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We present a simple model for a component of the radiolytic production of any chemical species due to electron emission from irradiated nanoparticles (NPs) in a liquid environment, provided the expression for the G value for product formation is known and is reasonably well characterized by a linear dependence on beam energy. This model takes nanoparticle size, composition, density and a number of other readily available parameters (such as X-ray and electron attenuation data) as inputs and therefore allows for the ready determination of this contribution. Several approximations are used, thus this model provides an upper limit to the yield of chemical species due to electron emission, rather than a distinct value, and this upper limit is compared with experimental results. After the general model is developed we provide details of its application to the generation of HO(•) through irradiation of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), a potentially important process in nanoparticle-based enhancement of radiotherapy. This model has been constructed with the intention of making it accessible to other researchers who wish to estimate chemical yields through this process, and is shown to be applicable to NPs of single elements and mixtures. The model can be applied without the need to develop additional skills (such as using a Monte Carlo toolkit), providing a fast and straightforward method of estimating chemical yields. A simple framework for determining the HO(•) yield for different NP sizes at constant NP concentration and initial photon energy is also presented.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Radiation research
We report results of experimental investigation of field electron emission from diamond nanoemitters. The measurements were performed with single crystal diamond needles fixed at tungsten tips. The vo...
The photo-oxidation dynamics following UV (257 nm) excitation of the phenolate anion in aqueous solution is studied using broadband (550 to 950 nm) transient absorption spectroscopy. A clear signature...
In protontherapy, it has been suggested that nanoparticles of high-Z material like gold (GNP) be used as radiosensitizers. The origin of this enhancement phenomenon for proton radiation is not yet wel...
This paper explores the fate of reactive nitrogen (Nr) on the landscape scale of present agricultural production practice on arable and grassland soils. We use the soil modelling tool LandscapeDNDC (l...
Electron correlation is ubiquitous across diverse physical systems from atoms and molecules to condensed matter. Observing and controlling dynamical electron correlation in photoinduced processes pave...
Some aspirin-treated patients have a blunted pharmacological response predisposing to clinical failure. The investigators hypothesize that the blunted response often results from increased...
This phase II trial studies how well low dose total skin electron beam radiation therapy and mechlorethamine hydrochloride gel work in treating patients with mycosis fungoides. Total skin ...
Hip arthroplasty is a treatment widely used in most inflammatory, traumatic and degenerative conditions of this joint. The longevity of implants may be disappointing in some cases, despite...
This phase II trial studies the side effects of intraoperative electron beam radiotherapy boost and to see how well it works in treating patients with stage I-II breast cancer undergoing s...
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the utility of 18Fluorine Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography (18FDG-PET) as a tool to quantify atherosclerotic plaque.
A method of computed tomography that uses radionuclides which emit a single photon of a given energy. The camera is rotated 180 or 360 degrees around the patient to capture images at multiple positions along the arc. The computer is then used to reconstruct the transaxial, sagittal, and coronal images from the 3-dimensional distribution of radionuclides in the organ. The advantages of SPECT are that it can be used to observe biochemical and physiological processes as well as size and volume of the organ. The disadvantage is that, unlike positron-emission tomography where the positron-electron annihilation results in the emission of 2 photons at 180 degrees from each other, SPECT requires physical collimation to line up the photons, which results in the loss of many available photons and hence degrades the image.
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
A bacterial protein from Pseudomonas, Bordetella, or Alcaligenes which operates as an electron transfer unit associated with the cytochrome chain. The protein has a molecular weight of approximately 16,000, contains a single copper atom, is intensively blue, and has a fluorescence emission band centered at 308nm.
An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Radiology is the branch of medicine that studies imaging of the body; X-ray (basic, angiography, barium swallows), ultrasound, MRI, CT and PET. These imaging techniques can be used to diagnose, but also to treat a range of conditions, by allowing visuali...