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This is a systematical report on the potential health risk of heavy metals from the leather industries in Pakistan based on multiple biological matrices of the exposed workers and indoor dust samples. The adverse impacts of heavy metals on the oxidative enzyme and their risks to workers' health were also explored. Our results indicated that the level of Cr in indoor industrial dust was more than twice, compared to the background household dust. Blood, urine and hair samples of exposed workers showed significantly high concentrations of heavy metals, compared to those in the control group. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) level in the blood samples expressed significant positive correlation with Cr and Ni. Total hazard quotients (HQs)/hazard index (HI) were >1, and Cr (VI) exhibited higher cancer risks than that of Cd in the exposed workers. In addition, the PCA-MLR analysis confirmed that the industrial sections; cutting, shivering/crusting, and stitching were the principal contributors of heavy metals in the biological entities of the workers. Taken together, our results highlighted the occupationally exposed groups would likely to experience the potential health risks due to excessive exposure to the heavy metals from the leather industries.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Scientific reports
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Metals with high specific gravity, typically larger than 5. They have complex spectra, form colored salts and double salts, have a low electrode potential, are mainly amphoteric, yield weak bases and weak acids, and are oxidizing or reducing agents (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Activity concerned with the planning and building of industries through manufacturing, provision of specialized services, and COMMERCE.
The process of minimizing risk to an organization by developing systems to identify and analyze potential hazards to prevent accidents, injuries, and other adverse occurrences, and by attempting to handle events and incidents which do occur in such a manner that their effect and cost are minimized. Effective risk management has its greatest benefits in application to insurance in order to avert or minimize financial liability. (From Slee & Slee: Health care terms, 2d ed)
The procedure established to evaluate the health status and risk factors of the potential DONORS of biological materials. Donors are selected based on the principles that their health will not be compromised in the process, and the donated materials, such as TISSUES or organs, are safe for reuse in the recipients.
Opportunity to attain full health potential and no one is disadvantaged from achieving this potential because of their social position or other socially determined circumstance.
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