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The association between the HLA-G 14-bp insertion/deletion polymorphism and type 1 diabetes.

08:00 EDT 22nd October 2015 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "The association between the HLA-G 14-bp insertion/deletion polymorphism and type 1 diabetes."

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a multifactorial disease that has a strong genetic component. The HLA-G is a nonclassical HLA class I locus that is associated with immunomodulatory functions, including downregulation of innate and adaptive immune responses and induction of immune tolerance. However, there is currently limited information about the involvement of HLA-G in T1D susceptibility. This case-control study aims to investigate the T1D susceptibility association of alleles and genotypes of a widely investigated 14-bp insertion/deletion polymorphism in the HLA-G and to provide further evidence of the frequency distribution of class II HLA-DR-DQ-risk genotypes in T1D children and adolescents in the Brazilian population. The deletion allele and the homozygous deletion genotype are associated with susceptibility to T1D and the insertion allele and the heterozygous deletion/insertion genotype are associated with protection from T1D. We also confirm that genetic susceptibility to T1D is associated with the DRB1*03:01-DQA1*05:01-DQB1*02:01 and DRB1*04-DQA1*03:01-DQB1*03:02 haplotypes in Brazilian northeast region. The DR3-DQ2/DR4-DQ8 genotype conferred the highest detected risk for T1D. Our results identify a novel association of the 14-bp deletion allele and the homozygous deletion genotype with T1D development and provide additional evidence of the importance of HLA class II heterozygous DR3-DQ2/DR4-DQ8 genotype in T1D susceptibility.Genes and Immunity advance online publication, 22 October 2015; doi:10.1038/gene.2015.45.

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Name: Genes and immunity
ISSN: 1476-5470
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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

A mutation named with the blend of insertion and deletion. It refers to a length difference between two ALLELES where it is unknowable if the difference was originally caused by a SEQUENCE INSERTION or by a SEQUENCE DELETION. If the number of nucleotides in the insertion/deletion is not divisible by three, and it occurs in a protein coding region, it is also a FRAMESHIFT MUTATION.

The time period before the development of symptomatic diabetes. For example, certain risk factors can be observed in subjects who subsequently develop INSULIN RESISTANCE as in type 2 diabetes (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 2).

A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.

A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.

Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.

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