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Genetics of Reproductive Aging from Gonadal Dysgenesis through Menopause.

07:00 EST 1st March 2017 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "Genetics of Reproductive Aging from Gonadal Dysgenesis through Menopause."

Reproduction is essential for the survival of the species and is influenced by external factors such as smoking and exposure to chemotherapy as well as chronic disorders such as obesity and autoimmunity. Reproductive senescence, such as menopause, is also dependent on multiple intrinsic genetic factors. Reproductive aging is not isolated from an overall aging process, and several studies strongly support the link between the early age of menopause and mortality. The extreme form of reproductive aging is primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) with prevalence ranging from 1 to 5% of the female population. POI has been shown to have long-term consequences on overall health. POI and age of menopause have a significant hereditary component. The population-based genome-wide association studies have identified 44 genomic loci to associate with age of menopause, and 29 of 44 loci harbor DNA damage response genes. Recent application of whole exome sequencing on carefully selected families with POI has also revealed a significant contribution of DNA damage response genes. The inability to repair the DNA damage in both somatic and germ cells might be a predisposing factor for the link between reproductive and overall aging in a subset of individuals with POI. The aim of this review is to characterize recent advances in the genetics of POI and its link with overall health.

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Journal Details

This article was published in the following journal.

Name: Seminars in reproductive medicine
ISSN: 1526-4564
Pages: 147-159

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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

The 46,XX gonadal dysgenesis may be sporadic or familial. Familial XX gonadal dysgenesis is transmitted as an autosomal recessive trait and its locus was mapped to chromosome 2. Mutation in the gene for the FSH receptor (RECEPTORS, FSH) was detected. Sporadic XX gonadal dysgenesis is heterogeneous and has been associated with trisomy-13 and trisomy-18. These phenotypic females are characterized by a normal stature, sexual infantilism, bilateral streak gonads, amenorrhea, elevated plasma LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FSH concentration. The syndrome is sometimes called "pure gonadal dysgenesis," but this designation may also refer to gonadal dysgenesis with a 46,XY karyotype (GONADAL DYSGENESIS, 46,XY).

This type of gonadal defect is characterized by a female phenotype, normal to tall stature, bilateral streak or dysgenetic gonads, and a 46,XY karyotype. This XY gonadal dysgenesis is a heterogenous condition with variant forms resulting from a structural abnormality on Y chromosome, a mutation in SRY gene or a mutation in autosomal genes. The syndrome is sometimes called "pure gonadal dysgenesis," but this designation may also refer to gonadal dysgenesis with a 46,XX karyotype (GONADAL DYSGENESIS, 46,XX).

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