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Aluminum is a ubiquitously abundant non-essential element. Aluminum has been associated with neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and dialysis encephalopathy. Many continue to regard aluminum as controversial although increasing evidence supports the implications of aluminum in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Aluminum causes the accumulation of tau protein and Aβ protein in the brain of experimental animals. Aluminum induces neuronal apoptosis in vivo and in vitro, either by endoplasmic stress from the unfolded protein response, by mitochondrial dysfunction, or a combination of them. Some, people who are exposed chronically to aluminum, either from through water and/or food, have not shown any Alzheimer's disease pathology, apparently because their gastrointestinal barrier is more effective. This article is written keeping in mind mechanisms of action of aluminum neurotoxicity with respect to Alzheimer's disease. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Brain pathology (Zurich, Switzerland)
Aluminum is the third most abundant element on the earth's crust and has been considered a constituent of rather inert minerals. Therefore, it has often been regarded as not having a significant healt...
Lack of a satisfactory animal model for Alzheimer's disease (AD) has limited the reach progress of the pathogenesis of the disease and of therapeutic agents aiming to important pathophysiological poin...
This chapter primarily focuses on two key aspects related to aluminum neurotoxicity and its mechanism in Alzheimer's disease (AD), which are genetic susceptibility and epigenetic modification. The tox...
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While verbal memory is quickly reached in the wake of Alzheimer's disease, the musical memory remains preserved until a late stage of the disease. This observation encouraged the developme...
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Participants enrolled in the Alzheimer's Disease Clinical Core at Wake Forest School of Medicine will be invited to take part in this study. The purpose of this study is to identify and me...
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Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. It was initially established to investigate the broad aspects of human development as a means of understanding developmental disabilities, including mental retardation, and the events that occur during pregnancy. It now conducts and supports research on all stages of human development. It was established in 1962.
A precursor to the AMYLOID BETA-PROTEIN (beta/A4). Alterations in the expression of the amyloid beta-protein precursor (ABPP) gene, located on chromosome 21, plays a role in the development of the neuropathology common to both ALZHEIMER DISEASE and DOWN SYNDROME. ABPP is associated with the extensive extracellular matrix secreted by neuronal cells. Upon cleavage, this precursor produces three proteins of varying amino acid lengths: 695, 751, and 770. The beta/A4 (695 amino acids) or beta-amyloid protein is the principal component of the extracellular amyloid in senile plaques found in ALZHEIMER DISEASE; DOWN SYNDROME and, to a limited extent, in normal aging.
A chromosome disorder associated either with an extra chromosome 21 or an effective trisomy for chromosome 21. Clinical manifestations include hypotonia, short stature, brachycephaly, upslanting palpebral fissures, epicanthus, Brushfield spots on the iris, protruding tongue, small ears, short, broad hands, fifth finger clinodactyly, Simian crease, and moderate to severe MENTAL RETARDATION. Cardiac and gastrointestinal malformations, a marked increase in the incidence of LEUKEMIA, and the early onset of ALZHEIMER DISEASE are also associated with this condition. Pathologic features include the development of NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES in neurons and the deposition of AMYLOID BETA-PROTEIN, similar to the pathology of ALZHEIMER DISEASE. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p213)
Abnormal structures located chiefly in distal dendrites and, along with NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES and SENILE PLAQUES, constitute the three morphological hallmarks of ALZHEIMER DISEASE. Neuropil threads are made up of straight and paired helical filaments which consist of abnormally phosphorylated microtubule-associated tau proteins. It has been suggested that the threads have a major role in the cognitive impairment seen in Alzheimer disease.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat ALZHEIMER DISEASE.
Of all the types of Dementia, Alzheimer's disease is the most common, affecting around 465,000 people in the UK. Neurons in the brain die, becuase 'plaques' and 'tangles' (mis-folded proteins) form in the brain. People with Al...