Loss of a Conserved tRNA Anticodon Modification Perturbs Plant Immunity.

08:00 EDT 22nd October 2015 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "Loss of a Conserved tRNA Anticodon Modification Perturbs Plant Immunity."

tRNA is the most highly modified class of RNA species, and modifications are found in tRNAs from all organisms that have been examined. Despite their vastly different chemical structures and their presence in different tRNAs, occurring in different locations in tRNA, the biosynthetic pathways of the majority of tRNA modifications include a methylation step(s). Recent discoveries have revealed unprecedented complexity in the modification patterns of tRNA, their regulation and function, suggesting that each modified nucleoside in tRNA may have its own specific function. However, in plants, our knowledge on the role of individual tRNA modifications and how they are regulated is very limited. In a genetic screen designed to identify factors regulating disease resistance and activation of defenses in Arabidopsis, we identified SUPPRESSOR OF CSB3 9 (SCS9). Our results reveal SCS9 encodes a tRNA methyltransferase that mediates the 2´-O-ribose methylation of selected tRNA species in the anticodon loop. These SCS9-mediated tRNA modifications enhance during the course of infection with the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae DC3000, and lack of such tRNA modification, as observed in scs9 mutants, severely compromise plant immunity against the same pathogen without affecting the salicylic acid (SA) signaling pathway which regulates plant immune responses. Our results support a model that gives importance to the control of certain tRNA modifications for mounting an effective immune response in Arabidopsis, and therefore expands the repertoire of molecular components essential for an efficient disease resistance response.


Journal Details

This article was published in the following journal.

Name: PLoS genetics
ISSN: 1553-7404
Pages: e1005586


DeepDyve research library

PubMed Articles [13858 Associated PubMed Articles listed on BioPortfolio]

Regulatory Factors for tRNA Modifications in Extreme- Thermophilic Bacterium .

is an extreme-thermophilic bacterium that can grow at a wide range of temperatures (50-83°C). To enable to grow at high temperatures, several biomolecules including tRNA and tRNA modification enzyme...

Transfer RNA demethylase ALKBH3 promotes cancer progression via induction of tRNA-derived small RNAs.

Transfer RNA is heavily modified and plays a central role in protein synthesis and cellular functions. Here we demonstrate that ALKBH3 is a 1-methyladenosine (m1A) and 3-methylcytidine (m3C) demethyla...

Matching tRNA modifications in humans to their known and predicted enzymes.

tRNA are post-transcriptionally modified by chemical modifications that affect all aspects of tRNA biology. An increasing number of mutations underlying human genetic diseases map to genes encoding fo...

Ribosomal ambiguity (ram) mutations promote the open (off) to closed (on) transition and thereby increase miscoding.

Decoding is thought to be governed by a conformational transition in the ribosome-open (off) to closed (on)-that occurs upon codon-anticodon pairing in the A site. Ribosomal ambiguity (ram) mutations ...

tRNA deamination by ADAT requires substrate-specific recognition mechanisms and can be inhibited by tRFs.

Adenosine deaminase acting on transfer RNA (ADAT) is an essential eukaryotic enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of adenosine to inosine at the first position of tRNA anticodons. Mammalian ADATs mod...

Clinical Trials [4194 Associated Clinical Trials listed on BioPortfolio]

The Influence of Dietary Plant Sterols and Plant Stanols on Cholesterol and Plant Sterol Levels in Atheromatous Plaques

This study aims to explore whether the increased supply of dietary plant sterols and plant stanols have any influence on serum levels of phytosterols and on consistency of carotid atheroma...

Lipid-lowering Effect of Plant Stanol Ester Yoghurt Drinks

The aim is to investigate the effects of yoghurt drinks containing two doses of plant stanol ester either with or without added camelina oil on the serum cholesterol levels in moderately h...

Low Fat Plant-based Diet Effects on Body Composition Indices

The effect of a diet free from animal-sourced nutrients on body composition in weight reduction programs is not well established. In this non-randomised free living interventional case-con...

A Whole Food Plant Diet and Its Lipidemic Effects on Primary Prevention in a Free-range Population

This study seeks to determine the effects of a whole-food, plant-based diet on lipid, metabolic, and inflammatory biomarkers. Eligible participants will have had either an LDL-C > 200 mg/d...

Effects of a Calorie Restricted, Very Low Fat Plant-based Diet and Multi-component Exercise Program on Metabolic Health

The purpose of this study is to understand how weight loss by a very low fat plant-based diet with an exercise program affects metabolic and cardiovascular health in overweight adults at h...

Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

A dioxygenase and alkylation repair homolog that catalyzes the methylation of 5-carboxymethyl URIDINE to 5-methylcarboxymethyl uridine at the wobble position of the ANTICODON loop in TRANSFER RNA (tRNA) via its methyltransferase domain. It has a preference for tRNA (ARGININE) and tRNA (GLUTAMATE), and does not bind tRNA (LYSINE).

A modified nucleoside which is present in the first position of the anticodon of tRNA-tyrosine, tRNA-histidine, tRNA-asparagine and tRNA-aspartic acid of many organisms. It is believed to play a role in the regulatory function of tRNA. Nucleoside Q can be further modified to nucleoside Q*, which has a mannose or galactose moiety linked to position 4 of its cyclopentenediol moiety.

An RNA-containing enzyme that plays an essential role in tRNA processing by catalyzing the endonucleolytic cleavage of TRANSFER RNA precursors. It removes the extra 5'-nucleotides from tRNA precursors to generate mature tRNA molecules.

The non-susceptibility to infection of a large group of individuals in a population. A variety of factors can be responsible for herd immunity and this gives rise to the different definitions used in the literature. Most commonly, herd immunity refers to the case when, if most of the population is immune, infection of a single individual will not cause an epidemic. Also, in such immunized populations, susceptible individuals are not likely to become infected. Herd immunity can also refer to the case when unprotected individuals fail to contract a disease because the infecting organism has been banished from the population.

Any of the enzymatically catalyzed modifications of the individual AMINO ACIDS of PROTEINS, and enzymatic cleavage or crosslinking of peptide chains that occur pre-translationally (on the amino acid component of AMINO ACYL TRNA), co-translationally (during the process of GENETIC TRANSLATION), or after translation is completed (POST-TRANSLATIONAL PROTEIN PROCESSING).

Quick Search


DeepDyve research library

Relevant Topic

Allergies Automimmune Disease Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Immunology Vaccine Immunology is the study of immunity and the defence mechanisms of the body. A greater understanding of immunology is needed to develop vaccines, understand ...

Searches Linking to this Article