions. The emergence of collective animal behavior is the result of self-organization processes as well, though they involve abstract interactions arising from sensory inputs, information processing, storage, and f...

The intestinal barrier encompasses structural, permeability and immune aspects of the gut mucosa that, when disrupted, may contribute to chronic inflammation. Although gnotobiotic studies have demonstrated the effects of microbiota on mucosal and systemic immunity, as well as intestinal barrier architecture and innate immune characteristics, its impact on barrier function remains unclear. We compa...

Type 1 diabetes is associated with systemic low grade inflammation (LGI). We have previously shown that LGI in diabetic mice depends on systemic circulation of leukotriene (LTB) which potentiates the toll-like/IL1β receptors response in macrophages. Impaired wound healing is an important co-morbidity in diabetes, and macrophages play a key role in this process. Here, we investigated the role of l...

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