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Microelectrode arrays offer the potential to electrochemically monitor concentrations of molecules at high spatial resolution. However, current systems are limited in the number of sensor sites, signal resolution, and throughput. Here, we present a fully integrated complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) system with an array of 32 × 32 working electrodes to perform electrochemical measurements like amperometry and voltammetry. The array consists of platinum electrodes with a center-to-center distance of 100 μm and electrode diameters of 5 to 50 μm. Currents in the range from 10 μA down to pA can be measured. The current is digitized by sigma-delta converters at a maximum resolution of 13.3 bits. The integrated noise is 220 fA for a bandwidth of 100 Hz, allowing for detection of pA currents. Currents can be continuously acquired at up to 1 kHz bandwidth, or the whole array can be read out rapidly at a frame rate of up to 90 Hz. The results of the electrical characterization meet the requirements of a wide range of electrochemical methods including cyclic voltammograms and amperometric images of high spatial and temporal resolution.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Analytical chemistry
We present here an electrochemical sensor microsystem for the monitoring of pH. The all-polymeric device is comprised of a cyclic olefin copolymer substrate, a 200 nm-thin patterned layer of conductiv...
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Purpose: To investigate whether rhythmic direct electrical stimulation (DES) causes entrainment of endogenous neural oscillatory activity and whether such activity improve cognition. ...
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A scanning probe microscopy technique that uses an ultramicroelectrode as the scanning probe that simultaneously records changes in electrochemical potential as it scans thereby creating topographical images with localized electrochemical information.
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Method of isolation and maintenance of a working heart for various cardiac measurements. The model allows for the separation of cardiac and systemic variables in the denervated heart.
A dissociative disorder in which the individual adopts two or more distinct personalities. Each personality is a fully integrated and complex unit with memories, behavior patterns and social friendships. Transition from one personality to another is sudden.
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