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Tobacco smoke and nicotine exposure during prenatal and postnatal life can impair lung development, alter the immune response to viral infections and increase the prevalence of wheezing during childhood. The following review examines recent discoveries in the fields of lung development and tobacco/nicotine exposure, emphasizing studies published within the last five years. In utero tobacco/nicotine exposure remains common, occurring in approximately 10% of pregnancies within the United States. Exposed neonates are at increased risk for diminished lung function, altered central and peripheral respiratory chemoreception and increased asthma symptoms throughout childhood. Recently, genomic and epigenetic risk factors, such as alterations in DNA methylation, have been identified that may influence the risk for long-term disease. This review examines the impact of prenatal tobacco/ nicotine exposure on lung development with a particular focus on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. In addition this review examines the role of prenatal and postnatal tobacco smoke/nicotine exposure and its association with augmenting infection risk, skewing the immune response towards a Th2 bias and increasing risk for developing an allergic phenotype and asthma-like symptoms during childhood. Finally this review outlines the respiratory morbidities associated with childhood secondhand smoke/nicotine exposure and examines genetic and epigenetic modifiers that may influence respiratory health in infants and children exposed to in utero or postnatal tobacco smoke.
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Tobacco consumption is one of the most common preventable cause of premature deaths worldwide. Persisting effects of exposure to tobacco smoke on children and adolescents are apparent during pregnancy...
Tobacco smoke contains polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in addition to nicotine. We compared the developmental neurotoxicity of nicotine to that of the PAH archetype, benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), and ...
Infants and young children may be at an increased risk for second- and thirdhand exposure to tobacco smoke because of increased respiration rate and exposure to surface residue. However, relatively fe...
Accurate measurement of nicotine exposure from cigarette smoke is important in studying disease risk and level of dependence. Urine total nicotine equivalents, the molar sum of nicotine and six metabo...
Given homes are now a primary source of secondhand smoke exposure (SHS) in the US, research-tested interventions that promote smoke-free homes should be evaluated in real-world settings to build the e...
The purpose of this study is to test the effects of reducing indoor environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) on unscheduled asthma visits, asthma symptoms, airway inflammation, and exposure to to...
Despite public campaigns to prevent cigarette smoking, it's about 20% of women who keep on smoking during pregnancy, exposing their fetus to prenatal tobacco adverse effects. Although envi...
Smoking is the leading cause of preventable death in the United States. An FDA-mandated reduction in the nicotine content of cigarettes might reduce the health burden of tobacco by reducin...
The Secondhand Smoke Study is a medical research study investigating the physiologic, radiographic, and inflammatory responses of lungs to chronic exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke. Exp...
To improve disease outcomes through reduction in secondhand tobacco smoke exposure of children with asthma
Nicotine is highly toxic alkaloid. It is the prototypical agonist at nicotinic cholinergic receptors where it dramatically stimulates neurons and ultimately blocks synaptic transmission. Nicotine is also important medically because of its presence in tobacco smoke.
Prohibition against tobacco smoking in specific areas to control TOBACCO SMOKE POLLUTION.
Contamination of the air by tobacco smoke.
The N-glucuronide conjugate of cotinine is a major urinary metabolite of NICOTINE. It thus serves as a biomarker of exposure to tobacco SMOKING. It has CNS stimulating properties.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of tobacco or something similar to tobacco.
Pulmonary relating to or associated with the lungs eg Asthma, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, COPD, Cystic Fibrosis, Influenza, Lung Cancer, Pneumonia, Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension, Sleep Disorders etc Follow and track Lung Cancer News ...
Pediatrics is the general medicine of childhood. Because of the developmental processes (psychological and physical) of childhood, the involvement of parents, and the social management of conditions at home and at school, pediatrics is a specialty. With ...
Asthma COPD Cystic Fibrosis Pneumonia Pulmonary Medicine Respiratory Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are any infection of the sinuses, throat, airways or lungs. They're usually caused by viruses, but they can also ...