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Clamp loaders load ring-shaped sliding clamps onto DNA where the clamps serve as processivity factors for DNA polymerases. In the first stage of clamp loading, clamp loaders bind and stabilize clamps in an open conformation, and in the second stage, clamp loaders place the open clamps around DNA so that the clamps encircle DNA. Here, the mechanism of the initial clamp opening stage is investigated. Mutations were introduced into the Escherichia coli β-sliding clamp that destabilize the dimer interface to determine whether the formation of an open clamp loader-clamp complex is dependent on spontaneous clamp opening events. In other work, we showed that mutation of a positively charged Arg residue at the β-dimer interface and high NaCl concentrations destabilize the clamp, but neither facilitates the formation of an open clamp loader-clamp complex in experiments presented here. Clamp opening reactions could be fit to a minimal three-step 'bind-open-lock' model in which the clamp loader binds a closed clamp, the clamp opens, and subsequent conformational rearrangements 'lock' the clamp loader-clamp complex in a stable open conformation. Our results support a model in which the E. coli clamp loader actively opens the β-sliding clamp.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Nucleic acids research
p15PAF is an oncogenic intrinsically disordered protein that regulates DNA replication and lesion bypass by interacting with the human sliding clamp PCNA. In the absence of DNA, p15PAF traverses the P...
Several DNA-binding proteins, such as topoisomerases, helicases and sliding clamps, have a toroidal (i.e. ring) shape that topologically traps DNA, with this quality being essential to their function...
In any living cell, genome maintenance is carried out by DNA-binding proteins that recognize specific sequences among a vast amount of DNA. This includes fundamental processes such as DNA replication,...
DNA ligases play essential roles in DNA replication and repair. Bacteriophage T4 DNA ligase is the first ATP-dependent ligase enzyme to be discovered and is widely used in molecular biology, but its s...
Stroke is severe complication of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) which may be associated with clamp strategy, there are 2 strategies to clamp aorta including single aortic clamp (SAC) and parti...
The investigators therefore propose to undertake a further randomised controlled trial comparing the sliding hip screw (SHS) with the Targon PFT intramedullary nail. The aim is to see if t...
Elderly patients with an intertrochanteric hip fracture will be randomized to receive either a sliding hip screw (SHS) (control group) or InterTAN intermedullary nail (IMN) (experimental ...
It has been found that in some cases, when a person with Diabetes Mellitus has an episode of low blood sugar,or hypoglycemia, and then later exercises, he or she is vulnerable to another b...
The primary purpose of this study is to assess the impact of sliding hip screws versus cannulated screw fixation on rates of revision surgery at 2 years in individuals over 50 years of age...
Sciatica is a debilitating and costly condition. Prognostically, patients presenting with leg pain often have a poor recovery and some go onto have spinal surgery. However, in the absence ...
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
STOMACH herniation located at or near the diaphragmatic opening for the ESOPHAGUS, esophageal hiatus. When the ESOPHAGOGASTRIC JUNCTION is above the DIAPHRAGM, it is called a SLIDING HIATAL HERNIA. When the ESOPHAGOGASTRIC JUNCTION is below the DIAPHRAGM, it is called a PARAESOPHAGEAL HIATAL HERNIA.
Surgical formation of an opening into the trachea through the neck, or the opening so created.
Surface resistance to the relative motion of one body against the rubbing, sliding, rolling, or flowing of another with which it is in contact.
Bioinformatics is the application of computer software and hardware to the management of biological data to create useful information. Computers are used to gather, store, analyze and integrate biological and genetic information which can then be applied...