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Invasive Meningococcal Disease (IMD) represents a potentially life-threatening condition caused by Neisseria meningitidis. The disease is characterized by a case fatality rate of 5-10% whereas serious clinical sequelae can develop in survivors within 12-24 hours from the first symptoms. However, IMD infection only occurs rarely, in fact, most of the interactions established between N. meningitidis and the host are harmless, and an estimated 10% of the population asymptomatically carries the bacterium in the nasopharynx. Meningococcal carriage represents a critical condition for IMD onset since it represents the first step for disease transmission. Furthermore, high levels of carriage can promote genetic recombination among different N. meningitidis strains potentially leading to the development of new pathogenic variants. Areas covered: The present review discusses N. meningitidis carriage, factors able to influence meningococcal carriage and disease and the effect of vaccinations on both conditions, with a particular focus on Italy. Expert commentary: Data regarding the effect of different meningococcal vaccines on N. meningitidis carriage are available, whereas further studies are needed to investigate the positive impact of the two recently licensed vaccines 4CMenB and rLP2086 on meningococcal carriage.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Expert review of anti-infective therapy
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Primary Objective: Evaluation of the - Carriage rate of Streptococcus pneumoniae in the nasopharynx of children Secondary Objective: - Carriage rate and distribution of Strepto...
Strains of Neisseria meningitidis responsible for most outbreaks of meningococcal disease in Western Europe and the United States in the first half of the 20th century. They continue to be a major cause of disease in Asia and Africa, and especially localized epidemics in Sub-Sahara Africa.
Strains of Neisseria meningitidis responsible for most sporadic cases in teenagers and almost all outbreaks of disease in this age group. These strains are less common in infants.
Strains of Neisseria meningitidis which are the most common ones causing infections or disease in infants. Serogroup B strains are isolated most frequently in sporadic cases, and are less common in outbreaks and epidemics.
Strains of Neisseria meningitidis which, in the United States, causes disease in mostly adults and the elderly. Serogroup Y strains are associated with PNEUMONIA.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
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