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The Wnt signaling pathway plays a conserved role during animal development in transcriptional regulation of distinct targets in different developmental contexts but it remains unclear whether quantitative differences in the nuclear localization of effector proteins TCF and β-catenin contribute to context-specific regulation. We investigated this question in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos by quantifying nuclear localization of fluorescently tagged SYS-1/β-catenin and POP-1/TCF and expression of Wnt ligands at cellular resolution by time-lapse microscopy and automated lineage tracing. We identified reproducible, quantitative differences that generate a subset of Wnt-signaled cells with a significantly higher nuclear concentration of the TCF/β-catenin activating complex. Specifically, β-catenin and TCF are preferentially enriched in nuclei of daughter cells whose parents also had high nuclear levels of that protein, a pattern that could influence developmental gene expression. Consistent with this, we found that expression of synthetic reporters of POP-1-dependent activation is biased towards cells that had high nuclear SYS-1 in consecutive divisions. We identified new genes whose embryonic expression patterns depend on pop-1. Most of these require POP-1 for either transcriptional activation or repression, and targets requiring POP-1 for activation are more likely to be expressed in the cells with high nuclear SYS-1 in consecutive divisions than those requiring POP-1 for repression. Taken together, these results indicate that SYS-1 and POP-1 levels are influenced by the parent cell's SYS-1/POP-1 levels and this may provide an additional mechanism by which POP-1 regulates distinct targets in different developmental contexts.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: PLoS genetics
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A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.
A catenin that binds F-ACTIN and links the CYTOSKELETON with BETA CATENIN and GAMMA CATENIN.
A multi-functional catenin that is highly homologous to BETA CATENIN. Gamma catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It is also found in DESMOSOMES where it mediates the link between DESMOSOMAL CADHERINS and DESMOPLAKIN.
The process that reverts CELL NUCLEI of fully differentiated somatic cells to a pluripotent or totipotent state. This process can be achieved to a certain extent by NUCLEAR TRANSFER TECHNIQUES, such as fusing somatic cell nuclei with enucleated pluripotent embryonic stem cells or enucleated totipotent oocytes. GENE EXPRESSION PROFILING of the fused hybrid cells is used to determine the degree of reprogramming. Dramatic results of nuclear reprogramming include the generation of cloned mammals, such as Dolly the sheep in 1997.
Methods of implanting a CELL NUCLEUS from a donor cell into an enucleated acceptor cell. Often the nucleus of a somatic cell is transferred into a recipient OVUM or stem cell (STEM CELLS) with the nucleus removed. This technology may provide means to generate autologous diploid pluripotent cell for therapeutic cloning, and a model for studying NUCLEAR REPROGRAMMING in embryonic stem cells. Nuclear transfer was first accomplished with frog eggs (RANA PIPIENS) and reported in 1952.