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Flower-visiting bees collect large quantities of pollen to feed their offspring. Pollen deposited in the bees' transport organs is lost for the flowers' pollination. It has been hypothesised that specific body areas, bees cannot groom, serve as 'safe sites' for pollen transfer between flowers. For the first time, we experimentally demonstrated the position, area and pollen amount of safe sites at the examples of Apis mellifera and Bombus terrestris by combining artificial contamination of the bees' body with pine or sunflower pollen and the subsequent bees' incomplete grooming. We found safe sites on the forehead, the dorsal thorax and waist, and on the dorsal and ventral abdomen of the bees. These areas were less groomed by the bees' legs. The largest amount of pollen was found on the waist, followed by the dorsal areas of thorax and abdomen. At the example of Salvia pratensis, S. officinalis and Borago officinalis, we experimentally demonstrated with fluorescent dye that the flowers' pollen-sacs and stigma contact identical safe sites. These results confirm that pollen deposition on the bees' safe sites improves pollen transfer to stigmas of conspecific flowers sti. Future research will demonstrate the importance of safe sites for plant pollination under field conditions.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: PloS one
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A medical discipline that is based on the philosophy that all body systems are interrelated and dependent upon one another for good health. This philosophy, developed in 1874 by Dr. Andrew Taylor Still, recognizes the concept of "wellness" and the importance of treating illness within the context of the whole body. Special attention is placed on the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM.
The amount of fat or lipid deposit at a site or an organ in the body, an indicator of body fat status.
A physiological process by which the perception of pain at a local area of the body is inhibited by a second painful stimulus administered at a distal body site
The transfer of POLLEN grains (male gametes) to the plant ovule (female gamete).
The body location or part from which tissue is taken for TRANSPLANTATION.
Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for the body. It is usually of plant or animal origin, and contains essential nutrients, such as carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, or minerals. The substance is ingested by an organism ...