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Recent advances in our understanding of the neurobiology of tics have led to the development of novel rodent models capturing different pathophysiological and phenotypic aspects of Tourette syndrome. The proliferation of these models, however, raises vexing questions on what standards should be adopted to assess their theoretical validity and empirical utility. Assessing the homology of a rodent motoric burst with a tic remains problematic, due to our incomplete knowledge of the underpinnings of tics, their high phenotypic complexity and variability, limitations in our ability test key aspects of tic phenomenology (such as premonitory sensory phenomena) in animals, and between-species differences in neuroanatomy and behavioral repertoire. These limitations underscore that any interpretation of behavioral output in an animal model cannot exclusively rely on the recognition of features that bear superficial resemblance with tics, but must be supported by other etiological and convergent phenomenological criteria.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of neuroscience methods
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This is a multicentre, randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled, parallel-group, phase IIIb trial. Patients (≥18 years) with chronic tic disorders and Tourette syndrome will be recr...
This study will investigate the brain areas that are activated by vocal and motor tics in patients with Tourette's syndrome and other tic disorders. Tics are involuntary repetitive movemen...
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Habitual, repeated, rapid contraction of certain muscles, resulting in stereotyped individualized actions that can be voluntarily suppressed for only brief periods. They often involve the face, vocal cords, neck, and less often the extremities. Examples include repetitive throat clearing, vocalizations, sniffing, pursing the lips, and excessive blinking. Tics tend to be aggravated by emotional stress. When frequent they may interfere with speech and INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS. Conditions which feature frequent and prominent tics as a primary manifestation of disease are referred to as TIC DISORDERS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp109-10)
Disorders characterized by recurrent TICS that may interfere with speech and other activities. Tics are sudden, rapid, nonrhythmic, stereotyped motor movements or vocalizations which may be exacerbated by stress and are generally attenuated during absorbing activities. Tic disorders are distinguished from conditions which feature other types of abnormal movements that may accompany general medical conditions. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
A neuropsychological disorder related to alterations in DOPAMINE metabolism and neurotransmission involving frontal-subcortical neuronal circuits. Both multiple motor and one or more vocal tics need to be present with TICS occurring many times a day, nearly daily, over a period of more than one year. The onset is before age 18 and the disturbance is not due to direct physiological effects of a substance or a general medical condition. The disturbance causes marked distress or significant impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. (From DSM-IV, 1994; Neurol Clin 1997 May;15(2):357-79)
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
Conceptual functions or thinking in all its forms.