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More than 50% of pharmaceuticals in current use are chiral compounds. Enantiomers of the same pharmaceutical have identical physicochemical properties, but may exhibit differences in pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and toxicity. The advancement in separation and detection methods has made it possible to analyze trace amounts of chiral compounds in environmental media. As a result, interest on chiral analysis and evaluation of stereoselectivity in environmental occurrence, phase distribution and degradation of chiral pharmaceuticals has grown substantially in recent years. Here we review recent studies on the analysis, occurrence, and fate of chiral pharmaceuticals in engineered and natural environments. Monitoring studies have shown ubiquitous presence of chiral pharmaceuticals in wastewater, surface waters, sediments, and sludge, particularly β-receptor antagonists, analgesics, antifungals, and antidepressants. Selective sorption and microbial degradation have been demonstrated to result in enrichment of one enantiomer over the other. The changes in enantiomer composition may also be caused by biologically catalyzed chiral inversion. However, accurate evaluation of chiral pharmaceuticals as trace environmental pollutants is often hampered by the lack of identification of the stereoconfiguration of enantiomers. Furthermore, a systematic approach including occurrence, fate and transport in various environmental matrices is needed to minimize uncertainties in risk assessment of chiral pharmaceuticals as emerging environmental contaminants.
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Name: Water research
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Ecosystem and environmental activities, functions, or events.
Review of the medical necessity of hospital or other health facility admissions, upon or within a short time following an admission, and periodic review of services provided during the course of treatment.
Polymers of N-SUBSTITUTED GLYCINES containing chiral centers at the a-position of their side chains. These oligomers lack HYDROGEN BONDING donors, preventing formation of the usual intrachain hydrogen bonds but can form helices driven by the steric influence of chiral side chains.
Ecological and environmental entities, characteristics, properties, relationships and processes.
Formal programs for assessing drug prescription against some standard. Drug utilization review may consider clinical appropriateness, cost effectiveness, and, in some cases, outcomes. Review is usually retrospective, but some analysis may be done before drugs are dispensed (as in computer systems which advise physicians when prescriptions are entered). Drug utilization review is mandated for Medicaid programs beginning in 1993.