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Vital roles of peptide/protein thioesters in protein chemistry, including chemical or semi synthesis of proteins, have encouraged studies on the development of methods for the preparation of such chemical units. Biochemical protocols using intein or sortase have proved to be useful in protein chemistry as methods suitable for naturally occurring sequences, including recombinant proteins. Although chemical protocols are potential options for thioester preparation, only a few are applicable to naturally occurring sequences, because standard chemical protocols require an artificial chemical device for producing thioesters. In this context, the chemical preparation of thioesters based on a reaction sequence consisting of regioselective S-cyanylation and hydrazinolysis was investigated. Regioselective S-cyanylation, which is required for cysteine-containing thioesters, was achieved with the aid of zinc-complex formation of a CCHH-type zinc-finger sequence. Free cysteine residues that are not involved in complex formation were selectively protected with a 6-nitroveratryl group followed by S-cyanylation of the zinc-binding cysteine. Hydrazinolysis of the resulting S-cyanopeptide and subsequent photo-removal of the 6-nitroveratryl group yielded the desired peptide hydrazide, which was then converted to the corresponding thioester. The generated thioester was successfully used in N-to-C-directed one-pot/sequential native chemical ligation using an N-sulfanylethylanilide peptide to give a 64-residue peptide toxin. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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We have isolated 4 naturally-occurring strains of CPV in mainland China and have identified them as CPV-2, 2a, 2b and 2c genotypes according to their VP2 sequences which also revealed substitutions wi...
N-Alkyl-bis(2-selenoethyl)amines catalyze the synthesis of peptide thioesters or peptide ligation from bis(2-sulfanylethyl)amido (SEA) peptides. These catalysts are generated in situ by reduction of t...
Can pain be objectively assessed in macaques with naturally occurring endometriosis?
This study sought to evaluate whether velocity of naturally occurring myocardial shear waves (SW) could relate to myocardial stiffness (MS) in vivo.
Previously, we successfully established a d-galactose (d-gal)-induced astrocyte aging model in vitro. However, whether the changes in the aged astrocytes induced by d-gal are similar to those occurred...
This research is being done to evaluate the effect of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1, a naturally occurring hormone) on insulin release and to examine whether there is extra insulin releas...
This study examines how a naturally occurring peptide called Kisspeptin might regulate blood sugar and insulin levels.
We propose a double-blind randomised placebo-controlled study in naturally occurring influenza virus infections in the community setting to compare the impact of a short course of clarithr...
Video capsule endoscopy (VCE) is a noninvasive diagnostic tool used to assess the small bowel pathology. The diagnostic value of VCE is mostly dependent on the cleanliness of the colon. In...
Studies have shown that phytosterols will lower LDL cholesterol. Typical diets can contain between 250 to 500 mg of naturally-occurring phytosterols. Long-term studies with phytosterol-con...
Synthetic compounds that are analogs of the naturally occurring prostaglandin endoperoxides and that mimic their pharmacologic and physiologic activities. They are usually more stable than the naturally occurring compounds.
Peptide sequences, generated by iterative rounds of SELEX APTAMER TECHNIQUE, that bind to a target molecule specifically and with high affinity.
The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).
(9 alpha,11 alpha,13E,15S)-9,11,15-Trihydroxyprost-13-en-1-oic acid (PGF(1 alpha)); (5Z,9 alpha,11,alpha,13E,15S)-9,11,15-trihydroxyprosta-5,13-dien-1-oic acid (PGF(2 alpha)); (5Z,9 alpha,11 alpha,13E,15S,17Z)-9,11,15-trihydroxyprosta-5,13,17-trien-1-oic acid (PGF(3 alpha)). A family of prostaglandins that includes three of the six naturally occurring prostaglandins. All naturally occurring PGF have an alpha configuration at the 9-carbon position. They stimulate uterine and bronchial smooth muscle and are often used as oxytocics.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
Within medicine, nutrition (the study of food and the effect of its components on the body) has many different roles. Appropriate nutrition can help prevent certain diseases, or treat others. In critically ill patients, artificial feeding by tubes need t...