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Mucus is a selective barrier to particles and molecules, preventing penetration to the epithelial surface of mucosal tissues. Significant advances in transmucosal drug delivery have recently been made and have emphasized that an understanding of the basic structure, viscoelastic properties, and interactions of mucus is of great value in the design of efficient drug delivery systems. Mucins, the primary non-aqueous component of mucus, are polymers carrying a complex and heterogeneous structure with domains that undergo a variety of molecular interactions, such as hydrophilic/hydrophobic, hydrogen bonds and electrostatic interactions. These properties are directly relevant to the numerous mucin-associated diseases, as well as delivering drugs across the mucus barrier. Therefore, in this review we discuss regional differences in mucus composition, mucus physicochemical properties, such as pore size, viscoelasticity, pH, and ionic strength. These factors are also discussed with respect to changes in mucus properties as a function of disease state. Collectively, the review seeks to provide a state of the art roadmap for researchers who must contend with this critical barrier to drug delivery.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: International journal of pharmaceutics
Mucus is a complex hydrogel that acts as a natural barrier to drug delivery at different mucosal surfaces including the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and vaginal tracts. To elucidate the role mucus p...
Mucosal administration of drugs and drug delivery systems has gained increasing interest. However, nanoparticles intended to protect and deliver drugs to epithelial surfaces require transport through ...
Mucus is the viscous gel that protects mucosal surfaces. It also plays a crucial role in several diseases as well as in mucosal drug delivery. Because of technical limitations, mucus properties have m...
Many drug molecules possess inadequate physical-chemical characteristics that prevent to surpass the viscous mucus layer present in the surface of mucosal tissues. Due to mucus protective role and its...
This study aimed to improve the mucus permeating properties of self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS) by anchoring lipidized bromelain, papain and trypsin using palmitoyl chloride. SEDDS conta...
The symptoms associated with COPD include overproduction of mucus and inflammation in the lungs. Overproduction of mucus results in impaired lung function and it encourages bacterial grow...
The purpose of this study is to help us determine how hormones impact the production of cervical mucus which is a fluid secreted by the opening of the uterus, also called the cervix. Durin...
The purpose of this research is to understand the properties of mucus in persons with COPD, specifically Chronic Bronchitis. The investigators hypothesize that those with Chronic Bronchit...
The purpose of this study is to: (a) adapt existing vaginal USPE items/instruments for evaluation of similar elements of rectal compartment use; (b) develop these scales using 3 distinct ...
Mucus clearance is impaired in cystic fibrosis. Inhaled surfactants may reduce adhesive forces between mucus and airway surfaces and improve mucus clearance. This in turn my improve lung...
Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.
Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.
Economic aspects of the fields of pharmacy and pharmacology as they apply to the development and study of medical economics in rational drug therapy and the impact of pharmaceuticals on the cost of medical care. Pharmaceutical economics also includes the economic considerations of the pharmaceutical care delivery system and in drug prescribing, particularly of cost-benefit values. (From J Res Pharm Econ 1989;1(1); PharmacoEcon 1992;1(1))
Diamond nanoparticles that exhibit unique biological, thermal, mechanical, and optoelectronic properties. They have important NANOMEDICINE applications including DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS; DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING; protein separation; and BIOSENSING TECHNIQUES.
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
<!--LGfEGNT2Lhm-->Drug delivery is the method or process of administering a pharmaceutical compound to achieve a therapeutic effect in humans or animals. <!--LGfEGNT2Lhm-->Drug delivery technologies are <!--LGfEGNT2Lhm-->patent pr...
Standard antiretroviral therapy (ART) consists of the combination of at least three antiretroviral (ARV) drugs to maximally suppress the HIV virus and stop the progression of HIV disease. Huge reductions have been seen in rates of death and suffering whe...