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Over half a million children worldwide develop active tuberculosis (TB) each year. Early-life nutritional exposures have rarely been examined in relation to pediatric TB among HIV-exposed children. We therefore investigated independent associations of early-life nutritional exposures with active TB among HIV-exposed children up to 2 years of age.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of tropical pediatrics
In patients with drug-resistant epilepsy, reduction of seizure duration and frequency at an early age is beneficial. Vagal nerve stimulator (VNS) was shown to reduce seizure frequency and duration in ...
Some individuals, even when heavily exposed to an infectious tuberculosis patient, develop neither active nor latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). This 'early clearance' of Mycobacterium tuberculosis...
This research investigates whether and how two fundamental environmental factors-harshness and unpredictability-interact in regulating child and adolescent development, informed by life-history theory...
Although respiratory symptoms, including wheezing, are common in preterm-born subjects, the natural history of the wheezing phenotypes and the influence of early-life factors and characteristics on ph...
The American Academy of Pediatrics currently recommends weight for length (WFL) for assessment of weight status in children younger than 2 years but body mass index (BMI) for children older than 2 yea...
The purpose of this study is to assess lung immune responses in patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and in healthy control persons who are exposed to Mycobacterium tuberculosi...
Isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) reduces the risk of tuberculosis in 60%. Young children are at higher risk of developing severe forms of TB, though this can be prevented with a full cou...
New blood tests have become available to detect either latent or active tuberculosis. These tests - which according to the CDC can replace the tuberculin skin test - measure the production...
The aim of this study is to evaluate ultra low dose chest computed tomography (ULDCT) for early diagnosis of active tuberculosis in cohort of close contacts of active pulmonary tuberculosi...
A randomized clinical trial of multiple micronutrients, zinc, zinc + micronutrients, or placebo among 2400 children born to HIV-negative Tanzanian mothers.
The exclusive right, granted by law for a certain number of years, to make and dispose of copies of a literary, musical or artistic work. In the United States the copyright is granted for the life of the author plus 50 years. In the case of a joint work, it is for the life of the last joint author to die, plus 50 years. In either case the copyright runs until the end of the calendar year 50 years after the author's death. (Random House College Dictionary, rev ed; Strong, W.S.: The Copyright Book: a Practical Guide, 1981)
Measure of the burden of disease using the disability-adjusted-life-year (DALY). This time-based measure combines years of life lost due to premature mortality and years of life lost due to time lived in states of less than full health. The metric was developed to assess the burden of disease consistently across diseases, risk factors and regions.
The dormant form of TUBERCULOSIS where the person shows no obvious symptoms and no sign of the causative agent (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) in the SPUTUM despite being positive for tuberculosis infection skin test.
Procedures and programs that facilitate the development or skill acquisition in infants and young children who have disabilities, who are at risk for developing disabilities, or who are gifted. It includes programs that are designed to prevent handicapping conditions in infants and young children and family-centered programs designed to affect the functioning of infants and children with special needs. (From Journal of Early Intervention, Editorial, 1989, vol. 13, no. 1, p. 3; A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, prepared for the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, 1976)
Tuberculosis of the brain, spinal cord, or meninges (TUBERCULOSIS, MENINGEAL), most often caused by MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS and rarely by MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS. The infection may be limited to the nervous system or coexist in other organs (e.g., TUBERCULOSIS, PULMONARY). The organism tends to seed the meninges causing a diffuse meningitis and leads to the formation of TUBERCULOMA, which may occur within the brain, spinal cord, or perimeningeal spaces. Tuberculous involvement of the vertebral column (TUBERCULOSIS, SPINAL) may result in nerve root or spinal cord compression. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp717-20)
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by bacteria belonging to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Over nine million new cases of TB, and nearly two million deaths from TB, are estimated to occur around the world every year, and new inf...
Human Immuno Deficiency Virus (HIV)
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), the causative agent of AIDS. The Human Immunodeficiency Virus, more commonly known as HIV, is a member of the lentivirus sub-set of the retrovirus family of pathogens. It causes AIDS, or Acquired Immuno Deficiency Sy...
Pediatrics is the general medicine of childhood. Because of the developmental processes (psychological and physical) of childhood, the involvement of parents, and the social management of conditions at home and at school, pediatrics is a specialty. With ...