Investigation of Legionella Contamination in Bath Water Samples by Culture, Amoebic Co-Culture, and Real-Time Quantitative PCR Methods.

07:00 EST 1st January 2000 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "Investigation of Legionella Contamination in Bath Water Samples by Culture, Amoebic Co-Culture, and Real-Time Quantitative PCR Methods."

We investigated Legionella contamination in bath water samples, collected from 68 bathing facilities in Japan, by culture, culture with amoebic co-culture, real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR), and real-time qPCR with amoebic co-culture. Using the conventional culture method, Legionella pneumophila was detected in 11 samples (11/68, 16.2%). Contrary to our expectation, the culture method with the amoebic co-culture technique did not increase the detection rate of Legionella (4/68, 5.9%). In contrast, a combination of the amoebic co-culture technique followed by qPCR successfully increased the detection rate (57/68, 83.8%) compared with real-time qPCR alone (46/68, 67.6%). Using real-time qPCR after culture with amoebic co-culture, more than 10-fold higher bacterial numbers were observed in 30 samples (30/68, 44.1%) compared with the same samples without co-culture. On the other hand, higher bacterial numbers were not observed after propagation by amoebae in 32 samples (32/68, 47.1%). Legionella was not detected in the remaining six samples (6/68, 8.8%), irrespective of the method. These results suggest that application of the amoebic co-culture technique prior to real-time qPCR may be useful for the sensitive detection of Legionella from bath water samples. Furthermore, a combination of amoebic co-culture and real-time qPCR might be useful to detect viable and virulent Legionella because their ability to invade and multiply within free-living amoebae is considered to correlate with their pathogenicity for humans. This is the first report evaluating the efficacy of the amoebic co-culture technique for detecting Legionella in bath water samples.


Journal Details

This article was published in the following journal.

Name: International journal of environmental research and public health
ISSN: 1660-4601
Pages: 13118-13130


DeepDyve research library

PubMed Articles [17906 Associated PubMed Articles listed on BioPortfolio]

Role of hot water temperature and water system use on Legionella control in a tertiary hospital: An 8-year longitudinal study.

Although measures to minimize Legionella colonization in sanitary hot water installations are well established, there is little evidence of their long-term effectiveness in hospital buildings. During ...

Preventing legionellosis outbreaks by a quick detection of airborne Legionella pneumophila.

Legionellosis is a severe pneumonic infection caused by inhaling bacteria of the genus Legionella. Most cases reported in the USA and Europe are associated with the species Legionella pneumophila. Thi...

Elucidation of the microbial diversity in rivers in south-west Victoria, Australia impacted by rural agricultural contamination (dairy farming).

We assessed the water quality of south-west Victorian rivers impacted by the dairy industry using traditional water quality assessment together with culture-dependent (colilert/enterolert) and also cu...

Occurrence of Legionella in groundwater used for sprinkler irrigation in Southern Italy.

Legionellae are opportunistic bacteria that cause various conditions after exposure to contaminated aerosols, ranging from a serious type of pneumonia to a mild case of an influenza-like illness. Desp...

Appraisal of microbial contamination of dental unit water systems and practices of general dental practitioners for risk reduction.

The study aims to evaluate the microbial contamination in dental unit water system (DUWS) in Chandigarh, India, including knowledge, attitude, and practices of general dental practitioners (GDPs) to r...

Clinical Trials [5918 Associated Clinical Trials listed on BioPortfolio]

Impact of Legionella Urine Antigen Testing (LUAT) on the Local Epidemiology and Diagnosis of Legionella Pneumonia

There has never been a paper published or research done to determine the rate of Legionella species as a cause of community or nosocomial acquired pneumonia requiring hospitalization in Ma...

Hemodynamic Effects of Dry Sauna Followed by Cold Water Immersion in Healthy Subjects

The purpose of this study is to determine the safety on sauna followed by cold water bath, a common practice in many countries, 30 healthy subjects aged 40 years and older will be at the M...

Evaluation of Legionella PCR Techniques for the Routine Diagnosis of Legionellosis

The validity of molecular techniques for the diagnosis of legionellosis is not known. Although PCR can detect Legionella pneumophila (responsible for 80% of legionellosis) and other Legion...

Evaluation of an Internal Hospital Practice: The Effect of Altered Test Tubes Sampling Order on Blood Culture Contamination Rates

Implementation of the initial specimen diversion technique, in which the first milliliter of the venipuncture sample is not injected into the culture bottle, led to a significant reduction...

Sautour PHRC IR 2008

Fusarium are microscopic filamentous fungi that live as saprobiontics in outside environments. They are found in the soil, the air, in water and on numerous plants. The frequency of fusari...

Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

Therapy of sitting in a hot steamy room followed by a cool bath or shower.

A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria in the genus LEGIONELLA, first isolated in Long Beach, California. Infection is associated with the use of potting SOIL.

The exposure to potentially harmful factors such as trace heavy metals, chemicals, radiation, or toxins due to FOOD CONTAMINATION including DRINKING WATER contamination.

Contamination of bodies of water (such as LAKES; RIVERS; SEAS; and GROUNDWATER.)

Disabling osteochondrodysplasia with OSTEOSCLEROSIS, cone-shaped METAPHYSIS, and shortening of the DIAPHYSIS. It is endemic in parts of Siberia and northern China. Mineral deficiencies (e.g., selenium, iodine), fungal cereal contamination, and water contamination may be contributing factors in its etiology.

Quick Search


DeepDyve research library

Relevant Topics

Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for the body. It is usually of plant or animal origin, and contains essential nutrients, such as carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, or minerals. The substance is ingested by an organism ...

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) uses the ability of DNA polymerase (enzymes that create DNA molecules by assembling nucleotides, the building blocks of DNA. These enzymes are essential to DNA replication and usually work in pairs to create two ident...

Searches Linking to this Article