Learning Context Modulates the Processing of Expectancy Violations.

08:00 EDT 14th October 2015 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "Learning Context Modulates the Processing of Expectancy Violations."

The detection of unexpected or unfavorable events is crucial for successful behavioral adaptation. There is a family of ERP components, the so-called error negativities, that has been associated with these detection processes. In the current study, we explored the functional characteristics of one of these components, the N2b which reflects the detection of unexpected events in a stream of stimuli in our environment, in more detail. In a sequence learning task, we found that the same type of deviant event elicited an N2b only when it conveyed information about the to-be-learned sequence, but not when it was rendered learning-irrelevant by means of task instruction. This supports the view that deviant events generate an error negativity in a similar way as committed errors and negative feedback. It also demonstrates that error monitoring processes are very flexible and can be tailored to the specific demands of the task at hand, i.e., expectancy violations only activate the error system when the detected mismatch is classified as relevant for the specific goals in the current learning context. Additionally, a P3 to all deviant types was found reflecting a higher-order form of performance monitoring associated with evaluation of task-relevant events and updating of working memory contents.


Journal Details

This article was published in the following journal.

Name: Brain research
ISSN: 1872-6240


DeepDyve research library

PubMed Articles [10769 Associated PubMed Articles listed on BioPortfolio]

Listener characteristics modulate the semantic processing of native vs. foreign-accented speech.

Foreign accents have been shown to have considerable impact on how language is processed [1]. However, the impact of a foreign accent on semantic processing is not well understood. Conflicting results...

Contextual valence modulates the effect of choice on incentive processing.

Previous research has demonstrated that reward-related neural activity is enhanced for choice relative to no-choice opportunities in the gain context. The current event-related potential study examine...

Distinct neural responses to social and semantic violations: An N400 study.

We investigated event-related brain potential correlates of encountering context-incongruent social information. Building on evidence that information semantically incongruent with its context elicits...

Expectancy-Related Changes in Dopaminergic Error Signals Are Impaired by Cocaine Self-Administration.

Addiction is a disorder of behavioral control and learning. While this may reflect pre-existing propensities, drug use also clearly contributes by causing changes in outcome processing in prefrontal a...

Sympathetic responding to unconditioned stimuli predicts subsequent threat expectancy, orienting, and visuocortical bias in human aversive Pavlovian conditioning.

Threat expectancy is the ability to predict an aversive outcome. What is not known is the influence of initial threat responding on the acquisition of verbal, attentional and perceptual biases towards...

Clinical Trials [2985 Associated Clinical Trials listed on BioPortfolio]

Functional MRI of Cognitive Control in Autism

This study aims to investigate the role of fronto-striatal circuits and cognitive control in the perseverative and inflexible behavior that is a defining feature of autism. We hypothesize ...

Vasopressin and Pain Perception in the Brain

The feeling of pain is not just a sensory experience, but is also influenced by emotions, beliefs and expectations, making pain a highly subjective experience. This is evident in clinical ...

Auditory Rehabilitation in Stroke Patients With Auditory Processing Disorders

This study aimed to evaluate long term benefits in speech reception in noise, after daily 10 week use of an assisting listening device (personal frequency-modulates systems) , in non-aphas...

Oxytocin and the Processing of Social Stress-Associated Chemosignals

The purpose of this study is to determine whether oxytocin modulates the processing of stress-associated chemosignals and which substrates are involved.

The Effect of Cognitive Restructuring Before Exposure for Claustrophobia on Expectancy and Outcome

Whether used alone or in combination with other approaches, strategies such as cognitive restructuring (CR) and exposure are well-established treatments for anxiety. CR involves identifyin...

Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

Process in which individuals take the initiative, in diagnosing their learning needs, formulating learning goals, identifying resources for learning, choosing and implementing learning strategies and evaluating learning outcomes (Knowles, 1975)

Change in learning in one situation due to prior learning in another situation. The transfer can be positive (with second learning improved by first) or negative (where the reverse holds).

A principle that learning is facilitated when the learner receives immediate evaluation of learning performance. The concept also hypothesizes that learning is facilitated when the learner is promptly informed whether a response is correct, and, if incorrect, of the direction of error.

A computer architecture, implementable in either hardware or software, modeled after biological neural networks. Like the biological system in which the processing capability is a result of the interconnection strengths between arrays of nonlinear processing nodes, computerized neural networks, often called perceptrons or multilayer connectionist models, consist of neuron-like units. A homogeneous group of units makes up a layer. These networks are good at pattern recognition. They are adaptive, performing tasks by example, and thus are better for decision-making than are linear learning machines or cluster analysis. They do not require explicit programming.

Learning that is manifested in the ability to respond differentially to various stimuli.

Quick Search


DeepDyve research library

Searches Linking to this Article