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Preclinical Research There has been recent interest in characterizing the effects of pain-like states on motivated behaviors in order to quantify how pain modulates goal-directed behavior and the persistence of that behavior. The current set of experiments assessed the effects of an incisional postoperative pain manipulation on food-maintained responding under a progressive-ratio (PR) operant schedule. Independent variables included injury state (plantar incision or anesthesia control) and reinforcer type (grain pellet or sugar pellet); dependent variables were tactile sensory thresholds and response breakpoint. Once responding stabilized on the PR schedule, separate groups of rats received a single ventral hind paw incision or anesthesia (control condition). Incision significantly reduced breakpoints in rats responding for grain, but not sugar. In rats responding for sugar, tactile hypersensitivity recovered within 24 hr, indicating a faster recovery of incision-induced tactile hypersensitivity compared to rats responding for grain, which demonstrated recovery at PD2. The NSAID analgesic, diclofenac (5.6 mg/kg) completely restored incision-depressed PR operant responding and tactile sensitivity at 3 hr following incision. The PR schedule differentiated between sucrose and grain, suggesting that relative reinforcing efficacy may be an important determinant in detecting pain-induced changes in motivated behavior. Drug Dev Res, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Name: Drug development research
Urine from pro-œstrus female rodents evokes increased levels of sexually-motivated behaviors in males, including sniffing and scent marking of the urine spot as well as activation of brain reward reg...
In contrast to their analgesic properties, excessive use of either opioids or alcohol produces a paradoxical emergence of heightened pain sensitivity to noxious stimuli, termed hyperalgesia, which may...
It has previously been reported that venous cannulation-induced pain (VCP) can be used to predict acute postoperative pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Patients rating VCP ≥2.0 visual analogu...
The management of acute postoperative pain remains a significant challenge for physicians. Poorly controlled postoperative pain is associated with poorer overall outcomes.
Postoperative pain is caused by surgical trauma and poses a significant challenge for health care providers. Opioid analgesics are commonly used to control postoperative pain. However, these drugs are...
The investigators have recently reported a relationship between pain induced by peripheral venous cannulation and postoperative pain. The purpose of this study is to validate this method o...
To investigate the effects of methylphenidate on motivated behavior in adults with and without ADHD
Exaggerated pain and hyperalgesia are major issues after surgery and can lead to chronic pain. Opioid are parts of pain sensitization processes but remain absolutely necessary in the intra...
Postoperative pain stimulates the autonomic nervous system, induces the production of pro-inflammatory substances, reduces patient mobility and impairs vital functions. The ECG spectral an...
Chronic postsurgical pain (CPSP) is defined by pain persisting longer than 2 months after surgery (1). Its incidence varies from 10 to 50 % in the literature (2). A high proportion of CPSP...
A nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent with potent analgesic and antiarthritic properties. It has been shown to be effective in the treatment of OSTEOARTHRITIS; RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS; ankylosing SPONDYLITIS; and in the alleviation of postoperative pain (PAIN, POSTOPERATIVE).
Pain during the period after surgery.
A narcotic analgesic that can be used for the relief of most types of moderate to severe pain, including postoperative pain and the pain of labor. Prolonged use may lead to dependence of the morphine type; withdrawal symptoms appear more rapidly than with morphine and are of shorter duration.
Any enhancement of a motivated behavior in which individuals do the same thing with some degree of mutual stimulation and consequent coordination.
Abdominal symptoms after removal of the GALLBLADDER. The common postoperative symptoms are often the same as those present before the operation, such as COLIC, bloating, NAUSEA, and VOMITING. There is pain on palpation of the right upper quadrant and sometimes JAUNDICE. The term is often used, inaccurately, to describe such postoperative symptoms not due to gallbladder removal.
Pain is defined by the International Association for the Study of Pain as “an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage or described in terms of such damage”. Some illnesses can be excruci...
Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for the body. It is usually of plant or animal origin, and contains essential nutrients, such as carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, or minerals. The substance is ingested by an organism ...
An anesthesiologist (US English) or anaesthetist (British English) is a physician trained in anesthesia and perioperative medicine. Anesthesiologists are physicians who provide medical care to patients in a wide variety of (usually acute) situations. ...