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The posttranscriptional modifications of tRNA's anticodon stem and loop (ASL) domain represent a third level, a third code, to the accuracy and efficiency of translating mRNA codons into the correct amino acid sequence of proteins. Modifications of tRNA's ASL domain are enzymatically synthesized and site specifically located at the anticodon wobble position-34 and 3'-adjacent to the anticodon at position-37. Degeneracy of the 64 Universal Genetic Codes and the limitation in the number of tRNA species require some tRNAs to decode more than one codon. The specific modification chemistries and their impact on the tRNA's ASL structure and dynamics enable one tRNA to decode cognate and "wobble codons" or to expand recognition to synonymous codons, all the while maintaining the translational reading frame. Some modified nucleosides' chemistries prestructure tRNA to read the two codons of a specific amino acid that shares a twofold degenerate codon box, and other chemistries allow a different tRNA to respond to all four codons of a fourfold degenerate codon box. Thus, tRNA ASL modifications are critical and mutations in genes for the modification enzymes and tRNA, the consequences of which is a lack of modification, lead to mistranslation and human disease. By optimizing tRNA anticodon chemistries, structure, and dynamics in all organisms, modifications ensure translational fidelity of mRNA transcripts.
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Name: The Enzymes
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Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
Any of the enzymatically catalyzed modifications of the individual AMINO ACIDS of PROTEINS, and enzymatic cleavage or crosslinking of peptide chains that occur pre-translationally (on the amino acid component of AMINO ACYL TRNA), co-translationally (during the process of GENETIC TRANSLATION), or after translation is completed (POST-TRANSLATIONAL PROTEIN PROCESSING).
Disorders caused by imbalances in the protein homeostasis network - synthesis, folding, and transport of proteins; post-translational modifications; and degradation or clearance of misfolded proteins.
A biochemical phenomenon in which misfolded proteins aggregate either intra- or extracellularly. Triggered by factors such as MUTATION, POST-TRANSLATIONAL MODIFICATIONS, and environmental stress, it is generally associated with ALZHEIMER DISEASE; PARKINSON DISEASE; HUNTINGTON DISEASE; and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS.
A series of sequential intracellular steps involved in the transport of proteins (such as hormones and enzymes) from the site of synthesis to outside the cell. The pathway involves membrane-bound compartments through which the newly synthesized proteins undergo POST-TRANSLATIONAL MODIFICATIONS, packaging, storage, or transportation to the PLASMA MEMBRANE for secretion.