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Prebiotics are non-digestible oligosaccharides that promote the growth of beneficial gut microbes, but it is unclear whether they also have direct effects on the intestinal mucosal barrier. Here we demonstrate two commercial prebiotics, inulin and short-chain fructo-oligosaccharide (scFOS), when applied onto intestinal epithelia in the absence of microbes, directly promote barrier integrity to prevent pathogen-induced barrier disruptions. We further show that these effects involve the induction of select tight junction (TJ) proteins through a protein kinase C (PKC) δ-dependent mechanism. These results suggest that in the absence of microbiota, prebiotics can directly exert barrier protective effects by activating host cell signaling in the intestinal epithelium, which represents a novel alternative mechanism of action of prebiotics.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Scientific reports
Obesity is a major risk factor for the development of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. How obesity contributes to metabolic syndrome is unclear. Free fatty acid (FFA) activation of a non-recep...
Hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂)-induced oxidative stress has been demonstrated to induce afterdepolarizations and triggered activities in isolated myocytes, but the underlying mechanisms remain not fully...
Raf kinase inhibitor protein (RKIP) protects against host immunological responses in nematodes and Drosophila Whether RKIP functions in innate immune responses in mammals remains unknown. In this arti...
Autophagy is crucial for neuronal integrity. Loss of key autophagic components leads to progressive neurodegeneration and structural defects in pre- and postsynaptic morphologies. However, the molecul...
The aim of the study is to investigate the effect of dietary supplements such as probiotic, prebiotic and synbiotic on the immune response to influenza vaccination and faecal microbiota in...
The investigators are examining the activation of insulin signaling factors in skeletal muscles of human diabetics. The investigators are characterizing the defects in signaling, and are e...
We have established that dietary protein is an important regulator of intestinal calcium absorption in humans. However, we do not understand the mechanism by which dietary protein is affe...
The purpose of this research study is to evaluate if a weight loss intervention will improve your rheumatoid arthritis disease activity.
The study aims to explore whether prophylactic dietary supplementation with prebiotic inulin-type fructans is able to influence the intestinal microbiota and the frequency of infectious di...
A Wnt protein and ligand for FRIZZLED RECEPTORS that may function as an inhibitor or activator of the WNT SIGNALING PATHWAY. For example, it activates signaling in the presence of Frizzled-4 but is inhibitory when coupled with ROR2 TYROSINE KINASE. It is required for axis formation during EMBRYOGENESIS and inhibits the proliferation, migration, and invasiveness of cancer cells.
A structurally-diverse family of intracellular-signaling adaptor proteins that selectively tether specific protein kinase A subtypes to distinct subcellular sites. They play a role in focusing the PROTEIN KINASE A activity toward relevant substrates. Over fifty members of this family exist, most of which bind specifically to regulatory subunits of CYCLIC AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE TYPE II such as CAMP PROTEIN KINASE RIIALPHA or CAMP PROTEIN KINASE RIIBETA.
An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.
A ubiquitously expressed protein kinase that is involved in a variety of cellular SIGNAL PATHWAYS. Its activity is regulated by a variety of signaling protein tyrosine kinase.
An SHC-signaling adaptor protein that transduces PHOSPHOTYROSINE-dependent signals downstream of RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASES and non-receptor tyrosine kinases. It is required for TGF-BETA-induced CELL MIGRATION; NEOLPASM INVASION; and METASTASIS of BREAST NEOPLASMS; its SH2 DOMAIN is essential for tumor survival. It also functions in signaling downstream of ANGIOPOIETIN RECEPTOR TIE-2, regulating the migration of ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; and PHYSIOLOGIC NEOVASCULARIZATION.