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When the cell envelope integrity is compromised, bacteria trigger signaling cascades resulting in the production of proteins that counteract these extracytoplasmic stresses. Here, we show that the two-component system EsrSR regulates a cell envelope stress response in the Actinobacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum. The sensor kinase EsrS possesses an amino-terminal phage shock protein C (PspC) domain, a property that sets EsrSR apart from all other two-component systems characterized so far. An integral membrane protein, EsrI, whose gene is divergently transcribed to the esrSR gene locus and which interestingly also possesses a PspC domain, acts as an inhibitor of EsrSR under non-stress conditions. The resulting EsrISR three-component system is activated among others by antibiotics inhibiting the lipid II cycle, such as bacitracin and vancomycin, and it orchestrates a broad regulon including the esrI-esrSR gene locus itself, genes encoding heat shock proteins, ABC transporters, and several putative membrane-associated or secreted proteins of unknown function. Among those, the ABC transporter encoded by cg3322-3320 was shown to be directly involved in bacitracin resistance of C. glutamicum. Since similar esrI-esrSR loci are present in a large number of actinobacterial genomes, EsrISR represents a novel type of stress-responsive system whose components are highly conserved in the phylum Actinobacteria. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Molecular microbiology
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